[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the intrarater and interrater reliability of the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), thereby increasing understanding of its efficient utilization. [Subjects and Methods] There were 67 subjects (49 female; 18 male). For the SEBT, eight lines were made using tape at 45-degree angles from the center of a circle. The experiment was conducted in the following order: the anterior, anterior-medial, medial, posterior-medial, posterior, posterior-lateral, lateral, and anterior-lateral directions. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (3,1) were used to evaluate the intrarater and interrater reliability (2,1) for each reach distance, while the standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable distance (SDD) were employed to assess absolute reliability. [Results] For intraratar reliability, the ICC values for all directions ranged from 0.88 to 0.96, SEM values ranged from 2.41 to 3.30, and SDD values ranged from 6.68 to 9.15. For interrater reliability, the ICC values for all directions ranged from 0.83 to 0.93, SEM values ranged from 3.19 to 4.26, and SDD values ranged from 8.85 to 11.82 [Conclusion] The SEBT is a highly reliable tool for measuring dynamic balance. Measurements for intrarater reliability are more reliable than measurements for interrater reliability. When measurement for eight directions was difficult, the SEBT was used. While the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions employed in the Y Balance Test KitTM can be utilized, this study recommends using the reverse Y Balance Test KitTM method with the posterior direction, not the anterior direction.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine range of motion (ROM) and the muscle activity of stroke patients during obstacle task on the ground and underwater. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were seven stroke patients in a hospital located in Daejeon, South Korea. [Methods] The measurements in this study were conducted in an exercise therapy room and a pool dedicated to underwater exercise (water temperature 33.5 °C, air temperature 27 °C) in the hospital building. The pool’s water depth was determined by considering the levels of the xiphoid process of the study subjects. Ten-centimeter-high obstacles were used. An electrogoniometer was used to examine the ROM of flexion and extension of the hip joints on the affected side. An MP150 system a BioNomadix 2-channel wireless EMG transmitter was used to examine the muscle activity of the rectus femoris and biceps femoris of the affected side. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the unaffected side was supported, that the affected side moved, and that the hip joint was bent more underwater than on the ground. The rectus femoris and bicpes femoris were activated significantly less underwater than on the ground in all sections.
[Purpose] To examine agreement rates between faculty members and clinical supervisors as OSCE examiners. [Subjects] The study subjects were involved physical and occupational therapists working in clinical environments for 1 to 5 years after graduating from training schools as OSCE examinees, and a physical or occupational therapy faculty member and a clinical supervisor as examiners. Another clinical supervisor acted as a simulated patient. [Methods] The agreement rate between the examiners for each OSCE item was calculated based on Cohen’s kappa coefficient to confirm inter-rater reliability. [Results] The agreement rates for the behavioral aspects of the items were higher in the second than in the first examination. Similar increases were also observed in the agreement rates for the technical aspects until the initiation of each activity; however, the rates decreased during the middle to terminal stages of continuous movements. [Conclusion] The results may reflect the recent implementation of measures for the integration of therapist education in training schools and clinical training facilities.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra-rater reliability of measures of scapular protraction strength using a novel method. [Subjects] Forty-nine healthy subjects participated in this study. [Methods] Subjects performed maximal isometric scapular protraction on the left and right sides in the supine and seated positions. During scapular protraction, resistance was applied to the olecranon, and the strength of scapular protraction was measured using a load cell. Intra-rater reliability was calculated as the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC3,1). [Results] High intra-rater reliability scores (0.97–0.98) for scapular protraction strength were observed in the supine and seated positions. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that the method described herein may provide a more reliable and convenient method to measure scapular protraction strength than common current practice does.
