[Purpose] Smoking has a direct effect on the respiratory system. The rate of cigarette smoking among young people has continued to increase steadily. The present study quantified and compared the respiratory function of smoking and non-smoking youths. [Subjects] Smoking and non-smoking male participants aged between 15 to 18 years were recruited (n=34 per group). [Methods] Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire relating to smoking habits and the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence questionnaire, and their respiratory function was tested (measurement of chest expansion, lung function test with a spirometer, and assessment of respiratory muscle strength). [Results] All respiratory function tests demonstrated significant differences between the smoking and non-smoking groups. Smokers initiated cigarette smoking between the ages of 15 to 18 years. The most common duration of cigarette smoking was 1-3 years and the degree of nicotine dependence among the youths was at a low level. [Conclusion] This study’s findings show that the early effects of cigarette smoking found in youths can lead to problems with the respiratory system. Such information can be used to illustrate the harm of smoking and should be used to encourage young people to quit or avoid cigarette smoking.
[Purpose] This study investigated the factors associated with performance-based physical function of older veterans of the People’s Liberation Army Air Force of China (PLAAF). [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional survey of 146 older veterans of the PLAAF was carried out. Their physical function was measured using the Chinese Mini-Physical Performance Testing (CM-PPT). The demographics and health status (including physical measures, blood chemical tests, chronic diseases, and number of morbidities) were collected from health examination reports and computer records of case history. Cognition was measured using the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE). [Results] In multiple linear regressions, age, MMSE, Parkinsonism, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were independently associated with CM-PPT, while previous stroke and albumin level reached borderline statistical significance. The association between the number of morbidities and CM-PPT was significant after adjustment for MMSE and demographics. The CM-PPT of low (0 or 1), medium (2 to 4) and high count (5 or more) morbidities were 11.3±3.9, 10.2±4.1, 6.1±3.8 respectively, and the difference among these three groups was significant. [Conclusion] Some modified conditions and the number of chronic diseases might be associated with the physical function of older veterans of the PLAAF.
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of an ankle-foot orthosis worn during balance training on lower limb muscle activity and static balance of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were twenty-five inpatients receiving physical therapy for chronic stroke. [Methods] The chronic stroke patients were divided into two groups: thirteen patients were assigned to the ankle-foot orthosis group, while the remaining twelve patients wore only their shoes. Each group performed balance training for 20 minutes, twice per day, 5 days per week, for 6 weeks. The lower limb muscle activities of the paralyzed side tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, and the stability index were measured before and after the 6-week intervention. [Results] Comparison of the groups indicated a significant difference in the muscle activity of the paralyzed side tibialis anterior and the stability index of the eyes-open standing position. After the intervention, the ankle-foot orthosis group evidenced a significant difference in the muscle activities of the paralyzed side tibialis anterior and paralyzed side medial gastrocnemius as well as the stability index of the eyes-open standing position, eyes-closed standing position, eyes-open standing position on a sponge, and eyes-closed standing position on a sponge. The group that only wore their shoes showed significant differences in the stability indexes of eyes-open standing and eyes-open standing on a sponge. [Conclusion] Using the ankle-foot orthosis was effective during the initial training of lower limb muscle activities and the static balance training of chronic stroke patients. However, it was not effective for a variety of dynamic situations.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of changes in gait and feet after wet heat and dry heat exposure for 20 minutes. [Subjects] The participants of this study were 17 young adult males. The subjects were divided into a wet heat group of 9 subjects and dry heat group of 8 subjects. [Methods] Dry heat was applied for 20 min. To facilitate temperature adjustment of an electrical hot pack, to which a temperature controller was attached to the hot compress, the outer cover of the electrical pad was wrapped in a cotton towel and then rolled around the femur and the leg. As a hot compress, a constant-temperature water tank with double-boiling functionality was used for the hot pack unit. Its surface was covered with a towel twice or three times, as needed. We measured gait and feet. [Results] Left and right step time and the step width significantly increased in the wet heat group. Left foot flat to heel off significantly increased in the dry heat group. Right heel contact to foot flat significantly increased in the wet heat group. Left rearfoot pressure significantly increased in the dry heat group. [Conclusion] Wet heat affects physical functions like gait more than dry heat. However, there is no great difference between wet heat and dry heat with respect to the distribution of foot pressure.
