[Purpose] This study assessed the advantages and shortcomings of methods for hemostasis in patients who had received angiography after femoral arterial puncture using manual, compression device, or a combination of manual compression and a compression device. In addition, the success rates, complications, etc, were analyzed. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred and eighty patients who had undergone angiography after femoral arterial puncture were divided into three groups according to the method of hemostasis. For group A, immediately after angiography, an Angio-Seal device was placed in the puncture area and compressed using a compression device. For group B, after angiography, the puncture area was compressed with the hands directly. For group C, the puncture area was compressed using a compression device for approximately 10 min, and the puncture area was then compressed with the hands. In each group, the following correlations were analyzed: the time to hemostasis after angiography and gender, the time to hemostasis of each generation and the hemoglobin value, and platelet value and the time to hemostasis. [Results] The results showed a similar time to hemostasis regardless of gender or generation. The correlation between the hemoglobin value, platelet value, and the time to hemostasis were not significant. Group A showed the shortest mean time to hemostasis of the three groups (20.37 ± 8.23 min). No complications caused by the hemostasis method were detected in group B. Group A showed the highest incidence of complications caused by hemostasis. [Conclusion] Overall, hemostasis performed mutually is safe and effective for patients according to their condition.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between intrinsic patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) in young adults and lower extremity biomechanics. [Subjects] This experiment was carried out with sixty (24 men and 32 women), who are normal university students as subjects. [Methods] All subjects underwent 3 clinical evaluations. For distinguishing the intrinsic PFPS from controls, we used the Modified Functional Index Questionnaire (MFIQ), Clarke’s test and the Eccentric step test. Based on the results of the tests, subjects who were classified as positive for 2 more tests were allocated to the bilateral or unilateral intrinsic PFPS group (n=14), and the others were allocated to the control group (n=42). These two groups were tested for hamstring tightness, foot overpronation, and static Q-angle and dynamic Q-angle. These are the four lower extremity biomechanic, cited as risk factors of patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Results] The over pronation, static Q-angle and the dynamic Q-angle were not significantly different between the two groups. However, the hamstring tightness of the PFPS group was significantly greater than that of the controls. [Conclusion] We examined individuals for intrinsic patellofemoral pain syndrome in young adults and lower extremity biomechanics. We found a strong correlation between intrinsic PFPS and hamstring tightness.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ground tilt on the lower extremity muscle activity of stroke patients performing squat exercises. [Subjects] Fifteen hemiparetic patients volunteered to participate in this study. [Methods] The subjects performed squat exercises at three different ground tilt angles: 15° plantar flexion, a neutral position, and 15° dorsiflexion. A surface electromyogram (sEMG) was used to record the electromyographic activities of the leg extensor muscle in the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM). The sEMG activity was analyzed using a one-way repeated measures ANOVA and a post hoc Bonferroni correction. [Results] The results of this study are summarized as follows. Significant differences were noted for the VL and the GL when the angle of the ankle joint was between the 15° plantar flexion and neutral positions during squat exercises involving the VL and when the angle of the ankle joint was between the neutral position and 15° dorsiflexion during squat exercises involving the VM. [Conclusion] In this study, sEMG showed that the VL and GL changed significantly during squat exercises according to the ground tilt angle of hemiparetic patients. Therefore, squat exercises with different ground tilt angles can be used to improve VL and GL strength.
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the influence of land-based exercise frequency and duration on pain relief for people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects and Methods] The systematic review included randomized controlled trials that investigated this influence, which were identified by searches of PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. The exercise groups in the identified trials were categorized according to their type, frequency, and duration of exercise, and subgroup analyses were performed. [Results] Data integration of 17 studies (23 exercise groups) revealed a significant effect and a medium effect size. In subgroups involving strengthening exercise programs of ≥9 weeks duration, heterogeneity was found between subjects who performed up to 3 sessions/week and those who performed ≥4 sessions/week. In subgroups involving strengthening exercise programs of up to 3 sessions/week, there was heterogeneity between subjects who exercised for up to 8 weeks and those who exercised for ≥9 weeks. Heterogeneity was not confirmed in aerobic exercise subgroups. [Conclusion] Differences in exercise frequency and duration influence pain relief in effects of strengthening exercises but do not influence the effect size of aerobic exercise for people with knee OA.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to understand the effects of task-oriented gross motor group exercise based on motor development on chronic stroke patients’ joint, bone, muscle, and motor functions and activities of daily living. [Subjects] Twenty-eight stroke patients hospitalized at P municipal nursing facility for the severely handicapped were randomly assigned to the gross motor group exercise group (experimental group, n=14) or the control group (n=14). [Methods] The two groups performed morning exercise led by a trainer for 30 minutes a day, 5 times a week for 6 weeks in total. The experimental group performed a gross motor group exercise in addition to this exercise for 50 minutes a day, 3 times a week for 6 weeks in total. Before the experiment, all subjects were measured with the Modified Barthel Index (MBI) and for their neuromuscular skeletal and motor-related functions according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. [Results] Significant improvements were found in the experimental group’s neuromusculoskeletal and motor-related functions and MBI test, except for the stability of joint functions. The control group showed no significant difference from the initial evaluation. [Conclusion] The gross motor group exercise based on motor development is recommended for chronic stroke patients with severe handicaps.