[Purpose] This study aimed to verify the change in range of motion of the temporomandibular joint on correction of scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] This study examined 31 male and female participants in their 20s and 30s with a spinal curve degree of 10° or greater. The subjects performed therapeutic exercise based on the pilates exercise system, which is known to be effective in mitigating the spinal curve for patients with scoliosis. All participants completed an 8-week therapeutic exercise regimen to alleviate the scoliosis in which exercise was performed, the exercise was done three times a week for 8 weeks and each session lasted 60 minutes. Among them, 19 participants were selected as an experiment group, whose symptoms were mitigated significantly, and 12 participants who did not undergo the exercise were identified as a control group. All subject was assessed for spinal curve degree, apparent leg length discrepancy, and deviation and range of motion of the temporomandibular joint before and after the study. [Results] In the experimental group, the apparent leg length discrepancy and the deviation of the temporomandibular joint were significantly decreased after the exercise, and the ROM in the temporomandibular joint was significantly increased. In intergroup comparisons, all variables showed a significant difference. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that as the spinal curve degree decreases significantly, the range of motion and deviation in the temporomandibular joint showed a significant change, indicating that mild scoliosis may be a negative factor affecting the deviation and range of motion of the temporomandibular joint.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to devise a new urinary incontinence exercise using co-contraction of both the transverse abdominal muscle (TA) and pelvic floor muscle (PFM) and examine the intervention effect in middle-aged women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). [Subjects] The subjects were fifteen women with SUI who were divided into two groups: the TA and PFM co-contraction exercise group (n=9) and the control group (n=6). [Methods] Participants in the exercise group performed TA and PFM co-contraction exercise. The thickness of the TA was measured before and after 8 weeks of exercise using ultrasound. The thickness of the TA was measured under 4 conditions: (1) at rest, (2) maximal contraction of the TA, (3) maximal contraction of the PFM, and (4) maximal co-contraction of both the TA and PFM. [Results] There were no significant differences among the results of the control group. In the exercise group, the cure rate of SUI was 88.9% after the intervention. There were significant differences in the thickness of the TA during maximal co-contraction of both the TA and PFM after the intervention. [Conclusion] The TA and PFM co-contraction exercise intervention increases the thickness of the TA and may be recommended to improve SUI in middle-aged women.
[Purpose] Lumbar fusion has been used for spinal disorders when conservative treatment fails. The minimally invasive approach causes minimal damage to the back muscles and shortens the postoperative recovery time. However, evidence regarding functional recovery in patients after minimally invasive lumbar spinal fusion is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate how trunk control ability is affected after minimally invasive lumbar fusion surgery during the early postoperative phase. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen patients and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy participants were recruited. Participants were asked to perform a maximum forward reaching task and were evaluated 1 day before and again 1 month after the lumbar fusion surgery. Center of pressure (COP) displacement, back muscle strength, and scores for the Visual Analog Scale, and Chinese version of the modified Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were recorded. [Results] The healthy control group exhibited more favorable outcomes than the patient group both before and after surgery in back strength, reaching distance, reaching velocity, and COP displacement. The patient group improved significantly after surgery in all clinical outcome measurements. However, reaching distance decreased, and the reaching velocity as well as COP displacement did not differ before and after surgery. [Conclusion] The LBP patients with lumbar fusion surgery showed improvement in pain intensity 1 month after surgery but no improvement in trunk control during forward reaching. The results provide evidence that the back muscle strength was not fully recovered in patients 1 month after surgery and limited their ability to move their trunk forward.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether a wedge type seat decreases the lumbar flexion angle of seated workers with limited hip flexion. [Subjects] Twelve sedentary workers with limited hip flexion were recruited. [Methods] Three seat surfaces were used: a level surface, a forward-inclining wedge, and a backward-reclining wedge. The angles of lumbar flexion and pelvic tilt were measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Differences in kinematic data of the subjects seated on the three seat surfaces were analyzed using repeated one-way analysis of variance. [Results] The degree of lumbar flexion decreased significantly when using the forward-inclining wedge compared with the level surface and backward-reclining wedge. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that sitting on a forward-inclining wedge may be useful for minimizing the compensatory lumbar flexion of individuals with limited hip flexion who work in a seated position.
[Purpose] To examine the effects of intervention combining individualized and group rhythm (To-balance) exercises on the mental and physical functions of the elderly requiring low level care. [Subjects] A total of 29 elderly persons requiring level 2 assistance to level 2 who were and using outpatient care services participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to 2 groups: To-balance, and Sitting. The former group performed individualized and To-balance group exercises, while the latter group performed individualized exercise, as well as group exercise while sitting on a chair. The effects were evaluated through somatometric, physical fitness, and mental function measurements before and 3, 6, and 9 months after the initiation of the intervention. [Results] The lower-limb muscle strength and mental function significantly improved in both groups. Particularly, in the To-balance group, early improvement in balance and gait ability were observed. [Conclusion] The To-balance exercise may be useful for quickly improving the elderly’s static balance ability.