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of varying hip flexion angle on hip muscle activity during isometric contraction in abduction. [Subjects] Twenty-seven healthy men (mean age=21.5 years, SD=1.2) participated in this study. [Methods] Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded of the upper portion of the gluteus maximus (UGM), lower portion of the gluteus maximus (LGM), tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and gluteus medius (GMed) during isometric contraction under two measurement conditions: hip flexion angle (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 degrees) and abduction of the hip joint at 20, 40, 60, and 80% maximum strength. Integrated EMG (IEMG) were calculated and normalized to the value of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). [Results] Results indicated that the IEMG of both the UGM and LGM increased significantly with increases in hip flexion angle, whereas the IEMG of the TFL decreased significantly. The maximum activities of the UGM and the LGM were 85.7 ± 80.8%MVC and 38.2 ± 32.9%MVC at 80 degrees of hip flexion, respectively, and that of the TFL was 71.0 ± 39.0%MVC at 40 degrees of hip flexion. [Conclusion] The IEMG of the GMed did not change with increases in hip flexion angle. Hip flexion angle affected the activity of the GM and TFL during isometric contraction in abduction.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of draw-in exercise on abdominal muscle activity in the standing and supine positions. [Methods] Twenty healthy women participated in this study. The subjects were required to complete two draw-in exercises (standing and supine positions) using a biofeedback pressure unit. The root mean square (RMS) values of the EMG data were expressed as a percentage of the resting contraction. The data were analyzed using the independent t-test. [Results] According to the changes in the activities of the abdominal muscles, the draw-in exercise in the standing position produced the most significant increase in the activities of the rectus abdominis, the transverse abdominis, the internal oblique, and the external oblique muscles. [Conclusion] The activities of the trunk stability muscles (rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique) increased more in the standing than in the supine position, enabling the subjects to overcome gravity. Therefore, to strengthen the activation of the abdominal muscles, a standing position seems to be more effective than a supine position for draw-in exercises.
[Purpose] This study verified the changes in muscle activities and grasping power during maximal isometric exercise of the forearm and masseter muscle with and without a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance (MORA). It also offers basic data for defining the correlation of function of hand with mouth. [Methods] EMG was used to measure masticatory muscle, flexor bundle and extensor bundle activities with or without MORA while subjects performed the hook grip and pinch grip. The measuring tool used for measuring grip strength was the same as that used for measuring pinch and hook strength. The subjects were 28 healthy young adults. [Result] Muscle activity and grasping power significantly increased when wearing the MORA. [Conclusion] The result indicates that wearing MORA can increase muscle activity and grasping power of forearm and masseter muscle. We think wearing MORA might help improve the function of the forearm because it activates the function of the masseter.