[Purpose] The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of a sciatic nerve mobilization technique on improvement of lower limb function in patient with poststroke hemiparesis. [Subjects] Twenty- two stroke patients participated in this study. [Methods] They were randomly selected based on selection criteria and divided into two groups. In the subject group (n=10), sciatic nerve mobilization with conventional physical therapy was applied to patients. In the control group (n=10), only conventional physical therapy was applied to stroke patients. [Results] There were significant differences between the two groups in pressure, sway, total pressure, angle of the knee joint, and functional reaching test results in the intervention at two weeks and at four weeks. [Conclusion] The present study showed that sciatic nerve mobilization with conventional physical therapy was more effective for lower limb function than conventional physical therapy alone in patient with poststroke hemiparesis.
[Purpose] It is well known that, in both in vivo and in vitro tests, muscle fatigue is produced by severe exercise, electrical stimulation, and so on. However, it is not clear whether or not low-frequency and high-amplitude modulation specifically affects serum myoglobin or urine myoglobin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of low-frequency and high-amplitude modulation on serum myoglobin and urine myoglobin. [Methods] The study used whole blood samples and urine produced over 24 hours from the thirteen healthy subjects. [Results] There was a significant increase in serum myoglobin following electrical stimulation at a frequency of 10 Hz compared with the control group. Furthermore, within 24 hours, urine myoglobin also showed a significant increase for the test volunteers subjected to electrical stimulation at the 10 Hz frequency compared with the control group. However, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of hematologic results in subjects treated with electrical stimulation. [Conclusion] These results suggest that increased myoglobin related to muscle fatigue from electrical stimulation, particularly with a current of 10 Hz combined with a high-amplitude, may be partially related to increased muscle damage.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a weight-bearing therapeutic exercise program for elite athletes diagnosed as having patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). [Subjects] The subjects were 34 elite athletes from the Seoul T Center. They were randomly allocated to three groups: an elastic band exercise group (EBG), a sling exercise group (SEG), or a control group (CG). [Methods] Therapeutic exercises were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The visual analogue scale (VAS) hamstring length, and static and dynamic Q angles were used to test the exercise effect of the exercises, as well as the onset time of electromyographic activity of vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL). [Results] Decrease of the dynamic Q-angle in EBG was significant and significantly greater than that in CG. The decrease in VAS in SEG was significant and significantly greater than that in CG. There were significant differences in the VL and VMO activity onset times in SEG between pre- and post-test, and their differences between pre- and post-test were also significantly different. [Conclusion] Weight-bearing therapeutic exercise is hoped that clinicians will use this information for better implementation of effective exercise methods for elite athletes with PFPS.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of pinch strength testing in elderly subjects with thumb CMC OA. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 27 patients with unilateral right-thumb CMC OA (mean ± SD age: 81.3 ± 4.7 years) were recruited. Each patient performed three pain-free maximal isometric contractions on each hand on two occasions, one week apart. Three different measurements were taken: tip, tripod, and key pinch strength. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) calculations were performed. [Results] Test-retest reliability of measurements of tip, tripod, and key pinch strength was excellent for the affected side (ICC=0.93, 0.96, and 0.99) and the contralateral thumb (ICC=0.91, 0.92, and 0.94). [Conclusions] The present results indicate that maximum pinch strength can be measured reliably using the Pinch Gauge Dynamometer, in patients with thumb CMC OA, which enables its use in research and in the clinic to determine the effect of interventions on improving pinch strength.