[Purpose] Nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) is a very common but largely self-limiting condition. Several types of tape and their associated application methods are available for different conditions. The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of Kinesio taping (KT) compared with traditional management of NSLBP. [Subjects and Methods] Forty male and female patients with a mean age of 34.8±7.54 years were randomly divided into two groups; group 1 (n=20) which underwent conventional physical therapy with KT, and group 2 (n=20), which underwent only conventional physical therapy. The intervention sessions for both groups were three times per week for four weeks. Outcomes were assessed for activities of daily living (ADL) using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, pain severity using a visual analogue scale, and ranges of motion (ROMs) of trunk flexion and extension using the modified Schober’s test. [Results] Significant differences in measures of pain, ADL, and trunk flexion and extension ROMs were observed post intervention within each group. In comparison, there were no significant differences in measures of pain, ADL, and trunk flexion and extension ROMs post intervention between groups. [Conclusion] A physical therapy program involving strengthening exercises for abdominal muscles and stretching exercises for back, hamstring, and iliopsoas muscles with or without Kinesio taping was beneficial in the treatment of chronic low back pain.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to show the impact of chronic musculoskeletal pain of the spinal column and lower extremities on physical functioning, emotional status, and independency in older adults. [Subjects] In this cross-sectional study, 258 older adults (mean age, 71.98±5.86 years, 50.8% males, 49.2% females) living in their own residences were evaluated. [Methods] Pain intensity was analyzed using a visual analogue scale. Physical functioning was evaluated with the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) and a Six-Minute Walk Test. The Geriatric Depression Scale was used to determine emotional status. The independency in daily living of the participants was evaluated using the Lawton Brody IADL Scale. All participants were divided into two groups in accordance with the pain localization: the (1) spinal pain and (2) lower extremity pain groups. [Results] When the pain scores were compared, no significant differences between the two groups were found. The same results were found in terms of TUG scores. The spinal pain group had higher scores in terms of aerobic capacity than the lower extremity pain group. [Conclusion] The results indicate that chronic musculoskeletal pain in the lower extremities decreased aerobic capacity much more than spinal pain in older adults.
Burnout has been shown to be present in different health professions, but the prevalence among physiotherapists working in an Arabian setting has not been established. [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the burnout levels of physiotherapists working in Saudi Arabia and the association of burnout with work and organization-related factors. [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional study was conducted at government hospitals in Saudi Arabia. One hundred and nineteen Saudi physiotherapists were included. They electronically completed a questionnaire that included the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Areas of Worklife Survey. [Results] Participants showed a moderate degree of burnout as reflected by mean scores of the three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The majority of participants demonstrated moderate to high burnout levels across the three subscales. A significant association was found between the exhaustion subscale and the subspecialty in which participants worked. A strong association was found between workload and exhaustion subscale scores. [Conclusion] This study was the first to explore burnout and related factors among physiotherapists in an Arabian setting. A moderate degree of burnout and associations of burnout with work and organizational factors were found. The findings may help human resource planning and managing the physiotherapy services.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks regular aerobic exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory factors in juvenile obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity and T2DM, typically common among adults, have recently become more prevalent in the Korean juvenile population, affecting not only their lipid profiles and oxidant stress levels, but also their BDNF and inflammatory factor levels. [Subjects] This study enrolled 26 juveniles (boys = 15, girls = 9) who were assigned to a control group (CG, n = 11), obesity group (OG, n = 8), or T2DM group (TG, n = 7). [Methods] The outcome of a 40–60-minute aerobic exercise session that took place three times per week for 12 weeks at a maximum oxygen intake (VO2max) of 50~60% was investigated. [Results] The exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the resting serum BDNF and TrkB levels (baseline) among juveniles in the OG and TG as compared to those in the CG. Additionally, the 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise led to significant reductions in body weight, body fat percentage, and body mass index in the OG and a significant increase of VO2max in the OG and TG. However, no significant differences in serum NGF or inflammatory factors were found among the three groups. There was a significant increase in resting serum BDNF levels following the 12 weeks regular exercise only in the OG. [Conclusion] While 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise had a positive effect on body composition, and increased BDNF levels of juveniles in the OG, it did not affect the inflammatory factor levels and had no effect on the TG.