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of the type of hat worn on balance, eye-hand coordination, and visual perception of normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Eight healthy male (20.87±1.95 years, 171.38±4.03 cm, 60.75±7.94 kg) and seven female (20.14±0.89 years, 160.57±5.25 cm, 57.14±7.92 kg) university students participated in this study. Balance ability, eye-hand coordination, and visual perception were measured when subjects were bare-headed, and when they wore a hat, cap or hood. [Results] There were significant differences in balance and visual perception according to the type of hat worn, but eye-hand coordination did not change. Therefore, field of vision and visual perception changed according to the type of hat worn. [Conclusion] These results show that field of vision can be blocked, depending on the size of the hat visor, resulting in poor visual perception and consequently balance. Therefore, there are potential risks associated with wearing certain types of hat.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and patterns of referred pain in patients with hip disease, as well as the nerve distribution in the hip and knee joints of 2 cadavers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 113 patients with hip joint disease were included in the investigation. The incidence of regional pain and referred pain patterns were evaluated before and after arthroplasty. Two cadavers were macroscopically observed to verify the nerve innervation of the hip and knee joints. [Results] Anterior knee pain was observed preoperatively in 13.3% (in resting) and 33.6% (in motion) of the patients, which was comparable with the incidence of greater trochanter pain. In addition, the preoperative incidence rates of knee pain in resting and motion markedly decreased postoperatively. Of note is the remarkable incidence of pain radiating to the ventral lower limb. An anteromedial innervation was determined in the cadavers by the articular branches of the obturator and femoral nerve, which supply small branches to the knee joints. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that the distribution of the incidence of pain among the patients with hip disease is diverse owing to the sensory distribution of the femoral and obturator nerves.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two different stretching techniques on range of motion (ROM), muscle activation, and balance. [Subjects] For the present study, 48 adults with hamstring muscle tightness were recruited and randomly divided into three groups: a static stretching group (n=16), a PNF stretching group (n=16), a control group (n=16). [Methods] Both of the stretching techniques were applied to the hamstring once. Active knee extension angle, muscle activation during maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC), and static balance were measured before and after the application of each stretching technique. [Results] Both the static stretching and the PNF stretching groups showed significant increases in knee extension angle compared to the control group. However, there were no significant differences in muscle activation or balance between the groups. [Conclusion] Static stretching and PNF stretching techniques improved ROM without decrease in muscle activation, but neither of them exerted statistically significant effects on balance.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in brain waves between action observation and motor imagery of stroke patients and normal subjects, and to compare them. [Methods] Twelve stroke patients and twelve normal persons participated in this research. Each group executed action observation and the motor imagery training for 3 minutes, and before and during each intervention the brain waves were measured for 3 minutes, and the relative alpha power and relative beta power analyzed. [Results] Both normal persons and stroke patients showed significant differences in relative alpha power during action observation, but no significant difference in relative alpha power was found during motor imagery. The relative beta power increased similarly in both groups but it was more significantly different during action observation than during motor imagery. [Conclusion] Both action observation and motor imagery can be used as a therapeutic method for motor learning. However, action observation induces stronger cognitive activity, so for the stroke patients who have difficulty with fine motor representation, action observation might be a more effective therapy.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of trunk stabilization exercise using a saing on the balance ability of patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects] Forty patients with hemiplegia resulting from stroke were divided into a sling exercise group (SEG, n=20) and a mat exercise group (MEG, n=20). [Methods] The SEG conducted the trunk stabilization exercise using a sling, and the MEG performed the trunk stabilization exercise on a mat. [Results] The balance ability of both groups significantly improved. Although there were no significant differences between the groups, the SEG showed a greater reduction in the sway area (SA) and the sway length (SL) of the center of the pressure compared to the MEG. [Conclusion] We recommend trunk stabilization exercise using a sling as a clinical intervention to improve the balance ability of patients with hemiplegia.