[Purpose] A wide variety of accelerometer tools are used to estimate human movement, but there are no adequate data relating to gait symmetry parameters in the context of knee osteoarthritis. This study’s purpose was to evaluate a 3D-kinematic system using body-mounted sensors (gyroscopes and accelerometers) on the trunk and limbs. This is the first study to use spectral analysis for data post processing. [Subjects] Twelve patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis (OA) (10 male) and seven age-matched controls (6 male) were studied. [Methods] Measurements with 3-D accelerometers and gyroscopes were compared to video analysis with marker positions tracked by a six-camera optoelectronic system (VICON 460, Oxford Metrics). Data were recorded using the 3D-kinematic system. [Results] The results of both gait analysis systems were significantly correlated. Five parameters were significantly different between the knee OA and control groups. To overcome time spent in expensive post-processing routines, spectral analysis was performed for fast differentiation between normal gait and pathological gait signals using the 3D-kinematic system. [Conclusions] The 3D-kinematic system is objective, inexpensive, accurate and portable, and allows long-term recordings in clinical, sport as well as ergonomic or functional capacity evaluation (FCE) settings. For fast post-processing, spectral analysis of the recorded data is recommended.
[Purpose] Improved gait efficiency is one of the goals of therapy for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Postural insoles can allow more efficient gait by improving biomechanical alignment. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of postural insoles on gait performance of children with CP classified as levels I or II of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). [Subjects and Methods] the study was a randomized controlled double-blind clinical trial. After meeting the legal aspects and the eligibility criteria, 10 children between four and 12 years old were randomly divided into a two groups: a control group (n=5), and an experimental group (n=5). Children in the control group used a placebo insoles, and children in the experimental group used postural insoles. Evaluation consisted of three-dimensional gait analysis under three conditions: barefoot, shoes without insoles and shoes with postural insoles or shoes with placebo insoles. [Results] Regarding the immediate effects of insole use, significant improvements in gait velocity and cadence were observed in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. [Conclusion] The use of postural insoles led to improvements in gait velocity and cadence of the children with cerebral palsy classified as levels I or II of the GMFCS.
[Purpose] This study compared the upper extremity recovery of stroke patients with the amount of their upper extremity use in real life as measured by accelerometers. [Subjects] Forty inpatients who had had a stroke were recruited. [Methods] The subjects were divided into two groups by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Motor Function (FMA) score, a moderately recovered group and a well recovered group. The amount of upper extremity physical activity and its ratio in daily time periods were analyzed for the affected and unaffected sides. [Results] The well recovered group showed significantly higher affected arm use and use ratio than the moderately recovered group in all time periods. [Conclusion] The upper extremity recovery level of the affected side is similar to the physical activity level according to the amount of upper extremity physical activity in actual life measured with an accelerometer. Overuse of the normal side regardless of the recovery level of upper extremity proves the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) concept of differentiating between capacity and performance, and rehabilitation treatments should focus on improving performance.
[Purpose] The present study investigated what kind of effect smart phone use has on dynamic postural balance. [Subjects] The study subjects were 30 healthy students in their 20’s who were recruited from a University in Busan, Korea. [Methods] The present experiment was quasi-experimental research which measured the postural balance (Biodex) of subjects while they sent text messages via smart phones in the standing position with the eyes open, and while they used two-way SNS. [Results] There were significant differences between standing and the dual-task situations. Among dual tasks using smart phones, SNS using situations showed the highest instability. [Conclusion] The use of smart phones in less stable conditions such as while walking or in moving vehicles should be discouraged.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of neuromobilization combined with routine physiotherapy in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome through subjective, physical, and electrophysiological studies. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (totally 32 hands) were assigned two groups: treatment and control groups. In both groups, patients received the routine physiotherapy. In addition to the routine physiotherapy, patients in the treatment group received neuromobilization. The symptoms severity scale, visual analogue scale, functional status scale, Phalen’s sign, median nerve tension test, and median nerve distal sensory and motor latency were assessed. [Results] There were significant improvements in the symptoms severity scale, visual analogue scale, median nerve tension test, and Phalen’s sign in both groups. However, the functional status scale and median nerve distal motor latency were significantly improved only in the treatment group. [Conclusion] Neuromobilization in combination with routine physiotherapy improves some clinical findings more effectively than routine physiotherapy. Therefore, this combination can be used as an alternative effective non-invasive treatment for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.