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the accuracy of a digital weight scale relative to the Wii in limb loading measurement during static standing. [Methods] This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a public university teaching hospital. The sample consisted of 24 participants (12 with osteoarthritis and 12 healthy) recruited through convenient sampling. Limb loading measurements were obtained using a digital weight scale and the Nintendo Wii in static standing with three trials under an eyes-open condition. The limb load asymmetry was computed as the symmetry index. [Results] The accuracy of measurement with the digital weight scale relative to the Nintendo Wii was analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (K-S test). The area under the ROC curve was found to be 0.67. Logistic regression confirmed the validity of digital weight scale relative to the Nintendo Wii. The D statistics value from the K-S test was found to be 0.16, which confirmed that there was no significant difference in measurement between the equipment. [Conclusion] The digital weight scale is an accurate tool for measuring limb load asymmetry. The low price, easy availability, and maneuverability make it a good potential tool in clinical settings for measuring limb load asymmetry.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the agreement between physiotherapists (PTs) and mothers (Ms) about the treatment of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who received treatment in special education and rehabilitation centers. [Subjects] Ms of 130 children with CP (75 boys, 55 girls) and 130 PTs who applied rehabilitation programs were interviewed. [Methods] Clinical types and gross motor function levels of the children were recorded. A questionnaire consisting of 6 open-ended questions was used to describe the expectations and views of the PTs and Ms about the physiotherapy and rehabilitation programs for the children. [Results] The mean age of the children was 89.80±52.05 months. The mean treatment period for the children was 73.62±42.11 months. The mean age of the mothers was 35.47±5.79 years, and the mean age of the PTs was 28.07±7.28 years. We found a statistically moderate level of agreement between the PTs and Ms regarding the appropriateness of the treatment provided to the children. There was statistically insignificant agreement regarding the applied treatment methods and the appropriateness of the applied rehabilitation programs. [Conclusion] We believe that the views and expectations of the Ms should be taken into account by the PTs when preparing a treatment program for children with CP.
[Purpose] This study aimed to provide useful information for fall prevention for the elderly by investigating how safely the elderly cross an obstacle after 8 weeks water exercise, and how much of the training effect remained 8 weeks after finishing the exercise. [Subjects] Eleven elderly participants participated in this study. [Methods] To identify the training and detraining effect of 8 weeks of water exercise, a 3-D motion analysis with 7 infrared cameras and one force plate, was performed. [Results] In most of all variables, statistically significant training and detraining effects at obstacle heights of 30% leg length were found. At obstacle heights of 40% leg length, statistically significant training effects were found but only improvement pattern of detraining effects were found for all variables. [Conclusion] The findings of this study indicate that 8 weeks of water exercise at the level of RPE 12–13 may help the elderly to safely cross obstacles at the most common height associated with falls (30% of leg length) for at least 8 weeks after training termination. The training effect, however, should not be expected to last for 8 weeks after the training at obstacle heights of 40% height of their leg length, which is a more difficult height for the elderly to cross.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the fall-prevention effect of 12 weeks of aquatic training for the elderly using variables representative of the relationship between the trailing foot and an obstacle. [Subjects] Ten healthy elderly participants, who lived in C city, (age: 77.15±5.21 yrs, height: 149.87±3.54 cm, body mass: 57.44 ±6.74, and BMI: 25.58±2.98 kg/m2), participated in this study. [Methods] To determine the effect of 12 weeks’ aquatic training, 3-D motion analysis with 7 infrared cameras and one force plate, was performed. [Results] TC, HC, MVHC, and CV significantly increased after intervention. For the all gait stability parameters, statistically significant training effects were found. [Conclusion] In conclusion, 12 weeks’ aquatic exercise can help the elderly become more stable when crossing a height obstacle, which is the most frequent cause of falls by the elderly.