[Purpose] To determine whether the improvement of vergence movements by vision therapy can decrease the K-ARS scores of symptomatic ADHD children. [Methods] Eighty-one out of 1,123 children surveyed using the K-ARS, a parents’-reported questionnaire, led to 16 of these 81 children being showed scores of ≥19, and measurement of binocular function diagnosed as having convergence insufficiency. The 16 children were divided equally into a control group and a vision therapy group. [Results] After vision therapy for 12 weeks, near point convergence (4.38±0.69 cm) significantly neared compared to the near point convergence before vision therapy (11.50±2.28 cm), and both the break point (32.38±2.53 Δ) and recovery point (19.75±2.11 Δ) of near positive fusional vergence significantly improved compared to their values before vision therapy (15.88±2.64 Δ, 6.38±6.70 Δ, respectively). Near exophoria after vision therapy (7.81±2.00 Δ BI) significantly decreased compared to its value before vision therapy (12.00±1.16 Δ BI). The K-ARS scores referring to symptomatic ADHD significantly decreased after vision therapy (17.13±2.84) compared to before vision therapy (23.25±1.49). [Conclusions] Convergence insufficiency symptoms are closely related to symptoms screened for ADHD, and vision therapy to improve vergence movements is an effective method of decreasing the K-ARS scores.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to compare the effects of flexi-bar training and general lumbar stabilization training on muscle activity and fatigue. [Methods] Twenty normal persons participated in this study. After warm up and a Maximum Voluntary Isomeric Contraction (MVIC) test, participants performed bridging exercise, quadruped lumbar stabilization exercise on quadruped and curl-up, with and without the flexi-bar training, each exercise lasting for 30 seconds. Electromyography was used for the assessment of the muscle activity and fatigue of the rectus abdominis, erector spinae, external oblique and internal oblique muscles. [Results] The bridging and quadruped exercises with the flexi-bar elicited significant increases in the muscle activates of the muscle groups. The curl-up exercise with the flexi-bar showed significant differences in external oblique and internal oblique muscle activities compared to the exercise without the flexi-bar. Muscle fatigue showed different results depending on the exercise. [Conclusion] Generally, flexi-bar exercise induced greater muscle activation and fatigue. However, because there were differences of effect dependent on the posture, we should prescribe the appropriate exercise for the target muscles.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of treadmill-based gait training using incremental weight loading on the ankle of the affected side on hemiplegic stroke patients’ balance. [Subjects] In this study, 30 hemiplegic stroke patients were randomly divided into an incremental weight load group (IWLG, n=15) and a no-load group (NLG, n=15). [Methods] The IWLG performed gait training on treadmills for four weeks wearing a sandbag weighing 3% of the body weight on the affected side ankle, followed by wearing a sandbag weighing 5% of the body weight from the 5th week. The NLG performed similar training without sandbags. [Results] Both the IWLG and the NLG showed significant improvements in balance ability. The IWLG showed a larger decrease in the area and length of movement of the center of pressure in static standing positions after the experiment although the difference was not significant. [Conclusion] We recommend, utilizing the treadmill-based gait training using incremental weight loading on the affected side ankle as a clinical intervention for improving hemiplegic stroke patients’ balance ability.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the activity engagement of the retiree population in South Korea. [Methods] The Korean-Activity Card Sort (K-ACS) was used to collect research data. A One-way ANOVA and post-hoc comparisons showed significant group effects among three age groups. The independent t-tests was used to analyze the differences in mean retained level of activity (MRA) between men and women. [Results] The one-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences in MRA among different age groups. Scheffé’s test revealed a statistically significant decrease in MRA in Group A, aged more than 75 years, as compared to the other two age groups. When participants were divided by gender, MRA of instrumental activities showed a statistically significant difference between the 65–74 years group and the 55–65 years group, but no difference in females of the leisure activities among the age groups. The independent t-tests demonstrated significant gender differences in MRA of activity of the 55–64 years group. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that health professionals should monitor the changes in retained level of activity after age 75, to maintain their engagement, and the importance of age-, gender- and activity-specific analyses in order to identifying patterns of activity engagement.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of circuit class training (CCT) on poststroke depression through changes in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) (isoleucine, leucine, and valine) and free-tryptophan (f-Trp). [Subjects] The study subjects were 40 stroke patients with major depressive disorder. The subjects were group-matched into an experimental and a control group according to sex, age, height, and weight. [Methods] The experimental CCT group performed gradual task-oriented CCT (80 min per session). The control group performed stretching exercises and weight bearing exercises (80 min per session). Both groups performed the exercises three times per week for eight weeks (24 sessions). Blood samples were collected immediately before the exercise (9:10 a.m.) and after the exercise (10:30 a.m.), every two weeks for eight weeks. [Results] The f-Trp/BCAAs ratio in the CCT group showed a significant increase compared to the control group over time. [Conclusion] The results show that the CCT may help to improve depression in people with poststroke depression (PSD).