[Purpose] This study assessed the effects of a pelvic belt (PB) on the electromyography (EMG) activity of the elector spinae (ES), gluteus maximus (GM), and biceps femoris (BF) in females with chronic low back pain (CLBP) during prone hip extension (PHE). [Subjects] Twenty female with CLBP were recruited. Surface EMG data were collected from the ES, GM, and BF muscles during a PHE task. [Results] The EMG activity in the ES bilaterally, and the right GM decreased significantly when a PB was applied compared with when a PB was not applied. [Conclusion] This suggests that a PB is effective for altering the activation pattern of the hip extensor muscles in females with CLBP during PHE.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Tai Chi (TC)-based exercise on dynamic postural control during obstacle negotiation by subjects with mild or moderate Parkinson’s disease (PD). [Subjects] Twelve subjects (mean age, 65.3±6.1 years) diagnosed with idiopathic PD were enrolled for this study. [Methods] All the subjects were tested a week before and 12 weeks after the initiation of the TC exercise. In the test, they were instructed to negotiate an obstacle from the position of quiet stance at a normal speed. They were trained with TC exercise that emphasized multidirectional shift in weight bearing from bilateral to unilateral support, challenging the postural stability, three times per week for 12 weeks. Center of pressure (COP) trajectory variables before and after TC exercise were measured using two force plates. [Results] A comparison of the results between pre- and post-intervention showed a statistically significant improvement in anteroposterior and mediolateral displacement of COP. [Conclusion] Twelve weeks of TC exercise may be an effective and safe form of stand-alone behavioral intervention for improving the dynamic postural stability of patients with PD.
[Purpose] This study examined changes in the onset of neck movement in young adults with and without mild neck pain (MNP) during visual display terminal (VDT) work. [Subjects] Ten control subjects and 10 subjects with MNP who were VDT workers were recruited. The upper (UC) and lower cervical (LC) spine angles in the sagittal plane were collected using an ultrasound-based motion analysis system during VDT work for 5 min. [Results] The MNP group had faster movement initiation in the UC and LC compared with the control group during VDT work. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that young adults with MNP should be cautious when performing VDT work while sitting.
[Purpose] We investigated the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and cryotherapy on joint function recovery and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels of patients with total knee replacement. [Subjects] Forty-six patients with total knee replacement were recruited and allocated to either low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy (n=15), cryotherapy (n=15), or a combination of both (n=16). Therapy was administered once a day, 5 times a week for 3 weeks. To determine functional joint recovery and reduction of inflammation, changes in the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (K-WOMAC), range of motion (ROM), and CRP were assessed postsurgically and four times over a 3-week period. Using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), homogeneity tests were performed based on participants’ general characteristics. To recognize changes in time-variant K-WOMAC, ROM, and CRP values between groups, repeated measures ANOVA was performed, and Tukey’s test was used for post-test analysis. Values at α=0.05 were considered significant. [Results] We found a difference between groups and times, and the group that received the combined therapies showed greater changes in outcomes than the group that received low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy alone. [Conclusion] Applying both low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and cryotherapy can relieve inflammation and enhance joint function in patients who undergo total knee replacement.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in pain, dysfunction, and grip strength of patients with acute lateral epicondylitis and to suggest the appropriate treatment frequency and period. [Subjects] The subjects were divided into three: 2 days per week group (n=12), 3 days per week group (n=15), and 6 days per week group (n=13). [Methods] All groups received conventional physical therapy for 40 minutes and therapeutic exercises for 20 minutes per session during 6 weeks. The outcome measurements were the visual analogue scale (VAS), Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), and grip strength. [Results] The results of this study were as follows: at 3 weeks, there were no significant differences in VAS and PRTEE in the 3 groups, but at 6 weeks, 6 days per week group significantly decreased these two outcomes. Grip strength was significantly increased in 3 and 6 days per week groups at 6 weeks. [Conclusion] In conclusion, physical therapy is needed 3 days per week for 3 weeks in patients with acute lateral epicondylitis. After 3 weeks, 6 days per week is the most effective treatment frequency.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in effects caused by variation in the intervention frequency of outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation, in terms of the pulmonary function, lower-limb muscle strength, exercise tolerance, and quality of life (QOL). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 36 patients with mild to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were studied. These patients were all men over the age of 40 who did not require assistance for activities of daily living (ADL). Groups undergoing intervention once a month (M1 group) and once a week (W1 group) were compared in terms of the effects of outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation for a period of 12 weeks. Intervention during this time included supervised and home-based exercise. [Results] Comparison of before and after intervention revealed that the rate of change in the W1 group was significantly higher than that in the M1 group in terms of the QOL, lower-extremity muscle strength, and 6-minute walking distance. [Conclusion] Outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation programs yielded greater improvements in the W1 group than in the M1 group in terms of the QOL and exercise tolerance.