[Purpose] This study compared the effects of three exercises performed in a prone position on the selective activation of the lumbar erector spinae (LES) and lumbar multifidus (LM) muscles in healthy males to investigate the effective method for selective activation of the LM. [Subjects] Twenty-two healthy males were recruited. Surface EMG data were collected from the right LES and LM muscles during three exercises: 1) trunk extension, 2) hip extension, and 3) the arm lift. [Results] The ratio of LM to LES EMG activity during hip extension was higher than those during trunk extension and the arm lift. [Conclusion] Hip extension in a prone position may be effective for selective activation of the lumbar multifidus muscles in healthy males.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to find biochemical markers related to low bone mineral density in Korean adults. [Subjects and Methods] From August 1 to September 15, 2013, subjects receiving medical checkups were classified as lumbar spine bone normal, osteopenic, or osteoporotic using a bone mineral densitometer. Next, age, body mass index, and biochemical parameter differences were compared among the three groups. [Results] The results revealed that, the relevant factors were maximum blood pressure, minimum blood pressure, bone mineral density, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), fasting blood glucose, iron, neutrophils, monocytes, and eosinophils. The bone mineral density of patients with osteoporosis was 0.763 times lower than that of normal subjects. The total bilirubin level of patients with osteoporosis was 0.45 times lower than that of normal subjects. The alkaline phosphatase level of patients with osteopenia was 1.059 times higher than that of normal subjects, and that in patients with osteoporosis was 1.088 times higher than that in normal subjects. The fasting blood glucose level of patients with osteoporosis was 0.963 times lower than that of normal subjects. The iron level of patients with osteoporosis was 0.986 times lower than that of normal subjects. [Conclusion] In conclusion, osteoporosis is a representative disease in elderly women due to aging and menopause, and more active interest should be taken for prevention and treatment.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the nonathletes. However, the mesomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were higher than those of the nonathletes. There was no significant difference in the ectomorphic component between the two groups. The higher weight divisions tended to have higher values of height, weight, and BMI than the lower weight divisions. The higher weight divisions also tended to have higher values for the endomorphic and mesomorphic components and a lower value for the ectomorphic component than the lower weight divisions. The group of nonathletes consisted of eight endomorphs, four mesomorphs, six ectomorphs, and five central types. Among the boxing athletes, there were 16 mesomorphic, four ectomorphic, and two central types and one endomorphic type. Subdividing the athletes into 13 somatotypes resulted in five balanced mesomorphs, five endomorphic mesomorphs, five mesomorph-ectomorphs, three mesomorph-endomorphs, two mesomorphic ectomorphs, two central types, and one ectomorphic mesomorph type. [Conclusion] The data from this study provides in part physical characteristics of elite boxing athletes that can be used to establish a reference for systemic study of sports physiotherapy.
[Purpose] This study aimed to identify the effects of the CORE exercise program on pain and active range of motion (AROM) in patients with chronic low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects with chronic low back pain were randomly allocated to two groups: the CORE group (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). The CORE group performed the CORE exercise program for 30 minutes a day, 3 times a week, for 4 weeks, while the control group did not perform any exercise. The visual analog scale (VAS) and an algometer were used to measure pain, and pain-free AROM in the trunk was measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The CORE group showed significantly decreased VAS scores at rest and during movement and had a significantly increased pressure pain threshold in the quadratus lumborum and AROM in the trunk compared with those in the control group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the CORE exercise program is effective in decreasing pain and increasing AROM in patients with chronic low back pain. Thus, the CORE exercise program can be used to manage pain and AROM in patients with chronic low back pain.
[Purpose] This study was conducted to understand the impacts of BCAA (branched-chain amino acid) and glutamine supplementation on the degree of blood fatigue factor stimulation and cytokines along with performance of exercise at the maximal intensity. [Subjects] Five male juvenile elite rowing athletes participated in this study as the subjects; they took 3 tests and received placebo supplementation (PS), BCAA supplementation (BS), and glutamine supplementation (GS). [Methods] The exercise applied in the tests was 2,000 m of rowing at the maximal intensity using an indoor rowing machine, and blood samples were collected 3 times, while resting, at the end of exercise, and after 30 min of recovery, to analyze the blood fatigue factors (lactate, phosphorous, ammonia, creatine kinase (CK)) and blood cytokines (IL (interleukin)-6, 8, 15). [Results] The results of the analysis showed that the levels of blood phosphorous in the BS and GS groups at the recovery stage were decreased significantly compared with at the end of exercise, and the level of CK appeared lower in the GS group alone at recovery stage than at the end of exercise. The level of blood IL-15 in the PS and BS groups appeared higher at the end of exercise compared with the resting stage. [Conclusion] It seemed that glutamine supplementation had a positive effect on the decrease in fatigue factor stimulation at the recovery stage after maximal intensity exercise compared with supplementation with the placebo or BCAA. Besides, pre-exercise glutamine supplementation seemed to help enhance immune function and the defensive inflammatory reaction.