[Purpose] This study examined the effect of the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on neurologic recovery and cognitive function of rats with Alzheimer-like dementia induced by scopolamine injections. [Subjects] To create a cognition dysfunction model, intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine was given to Sprague-Dawley rats that subsequently received tDCS for 4 weeks. [Methods] Changes in motor behavior were evaluated by conducting an open field test. Acetylcholine content in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus was examined for a biochemical assessment. [Results] With respect to changes in motor behavior, group II showed the most meaningful difference after scopolamine injection, followed by group III. In the biochemical assessment, the results of the examination of acetylcholine content in the tissue of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus on the 14th and 28th days, respectively, showed the most significant increase in group II, followed by group III. [Conclusion] The above findings confirm that tDCS application after the onset of cognitive dysfunction caused by Alzheimer’s disease leads to a positive effect on motor behavior and biochemical changes, and this effect is maintained over a specific period of time.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle activity of the gluteus medius according to treadmill inclination during gait with a vertical load on a treadmill. [Methods] Sixteen healthy subjects were recruited for this study. The subjects walked on a treadmill at inclination angles of 0, 5, and 10 degrees. [Results] Muscle activity of the gluteus medius increased at 5° compared to 0° treadmill inclination, though the difference was not significant. On the other hand, gluteus medius muscle activity significantly decreased in treadmill walking at an inclination of 10° compared to 5°. [Conclusion] Selective strengthening exercises using a 5° treadmill angle could be useful for patients experiencing gluteus medius weakness.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effect of dyspnea induced by breath-holding on maximum muscular strength of patients with COPD. [Subjects] This study recruited 14 COPD subjects via public posting. [Methods] Dyspnea was assessed by the modified Borg scale. The subject asked to stop breathing at end-expiration and to hold their breath with a nose clip for as long as possible. Both total breath-holding time and threshold time of dyspnea were measured with a chronograph. Dyspnea reserve time (DRT) was defined by subtracting the threshold time of perception dyspnea from total breath-holding time in order to calculate the 50% DRT. The muscular strengths of maximal handgrip contraction were measured at baseline, 50% threshold time of dyspnea (subliminal point of dyspnea), and the 50% DRT (supraliminal point of dyspnea). [Results] The maximal handgrip at the supraliminal point of dyspnea was significantly lower than the baseline and subliminal point of dyspnea values. There was no statistically significant difference in maximal muscular strength between baseline and the subliminal point of dyspnea value. [Conclusion] The present results demonstrate that dyspnea induced by breath-holding aggravates weakness in the maximum muscular strength of patients with COPD.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of expiratory resistive loading on orbicularis oris muscle activity. [Subjects] Subjects were 23 healthy individuals (11 males, mean age 25.5±4.3 years; 12 females, mean age 25.0±3.0 years). [Methods] Surface electromyography was performed to measure the activity of the orbicularis oris muscle during maximum lip closure and resistive loading at different expiratory pressures. Measurement was performed at 10%, 30%, 50%, and 100% of maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) for all subjects. The t-test was used to compare muscle activity between maximum lip closure and 100% MEP, and analysis of variance followed by multiple comparisons was used to compare the muscle activities observed at different expiratory pressures. [Results] No significant difference in muscle activity was observed between maximum lip closure and 100% MEP. Analysis of variance with multiple comparisons revealed significant differences among the different expiratory pressures. [Conclusion] Orbicularis oris muscle activity increased with increasing expiratory resistive loading.
[Purpose] Peripheral nerve degradation associated with aging is linked to failure of interactions in capillary metabolism. The aim of this study was to morphologically investigate the age-related changes in the capillary architecture of the tibial nerve in spontaneous aging and with aerobic exercise intervention in rats. [Subjects] Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=15) were used in the present study. [Methods] The rats were divided into control (Cont, n=5), elderly (Elder, n=5), and elderly with aerobic exercise (Elder+Ex, n=5) groups. Aerobic training of low intensity was performed for 10 weeks using a treadmill starting at 96 weeks of age by the Elder+Ex group. The capillary diameter, cross-sectional area and number of microvascular ramifications in the tibial nerve were compared among the Cont (20-week-old), Elder (106-week-old) and Elder+Ex groups using three-dimensional images gained from confocal laser scanning microscopy. [Results] The capillary diameter, cross-sectional area and number of microvascular ramifications in the Elder group were significantly smaller than those observed in the Cont and Elder+Ex groups. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that the capillaries in the peripheral nerve degrade with spontaneous aging and that aerobic exercise of low intensity promotes angiogenesis, and protects the capillary from oxidative stress.