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the activation of the tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SOL) muscles during the sit-to-stand (STS) task with hip adduction and hip abduction in elderly females. [Subjects] We recruited 16 healthy elderly females with no pain in the knee joint and no other orthopedic problems of the lower limbs. [Methods] The activities of the dominant lower extremity muscles were measured using a wireless electromyography (EMG) system. Subjects then performed a total of nine STS trials, including three trials each for hip adduction, hip abduction, and natural STS tasks. [Results] In the pre- thigh-off (TO) phase, the normalized EMG data of the TA muscle increased significantly when the STS task was performed with hip adduction compared with hip abduction. In the post-TO phase, the normalized EMG data of the TA muscle showed a significant increase during the STS task with hip adduction compared with hip abduction. Additionally, the normalized EMG data of the SOL muscle increased significantly when the STS task was performed with hip adduction compared with hip abduction. [Conclusion] Therefore, the STS movement with hip adduction poses a greater challenge for balance control, indicating that certain elderly individuals would have difficulty in executing an abrupt adjustment in their dynamic postural stability during the STS movement.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of stretching with lumbar traction on VAS and Oswestry scale scores of lumbar 4–5 herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) patients. [Subjects] We recruited 20 lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients. [Methods] We performed stretching with lumbar traction for lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients during 4 weeks. The VAS and Oswestry scales were measured before and 4 weeks after the intervention. [Results] The results showed a significant decrease in VAS scale scores for stretching with lumbar traction in lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients, from 18±1.29 to 2.1±1.35. The Oswestry scale scores also decreased significantly, from 20.35±2.01 to 3.5±2.84, after stretching with lumbar traction. [Conclusion] Thus, we suggest stretching with lumbar traction for lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients.
[Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the changes in torque and power during flexion and extension of the shoulder and the knee joints caused by midline correction using mouth guards made from different materials in adults with mild midline discrepancy. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were males (n=12) in their 20s who showed a 3–5 mm difference between the midlines of the upper and lower teeth but had normal masticatory function. [Methods] The torque and average power of the lower limb and upper limb were measured during flexion and extension according to various types of mouth guard. [Results] There were significant differences in relative torque and average power between three conditions (no mouth guard, soft-type mouth guard, and hard-type mouth guard) at shoulder flexion and extension. There were no significant differences in relative torque and average power between the three conditions at knee flexion and extension. [Conclusions] These results suggest that use of a mouth guard is a method by which people with a mild midline discrepancy can improve the stability of the entire body.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of heel-height changes on the low joint angles of the lower extremities of women in their 20s during gait. [Subjects and Methods] Qualisys Track Manager Software ver. 2.8 (Qualisys, Sweden) was used to perform measurements on 14 female university students in their 20s. To measure movements, the subjects were asked to walk while wearing high-heeled shoes and reflective stickers on their hip joints, knee joints, and ankle joints, the changes in joint angles were measured at heel strike, foot flat, and toe off. [Results] Analysis of the amount of change according to heel height changes during gait showed that the angle of the hip joints was reduced with an increase in heel-height. Although the changes were not significant, the angle of the knee joints was reduced during heel strike, foot flat, and midstance, and it was increased during toe off. In contrast, the angle of the ankle joints was increased by a significant amount during heel strike, foot flat, midstance, and toe off. [Conclusions] During gait with high heels, the movements of the lower extremities of women in their 20s were reduced significantly with an increase in heel height. Therefore, it is concluded that the restrictions on gait can only be reduced by wearing low-heeled shoes.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the validity of salivary α-amylase as a method of quickly estimating anaerobic threshold and to establish the relationship between salivary α-amylase and double-product breakpoint in order to create a way to adjust exercise intensity to a safe and effective range. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy young adults performed an incremental exercise test using a cycle ergometer. During the incremental exercise test, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and ventilatory equivalent were measured using a breath-by-breath gas analyzer. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured to calculate the double product, from which double-product breakpoint was determined. Salivary α-amylase was measured to calculate the salivary threshold. [Results] One-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences among workloads at the anaerobic threshold, double-product breakpoint, and salivary threshold. Significant correlations were found between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold and between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. [Conclusion] As a method for estimating anaerobic threshold, salivary threshold was as good as or better than determination of double-product breakpoint because the correlation between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold was higher than the correlation between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. Therefore, salivary threshold is a useful index of anaerobic threshold during an incremental workload.