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the causal relationships between the psychological acceptance process of athletic injury and athletic-rehabilitation behavior. [Subjects] One hundred forty-four athletes who had injury experiences participated in this study, and 133 (mean age = 20.21 years, SD = 1.07; mean weeks without playing sports = 7.97 weeks, SD = 11.26) of them provided valid questionnaire responses which were subjected to analysis. [Methods] The subjects were asked to answer our originally designed questionnaire, the Psychosocial Recovery Factor Scale (PSRF-S), and two other pre-existing scales, the Athletic Injury Psychological Acceptance Scale and the Athletic-Rehabilitation Dedication Scale. [Results] The results of factor analysis indicate “emotional stability”, “social competence in the team”, “temporal perspective”, and “communication with the teammates” are factors of the PSRF-S. Lastly, the causal model in which psychosocial recovery factors are mediated by psychological acceptance of athletic injury, and influence on rehabilitation behaviors, was examined using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results of SEM indicate that the factors of emotional stability and temporal perspective are mediated by the psychological acceptance of the injury, which positively influences athletic-rehabilitation dedication. [Conclusion] The causal model was confirmed to be valid.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of manual therapy using joint mobilization and flexion-distraction techniques on chronic low back pain and disc heights. [Subjects] This study was conducted with 31 chronic low back pain patients who were divided into a manual therapy group (MTG; n=16) and a spinal decompression therapy group (SDTG; n=15). [Methods] The MTG was treated using joint mobilization techniques and flexion-distraction techniques, and the SDTG was treated using spinal decompression therapeutic apparatuses. Conservative physical therapy was used in both groups, and the therapy was implemented three times per week for 6 weeks. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to measure patient’s low back pain scores, and a picture archiving and communication system was used to measure disc height by comparing and analyzing the images. [Results] In comparisons of the VAS within each of the two groups, both the MTG and the SDTG showed significant decreases. In comparisons of disc height within each of the two groups, the MTG showed statistically significant increases. [Conclusion] Manual therapy using joint mobilization techniques and flexion-distraction techniques is considered an effective intervention for addressing low back pain and disc heights in patients with chronic low back pain.
[Purpose] This study investigated the primary factors behind changes in depressive symptoms among stroke patients after 8 weeks of rehabilitation (physical, occupational, and cognitive therapy). [Methods] This study was conducted using a literature review, and electronic medical records from January, 2008 to December, 2009. Data were collected for 120 subjects with chronic stroke. [Results] Cardiac disorder, left-brain lesion, early-stage depression, activities of daily living, and cognitive function were significant predictors of the changes in depression in chronic stroke patients. [Conclusion] Post-stroke depression can be controlled by rehabilitation. Also, clinicians should comprehend and share the psychological and physical affliction, develop back-up programs, and make them comprehensively available to support the psychological and physical health of subjects with chronic stroke.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training for strengthening muscles across multiple joints on the dynamic balance function of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects in the training group (n=14) and the control group (n=14) received conservative physical therapy for 30 minutes per day, five days per week, for a period of six weeks. The training group additionally performed three sets (eight to 10 repetitions per set) of resistance exercise at 70% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) to strengthen muscles across multiple joints. The control group did the same exercises for the same duration but without resistance. To assess dynamic balance function, before and after the intervention, we measured antero-posterior (A-P) and medio-lateral (M-L) sway distances, the Berg balance scale (BBS), and the timed up and go (TUG) times. [Results] Compared to pre-intervention values, the BBS score showed significant increases in both groups, and A-P and M-L sway distances and TUG times showed significant decreases in both groups. Changes in A-P and M-L sway distances, BBS scores, and TUG times were significantly different between the muscle training group and the control group. [Conclusion] Training involving muscle strength across multiple joints is an effective intervention for improvement of dynamic balance function of stroke patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the activities of the abdominal muscles of women who had experienced vaginal delivery in comparison with those who had experienced Cesarean childbirth. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 14 subjects (7 vaginal delivery, 7 Cesarean section) performed an active straight leg raise to 20 cm above the ground, and we measured the activities of the internal oblique abdominal muscle, the external oblique abdominal muscle, and the rectus abdominal muscle on both sides using electromyography. The effort required to raise the leg was scored on a Likert scale. Then, the subjects conducted maximum isometric contraction for hip joint flexion with the leg raised at 20 cm, and maximum torque and abdominal muscle activities were measured using electromyography. [Results] During the active straight leg raise, abdominal muscle activities were higher in the Cesarean section subjects. The Likert scale did not show a significant difference. The activities of the abdominal muscles and the maximum torque of the hip joint flexion at maximum isometric contraction were higher in the vaginal delivery subjects. [Conclusion] The abdominal muscles of Cesarean section subjects showed greater recruitment for maintaining pelvic stability during the active straight leg raising, but were relatively weaker when powerful force was required. Therefore, we consider that more abdominal muscle training is necessary for maintaining pelvic stability of Cesarean section subjects.