[Purpose] In this study, we compared upper cervical flexion and cervical flexion angle of computer workers with upper trapezius and levator scapular pain. [Subject] Eight male computer workers with upper trapezius muscle pain and eight others with levator scapular muscle pain participated. [Methods] Each subject was assessed in terms of upper cervical flexion angle and total cervical flexion angles using a cervical range of motion instrument after one hour of computer work. [Results] The upper cervical flexion angle of the group with levator scapular pain was significantly lower than that of the group with upper trapezius pain after computer work. The total cervical flexion angle of the group with upper trapezius pain was significantly lower than that of the group with levator scapular pain after computer work. [Conclusion] For selective and effective intervention for neck pain, therapists should evaluate upper and lower cervical motion individually.
[Purpose] The present study aimed to determine the effect of virtual reality exercise using the Nintendo Wii Fit on the muscle activities of the trunk and lower extremities of normal adults. [Subjects] The subjects of the study were 24 normal adults who were divided into a virtual reality exercise group (VREG, n=12) and a stable surface exercise group (SEG, n=12). [Methods] The exercises of the VREG using the Nintendo Wii Fit and the SEG using a stable surface were conducted three times a week for six weeks. Electromyography was used to measure the muscle activities of the tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), erector spinae (ES), and rectus abdominal (RA) muscles. [Results] VREG showed significant within group differences in TA and MG muscle activities, while the SEG showed a significant difference in the muscle activity of the MG. [Conclusion] Virtual reality exercise using the Nintendo Wii Fit was an effective intervention for the muscle activities of the TA and MG of normal adults.
[Purpose] The present study investigated the effects of regular exercise on the improvement of free fatty acid (FFA) levels and metabolic risk factors of stroke patients. [Methods] The subjects were 20 male patients aged 47−59 years who were diagnosed as having hemiplegia resulting from stroke. Exercise was conducted using a stationary bicycle, a rehabilitative exercise machine. The exercise program utilized the heart rate reserve (HRR) method to create an exercise intensity amounting to 50−70% of the target heart rate (THR). The program lasted for 30 minutes and was conducted 5 times per week for a total of 12 weeks. [Results] In stroke patients, 12 weeks of exercise training yielded a significant interaction effect with weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). There were also significant differences in triglycerides (TG) according to the time of measurement, and an interaction effect was observed for triglycerides (TC). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), an important marker of improvement in metabolic risk factors, showed a significant interaction effect with exercise training. In addition, free fatty acids (FFA) showed a significant difference based on the time of measurement and showed a significant negative correlation with HDLC (r = −0.77). [Conclusion] The results of the present study suggest that regular exercise by stroke patients reduces their risk of metabolic complications and stroke recurrence by reducing obesity indices, improving serum lipid and FFA levels, and increasing HDLC levels.