[Purpose] This study was conducted to examine the effects of exercises applied with PNF techniques performed for 30 minutes per session, three times per week, after receipt of radiation therapy following mastectomy on depression and anxiety in patients diagnosed with lymphedema and to prepare basic data for creation of self-directed exercise programs for lymphedema patients that will enable them to perform exercises within the range of no pain. [Methods] The subjects of this study were 45 patients selected from among those diagnosed with breast cancer who showed lymphedema after anti-cancer therapy following mastectomy. [Results] The Beck depression score changed significantly during the five assessment periods however, there was no significant difference between the treatment groups. Post hoc analyses revealed that there was significant improvement in the Beck depression score from 4 weeks in all three groups. The interaction between group and time was also statistically significant. [Conclusion] In conclusion, PNF techniques helped to improve the depression and anxiety rates. Four weeks after the start of therapy, PNF techniques Depression and anxiety to create a greater degree of decline was on display.
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine the differences in the excitability of spinal motor neurons during motor imagery of a muscle contraction at different contraction strengths. [Methods] We recorded the F-wave in 15 healthy subjects. First, in a trial at rest, the muscle was relaxed during F-wave recording. Next, during motor imagery, subjects were instructed to imagine maximum voluntary contractions of 10%, 30%, and 50% while holding the sensor of a pinch meter, and F-waves were recorded for each contraction. F-waves were recorded immediately and at 5, 10, and 15 min after motor imagery. [Results] Both persistence and F/M amplitude ratios during motor imagery under maximum voluntary contractions of 10%, 30%, and 50% were significantly higher than that at rest. In addition, persistence, F/M amplitude ratio, and latency were similar during motor imagery under the three muscle contraction strengths. [Conclusion] Motor imagery under maximum voluntary contractions of 10%, 30%, and 50% can increase the excitability of spinal motor neurons. The results indicated that differences in muscle contraction strengths during motor imagery are not involved in changes in the excitability of spinal motor neurons.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to verify how the application of elastic tape to the anterior surface of the thigh changes the knee angle pattern during gait. [Subjects] The subjects were 10 people who showed an abnormal knee angle change pattern during usual walking. They did not show the so-called double knee action. [Methods] Subjects were asked to walk as usual, and then to walk with elastic tape attached to the anterior surface of the thigh. The knee angle was measured during gait with an electronic goniometer. We graphed the temporal changes of the knee angle and compared them with the normal gait pattern. [Results] The knee angle gait pattern of six of the 10 subjects improved after application of the tape and became like a normal gait pattern. The changes in the knee angle resulted from a stimulus via the skin, rather than voluntary muscular adjustment, suggesting that the changes may have originated due to differences in reflexive tensile strength. [Conclusion] In normal speed gait, it is suggested that the knee angle was altered such that it exhibited a normal pattern by applying elastic tape to the anterior surface of the thigh. We suspect that application of the elastic tape may change the muscle tonus.
[Purpose] This research investigated the relationship between elbow joint angle and elbow flexor and extensor strength and activation, taking into consideration the length-tension tension curve of the muscle. [Subjects] There were 30 research subjects in total, 15 male and 15 female college students from Busan S University who had no functional disabilities that might affect measurement of muscle strength and muscle activation, and none had they experienced any damage in their upper extremities or hands. [Methods] The elbow joint angles were positioned at angles of 56°, 70° and 84°, and then muscle strength and activation were compared. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, and the paired t-test was used to identify the difference between each angle. We used the SPSS for windows (ver. 21.0) statistical software and a significance level of α=0.05. [Results] The results showed that muscle strength and activation of the biceps was highest when the joint was placed at 56°. On the other hand, for the triceps, the result was highest when the joint angle was placed at 84°. [Conclusion] The tests confirmed that muscle strength and activation were highest at the joint angle at which the muscle was stretched to 20% more than the resting position in concentric contraction.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration exercise in the horizontal direction on balance and fear of falling in the elderly. [Methods] This study was a case series of 17 elderly individuals. Participants performed whole body vibration exercise in the horizontal direction using a whole body vibration device for 15 minutes a day, 3 times a week, for 6 weeks. At baseline and after the 6-week intervention, balance was measured using the Berg Balance Scale and Timed Up and Go test, and fear of falling was assessed using the Falls Efficacy Scale. [Results] After the intervention, significant improvements from baseline values in the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go test, and Falls Efficacy Scale were observed in the study participants. [Conclusion] Elderly individuals who performed whole body vibration exercise in the horizontal direction showed significant improvements in balance and fear of falling. However, the observed benefits of whole body vibration exercise in the horizontal direction need to be confirmed by additional studies.