[Purpose] We investigated the effect of vibration at various frequencies on serratus anterior (SA) muscle activity. [Subjects] Ten male subjects were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed the push-up plus exercise supported by straps above the surface and vertical ropes in the Redcord sling. During the push-up plus, vibrations of 0, 30, 50, or 90 Hz were applied to the Redcord sling using a mechanical vibration apparatus attached to the rope. SA muscle activity was recorded using electromyography. [Results] SA muscle activity at the 50 Hz vibration frequency was significantly higher than that of no vibration. [Conclusion] Performing the push-up plus using a Redcord sling with mechanical vibration of 50 Hz effectively increased SA muscle activity.
[Purpose] We investigated upper-extremity muscle activity during below-knee assembly work performed by healthy adults at three different reach distances evaluate the physical risk factors associated with neck and shoulder disorders of reach distances. [Subjects] Sixteen young male workers were recruited. [Methods] Activities of the right upper trapezius, anterior deltoid, and biceps brachii muscles were measured during below-knee assembly work at the three different reach distances. [Results] The normalized EMG data of the upper trapezius, anterior deltoid, and biceps brachii muscles generally increased significantly as the reach distance at which the assembly work was performed increased. [Conclusion] Below-knee workers should engage in work that involves shorter (nearer) reach distances.
[Purpose] The present study, was conducted to examine the occlusal force and physical, cognitive, and attentional functions of elderly females living in the community to evaluate the significance of measuring the occlusal force. [Subjects and Methods] The number of subjects was 104. The Occlusal Force Meter GM10 was used to measure their occlusal force. Their physical functions were assessed using eight examinations, including the 30-second Chair Stand Test, and the cognitive functions of the Mini-Mental State Examination and attention functions of the Trail Making Test. [Results] Significant correlations were noted between the occlusal force and all measurements, except for the results of forward bending in a sitting position. Multiple regression analysis was conducted with the occlusal force as an objective variable, and significant partial correlations were noted with the 30-second Chair Stand Test. [Conclusion] These results suggest that it is necessary to provide the elderly with comprehensive support focusing on maintaining their occlusal force, as a nursing care-prevention measure, to help them continue to live a healthy, independent life.
[Purpose] VO2 is expressed as the product of cardiac output and O2 extraction by the Fick equation. During the incremental exercise test and constant high-intensity exercise test, VO2 results in the attainment of maximal O2 uptake at exhaustion. However, the differences in the physiological components, cardiac output and muscle O2 extraction, have not been fully elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that constant exercise would result in higher O2 extraction than incremental exercise at exhaustion. [Subjects] Twenty-five subjects performed incremental exercise and constant exercise at 80% of their peak work rate. [Methods] Ventilatory, cardiovascular, and muscle oxygenation responses were measured using a gas analyzer, Finapres, and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively. [Results] VO2 was not significantly different between the incremental exercise and constant exercise. However, cardiac output and muscle O2 saturation were significantly lower for the constant exercise than the incremental exercise at the end of exercise. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that if both tests produce a similar VO2 value, the VO2 in incremental exercise would have a higher ratio of cardiac output than constant exercise, and VO2 in constant exercise would have a higher ratio of O2 extraction than incremental exercise at the end of exercise.
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of various dual task gait training methods (motor dual task gait training, cognitive dual task gait training, and motor and cognitive dual task gait training) on the balance and gait abilities of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-three outpatients performed dual task gait training for 30 minutes per day, three times a week, for eight weeks from June to August, 2012. Balance ability was measured pre-and posttest using the stability test index, the weight distribution index, the functional reach test, the timed up and go test, and the four square step test. Gait ability was measured by the 10 m walk test and a 6 min walk test before and after the training. The paired t-test was used to compare measurements before and after training within each group, and ANOVA was used to compare measurements before and after training among the groups. [Results] Comparisons within each group indicated significant differences in all variables between before and after the training in all three groups. Comparison between the groups showed that the greatest improvements were seen in all tests, except for the timed up and go test, following motor and cognitive dual task gait training. [Conclusion] In a real walking environment, the motor and cognitive dual task gait training was more effective at improving the balance and gait abilities of chronic stroke patients than either the motor dual task gait training or the cognitive dual task gait training alone.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of horse riding simulation training on changes in balance ability and abdominal muscle thicknesses of stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty stroke patients with hemiplegia were recruited, and they were randomly assigned to a control or experimental group. [Methods] The experimental group performed horse riding simulation training, whereas the control group performed trunk exercises for 8 weeks. Balance ability was measured using a BioRescue system. The thicknesses of subjects’ external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles were measured by ultrasonic imaging. [Results] In the experimental group, balance ability was significantly improved after training. Similarly, the thickness of the abdominal muscles on the affected side changed after training in the experimental group, whereas the control group showed no statistically significant changes. [Conclusion] We suggest that horse riding simulation training is more effective than trunk exercises at reducing the center of pressure path length and travel speed and improving the asymmetry of the abdominal muscles of stroke patients.