[Purpose] Superficial heat treatment is one of the most widely used physical therapies for osteoarthritis (OA). We clinically evaluated the effects of local heat treatment and exercise therapy for knee OA, and evaluated the articular cartilage using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 mapping. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen females aged 50–69 (59.5 ± 8.5 years, mean ± SD) years diagnosed with early-stage knee OA were randomly assigned using computer-generated random numbers to either a local heat treatment group (LH group, 9 subjects) or an exercise therapy group (EX group, 9 subjects). These groups were subjected to a 12-week intervention experiment. MRI T2 mapping was performed for cartilage imaging and quantitative evaluation. For clinical evaluation, the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test were performed. Both clinical and MRI evaluations were performed at the beginning and end of the intervention (0 week (Time 0) and 12 weeks). [Results] The total JKOM score had a significantly decreased in the LH group at 12 weeks. However, in the EX group the total JKOM scores at Time 0 and 12 weeks were not significantly different. The TUG time in the EX group was significant shorter at 12 weeks, whereas it showed no significant change in the LH group at 12 weeks, though the TUG times of 7 of the 9 patients decreased, exhibiting some improvement. The T2 value of the LH group was significantly shorter at 12 weeks. However, the T2 value in the EX group showed no significant change at 12 weeks. [Conclusion] After local heat treatment using heat- and steam moisture-generating sheets for 12 weeks, we observed improvements in clinical symptoms and walking abilities. Moreover, positive effects on cartilage metabolism were suggested.
[Purpose] To evaluate the results of Bobath-based rehabilitation performed at a pediatric cerebral palsy (CP) inpatient clinic. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 28 children with CP who were inpatients at a pediatric service. Inclusion criteria were: being an inpatient of our hospital aged 2–12 with a diagnosis of CP; having one permanent primary caregiver; and the caregiver having no medical or psychotic problems. All of the patients received Bobath treatment for 1 hour per day, 5 days a week. The locomotor system, neurologic and orthopedic examination, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) of the patients, and Short Form-36 (SF-36) of permanent caregivers were evaluated at the time of admission to hospital, discharge from hospital, and at 1 and 3 months after discharge. [Results] Post-admission scores of GMFM at discharge, and 1 and 3 months later showed significant increase. Social function and emotional role subscores of SF-36 had increased significantly at discharge. [Conclusion] Bobath treatment is promising and randomized controlled further studies are needed for rehabilitation technics.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Pilates exercise on a mat and balance exercise on an unstable base of support for trunk stability on the balance ability of elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Forty elderly women aged 65 or older were equally assigned to a Pilates mat exercise (PME) group and an unstable support surface exercise (USSE) group. They conducted exercise three times per week for 12 weeks for 40 minutes each time. In order to examine balance, sway length and the speed of the center of foot pressure were measured for one minute, and in order to examine dynamic balance, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was conducted. [Results] After the intervention, sway length, sway speed, and TUG significantly decreased in both groups. A comparison of sway speed after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the PME group showed larger decreases than the USSE group. [Conclusion] PME and USSE elicited significant effects on the static and dynamic balance of elderly female subjects, suggesting that those exercises are effective at enhancing the balance ability of this group of subjects. However, the Pilates mat exercise is regarded as being safer than exercise on an unstable base of support.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hollowing and bracing exercises on cross-sectional areas of abdominal muscles. [Subjects] Thirty healthy female adults participated in this study. The exclusion criteria were orthopedic or neurologic diseases. [Methods] The subjects of this study were assigned randomly to one of two groups, each with 15 people. Each group performed a 60-minute exercise program, one performed a bracing exercise, and the other performed a hollowing exercise, with both groups performing the exercise three times a week for six weeks. [Results] The changes in cross-sectional areas after the bracing exercise showed statistically significant differences in the left rectus abdominis and both internal and external obliques. The changes in cross-sectional areas after the hollowing exercise showed statistically significant differences in the left and right transversus abdominis and left rectus abdominis. [Conclusion] Performing bracing exercises rather than hollowing exercises is more effective for activating the abdominal muscles.
[Purpose] This study examined the quality of life (QOL) of homebound elderly hemiparetic stroke patients and factors that affect it. [Subjects] The subjects of the study were 21 homebound elderly hemiparetic stroke patients who were 65 years old or over and required care for daily living (12 males and 9 females, average age: 79.3 ± 8.4 years old). Their physical and psychological conditions, QOL, and other characteristics were researched. [Methods] The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) was used for the activities of daily living (ADL) assessment, and the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, Japanese version 1.2) was used for the QOL assessment. [Results] No correlations were observed between the QOL of homebound elderly hemiparetic stroke patients and their age and gender. However, the results showed that their QOL was affected by their independence in ADL, bedridden degree, and care-need level. [Conclusion] These results suggest that in order to improve the QOL of homebound elderly hemiparetic stroke patients, ongoing rehabilitation to improve independence in ADL and lower the bedridden degree and care-need level is required.