[Purpose] Auditory hypersensitivity has been widely reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders. However, the neurological background of auditory hypersensitivity is currently not clear. The present study examined the relationship between sympathetic nervous system responses and auditory hypersensitivity induced by different types of auditory stimuli. [Methods] We exposed 20 healthy young adults to six different types of auditory stimuli. The amounts of palmar sweating resulting from the auditory stimuli were compared between groups with (hypersensitive) and without (non-hypersensitive) auditory hypersensitivity. [Results] Although no group × type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was observed for the extent of reaction, significant type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was noted for the extent of reaction. For an 80 dB-6,000 Hz stimulus, the trends for palmar sweating differed between the groups. For the first stimulus, the variance became larger in the hypersensitive group than in the non-hypersensitive group. [Conclusion] Subjects who regularly felt excessive reactions to auditory stimuli tended to have excessive sympathetic responses to repeated loud noises compared with subjects who did not feel excessive reactions. People with auditory hypersensitivity may be classified into several subtypes depending on their reaction patterns to auditory stimuli.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between joint destruction and carotid intima-media thickness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-four RA patients and 31 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The disease activity for 28 joints was recorded for each patient using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28ESR), a visual analog scale (VAS0–10 cm), and a disability index, the health assessment questionnaire (HAQ). X-ray imagesof the patients were scored according to the modified Sharp/van der Heijde method, and the common carotid intimal medial thickness (CIMT) was automatically measured with software using high-resolution Doppler ultrasound. [Results] Contrary to our hypothesis, the modified total Sharp score (mTSS) and CIMT were not significantly associated. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels of the RA patients and the right CIMT, left CIMT, and mean CIMT scores were significantly elevated. Positive correlation was detected between the mean CIMT score and age, CRP levels, LDL concentration and triglycerides (TG) level. In the regression model, where the mean CIMT was the independent variable and age, CRP, LDL, and TG were dependent variables, age was found to be an independent predictor of CIMT. [Conclusions] Patients suffering from RA require close monitoring for cardiovascular risks, and the comorbidity of age-related cardiovascular disease should not be overlooked.
[Purpose] A significant increase in the number of oldest old has occurred worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterize the functional capacity of the oldest old residents in a long-stay institution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [Subjects and Methods] All participants were evaluated according to the following metrics: anthropometry, body composition (bioelectrical impedance), handgrip strength, balance (Berg scale and stabilometry), ankle mobility (electrogoniometry), physical capacity (six-minute walk test), quality of life (WHOQOL-OLD), and dietary habits (questionnaire). [Results] Twenty elderly subjects with a mean age of 85.75 ± 5.22 years and a mean fat percentage of 39.02 ± 5.49% participated in the study. The group at risk of falls (n = 8) had a lower handgrip strength and walked a shorter distance over the course of six minutes compared with the group not at risk of falls. The obese group (n = 15) had higher values for stabilometric variables than the nonobese group. There was a positive and significant correlation between ankle joint mobility and physical capacity (r = 0.47). [Conclusion] High values for obesity and low values for handgrip strength and physical capacity were associated with worse body balance. Low values for ankle mobility were also associated with worse physical capacity in this population.
[Purpose] We assessed the effects of aerobic exercise and strengthening exercise on pain pressure thresholds (PPTs) over time. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy participants were recruited and randomly divided into 3 groups: aerobic exercise, strengthening exercise, and control. The subjects in the aerobic group walked on a treadmill for 40 min at 6.5 km/h. The subjects in the strength group performed circuit training that included bench press, lat pull down, biceps curl, triceps extension, and shoulder press based on the perceived exertion for 40 min. The subjects in the control group rested without any exercise in a quiet room for 40 min. The PPTs of 5 potential muscle trigger points before exercise, and immediately after 10 and 40 min of exercise or rest were measured using an electronic algometer (JTECH Medical, USA). The Friedman’s, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests were performed using SPSS 18.0 (IBM, Korea). [Results] The PPTs of all subjects decreased after 10 min of exercise, but the difference was not statistically significant. The PPTs of the control group decreased after 40 min. Furthermore, the PPTs of 3 muscles increased after 40 min of aerobic exercise and of 6 muscles after 40 min of strengthening exercise. No significant difference in PPTs was noted among the groups. [Conclusion] The results show that 40 min is a more appropriate exercise time, although the efficacy of controlling pain did not differ between strengthening exercise and aerobic exercise.