[Purpose] Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain is a symptom of TMJ disease. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is often used in the clinical treatment of TMJ pain. The aim of this study was to review the effective parameters of LLLT for TMJ pain. [Methods] This study was a systematic review in which electronic databases were searched for the period of January 2005 to January 2010. We selected reports of randomized controlled trials and calculated the effect size (ES) of the pain relief to evaluate the effect of LLLT. [Results] Seven reports are found to meet the inclusion criteria and discussed. Based on the calculation results, the pooled ES was –0.6, indicating a moderate effect of pain relief. In addition, the dosages and treatments with wavelengths of 780 and 830 nm can cause moderate and large pain relief effects. [Conclusion] Use of LLLT on the masticatory muscle or joint capsule for TMJ pain had a moderate analgesic effect. The optimal parameters for LLLT to treat TMJ pain have not been confirmed. However, our results can be a vital clinical reference for clinical physicians in treatment of patients with TMJ pain.
[Purpose] This study investigated effects of sling exercise for patients with chronic low back pain. [Methods] We reviewed all relevant papers indexed in PubMed, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Registered Trials. Eligible trials were randomized controlled trials that compared sling exercise with any type of treatment. We extracted data on muscle thickness, muscle activation, pain, and disability, and assessed the methodological quality of the data. Seven studies met our inclusion criteria. [Results] When sling exercise had an impact on activation of the trunk muscles, increasing the trunk muscle thickness, and the reduction in pain and disability had been assessed shortly after the final exercise session, it was more effective than general exercise at activating trunk muscles, but not more effective at increasing trunk muscle thickness and improving pain and disability than general exercise. [Conclusion] As sling therapy studies are based on a small number of trials, we cannot draw conclusions about the therapeutic effects of sling exercise. When segmental stabilizing exercise and individually designed programs are added to sling exercise, it increases the effectiveness of sling exercise at improving low back pain. This should be the focus of future studies.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was described the kinematic characteristics of gait in stroke patients with two different arteries involved. [Subjects and Methods] Two patients who had suffered a basilar (A) or middle (B) cerebral artery ischemic stroke were compared with a control (C). Seventeen inertial sensors were used with acquisition rate of 120 Hz. The participants walked 3 times on a 10 meter walkway. From the raw data, the three gait cycles from the middle of each trial were chosen and analyzed. [Results] During the stance phase, patients A and B had a lower hip angle at initial contact and maximum flexion angle during load response than the control. Patient A and the control subject had similar knee angle values at initial contact, and patient B presented a flexed position in the initial phase of the gait cycle. The maximum flexion angles during loading response were also higher for patient B. The sagittal plane excursion for the ankle joint was lower for patient B in comparison with the other subjects. [Conclusion] Differences during walking between patients who had stroke in different arteries may be related to an alternative compensatory strategy. Patient A and the control subject had similar gait cycle curves at all joints, while patient B showed a rigid synergic pattern.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tap water (drinking water) and normal saline (sodium chloride solution 0.9%) iontophoresis treatment for a patient with idiopathic hyperhidrosis [Subjects and Methods] In this study, tap water and normal saline iontophoresis were used to treat a 21 year-old female who was suffering from severe palmoplantar idiopathic hyperhidrosis. Post-iontophoresis sweat intensity of 8 treatment sessions were averaged and then normalized relative to the corresponding mean value which was obtained before iontophoresis treatment. [Results] The subject showed 24.72% and 42.01% decreases in sweat intensity following tap water and normal saline iontophoresis, respectively. [Conclusion] Tap water and normal saline iontophoresis are effective in the treatment of idiopathic hyperhidrosis. However, normal saline iontophoresis is 1.7 times more effective than tapwater iontophoresis at obstructing secretion.