[Purpose] The present study was performed to identify the effect of a home exercise program on the self-reported disability index and gait parameters in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). [Methods] Fifteen patients with LSS were enrolled in this study and were trained in a 4-week home exercise program (40 min/day). All patients were evaluated with three self-reported disability indices (Oswestry Disability Index, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, and Spinal Stenosis Scale), and gait parameters were assessed using a GAITRite system before and after the home exercise program. [Results] Patients with LSS showed significant decreases in the self-reported questionnaire scores and pain intensity after the home exercise program. However, the gait parameters did not significantly change. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that home exercise programs can improve self-reported questionnaire scores and decrease pain in patients with LSS.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the the effects of hippotherapy on gait and balance ability in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients were randomly divided into a hippotherapy group and a treadmill group and they conducted exercise for eight weeks. [Results] Berg Balance Scale score, gait velocity, and step length asymmetry ratio were significantly improved in the group receiving hippotherapy training. However, in the group receiving treadmill training, only step length asymmetry ratio was significantly improved. In the comparison between the hippotherapy group and treadmill group, there was no significant difference in Berg Balance Scale score, but a significant difference was found in gait velocity and step length asymmetry ratio. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicated that hippotherapy is a helpful treatment for stroke patients.
Many aspects relating to equipment configuration affect users’ actions in a manual wheelchair, determining the overall mobility performance. Since the equipment components and configuration determine both stability and mobility efficiency, configuring the wheelchair with the most appropriate set-up for individual users’ needs is a difficult task. Several studies have shown the importance of seat/backrest assembly and the relative position of the rear wheels to the user in terms of the kinetics and kinematics of manual propulsion. More recently, new studies have brought to light evidence on the inertial properties of different wheelchair configurations. Further new studies have highlighted the handrim as a key component of wheelchair assembly, since it is the interface through which the user drives the chair. In light of the new evidence on wheelchair mechanics and propulsion kinetics and kinematics, this article presents a review of the most important aspects of wheelchair configuration that affect the users’ actions and mobility.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to document the effect of individual strengthening exercises for posterior pelvic tilt muscles on back pain, pelvic tilt angle, and lumbar ROM of a low back pain (LBP) patient with excessive lordosis. [Subjects] The subject was a 28 year-old male with excessive lordosis who complained of severe LBP at the L3 level. [Methods] He performed individual strengthening exercises for the posterior pelvic tilt muscles (rectus abdominis, gluteus maximus, hamstring). [Results] Pelvic tilt angles on the right and left sides recovered to his normal ranges. Limited lumbar ROM increased, and low back pain decreased. [Conclusion] We suggest that an approach of individual resistance exercises is necessary for the effective and fast strengthening of the pelvic posterior tilt muscles in case of LBP with excessive lordosis.
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of a relaxation chair and resting with simple range of motion exercises during computer work and low back muscle strengthening exercises after computer work on pain and the flexion-relaxation (FR) ratio of one computer worker with LBP. [Subjects] The subject of this study was a 37 year-old male who complained of severe LBP pain at the L4 level. [Methods] In the study, the subject worked on a computer for 5 h each day for 3 days and followed a different program each day. [Results] In Session 1, the FR ratios before and after work were 19% and 38% (+19%), respectively. The respective VAS scores before and after work were 5 and 8 (+3). In Session 2, the FR ratios before and after work were 18% and 21% (+3%), respectively. The respective VAS scores were 5 and 6 (+1). In session 3, the FR ratios before and work were 22% and 29% (+7%), respectively, and the VAS scores were 5 and 6 (+1). [Conclusion] This study suggests that it is more effective to perform regular, passive exercises to prevent LBP in computer users.