[Purpose] This study compared respiratory function and differences in pneumonia history between Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia groups. [Subjects] Fifty-eight inpatients in the dementia treatment ward in a psychiatric facility were enrolled. [Methods] Patients underwent respiratory function testing twice using an 80-cm party horn. The Mini-Mental State Examination was also performed and motor functions were evaluated. Patient characteristics were obtained from medical records. [Results] Significant differences were noted between Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia groups in the ability to blow the party horn to full length, pneumonia history, and presence of impaired mobility. [Conclusion] Party horn evaluation may be useful for determining the risk of pneumonia in patients with dementia.
[Purpose] A number of different stimulation devices are used in basic and clinical research studies, and their frequencies of use vary. However, whether or not they are equally effective has not been investigated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate neural activity in the brain during the illusion of motion evoked by stimulating the tendons of the wrist extensor muscles using various vibration devices. [Subjects] Twelve right-handed university students with no history of nervous system disorder or orthopedic disease participated in the study. [Methods] The wrist extensor tendon was stimulated using 3 different devices: 1) a vibration stimulation device (SL-0105 LP; Asahi Seisakusho Co., Ltd., Saitama, Japan), frequency 80 Hz; 2) a handy massager (YCM-20; Yamazen Corporation, Osaka, Japan), frequency 70 Hz; and 3) a handy massager (Thrive MD-01; Thrive Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan), frequency 91.7 Hz. Brain activity was recorded during stimulation by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. [Results] Increased neural activity was observed in both the premotor cortices and the parietal region in both hemispheres in all 3 cases. The level and localization of neural activity was comparable for all 3 stimulation devices used. [Conclusion] This suggests that subjects experience the illusion of motion while the tendon is being stimulated using any vibration device.
[Purpose] The aims of the present study were to analyze the validity and reliability of the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) as a screening tool for cognitive impairments in both stroke patients and older adults in South Korea. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-three stroke patients and 42 elderly residents living in urban communities were recruited. They were divided into three groups according to K-MMSE scores. Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA was used for construct validity, Friedman two-way ANOVA for discriminative validity, and Spearman’s rank order correlation coefficient for inter-rater reliability. [Results] Regardless of groups, construct and discriminative validity tests showed statistically significant results, and Spearman’s rho was over 0.56. [Discussion] CDT demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. CDT using the productive methods and Freedman’s scoring systems may be suitable for cognitive decrease in stroke patients and the elderly.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a biteplate on the cranio-cervical posture of children with bruxism. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve male and female children aged six to 10 years with a diagnosis of bruxism participated in this study. The children used a biteplate during sleep for 30 days and were submitted to three postural evaluations: initial, immediately following placement of the biteplate, and at the end of treatment. Posture analysis was performed with the aid of the Alcimagem® 2.1 program. Data analysis (IBM SPSS Statistics 2.0) involved descriptive statistics and the Student’s t-test. [Results] A statistically significant difference was found between the initial cranio-cervical angle and the angle immediately following placement of the biteplate. However, no statistically significant difference was found between the initial angle and the angle after one month of biteplate usage. [Conclusion] No significant change in the cranio-cervical posture of the children was found one month of biteplate usage. However, a reduction occurred in the cranio-cervical angle when the biteplate was in position.
[Purpose] Auditory stimulation is used for the functional assessment of the saccule and saccule-derived vestibule-cervical reflex in clinical environments. The present study aimed to clarify the influences of sound stimulation as a type of auditory stimulation on the body. [Subjects] The subjects were nine healthy youths (2 males and 7 females). [Methods] FFD, FRT, the muscle hardness of hamstrings, and RT were measured after the sound stimulation of 1,000 Hz and 70dB. [Results] RT was markedly shortened, and the FFD significantly increased with sound stimulation. [Conclusion] Sound stimulation improved the RT and flexibility, possibly resulting in an effective approach in physical therapy.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to seek evidence for the effectiveness of Tai Chi for patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). [Subjects and Methods] Systematic searches were conducted of the China Journals Full-text Database, Pubmed, Medline, Science Direct-Online Journals and CINAHL for studies published between 2000 and 2012. Studies were evaluated based on following inclusion criteria: 1) design: randomized control, clinical trial; 2) subjects: patients with a knee osteoarthritis diagnosis; 3) intervention: exercise involving Tai Chi; 4) studies published in English or Chinese. [Results] Six randomized control studies involving Tai Chi and knee osteoarthritis were found. [Conclusion] Tai Chi was an effective way of relieving pain and improving physical function. Further randomized controlled trials with large sample sizes and long training period are needed to compare groups who perform Tai Chi training with other groups who undergo other forms of physical exercise in order to confirm the efficacy of Tai Chi.