[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the effects of proprioceptive training accompanied by motor imagery training and general proprioceptive training on the balance of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-six stroke patients were randomly assigned to either an experimental group of 18 patients or a control group of 18 patients. The experimental group was given motor imagery training for 5 minutes and proprioceptive training for 25 minutes, while the control group was given proprioceptive training for 30 minutes. Each session and training program was implemented 5 times a week for 8 weeks. The Korean version of the Berg Balance Scale (K-BBS), Timed Up and Go test (TUG), weight bearing ratio (AFA-50, Alfoots, Republic of Korea), and joint position sense error (Dualer IQ Inclinometer, JTECH Medical, USA) were measured. [Results] Both groups showed improvements in K-BBS, TUG, weight bearing ratio, and joint position sense error. The measures of the experimental group showed greater improvement than the control group. [Conclusion] Motor imagery training, which is not subject to time restrictions, is not very risky and can be used as an effective treatment method for improving the balance ability of stroke patients.
[Purpose] This study was performed to determine which set of below-knee working conditions minimizes upper extremity muscle activity and which of upward- or downward-direction workstations poses the greater risk of upper extremity disorder. [Subjects] The study population consisted of 15 young male workers. [Methods] EMG activities of the right anterior deltoid, biceps brachii, and lower trapezius muscles were measured in two below-knee assembly workstation positions. [Results] The anterior deltoid and biceps brachii muscle activities of Position 1 were significantly higher than those of Position 2. The lower trapezius muscle activity of Position 2 was significantly higher than that of Position 1. [Conclusion] Upward-direction workstations appear to pose a greater risk of upper extremity disorder than downward-direction workstations in below-knee assembly work.
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of ramp slope (1:12, 1:10, 1:8, and 1:6) on physiological characteristics and performance times of wheelchair users and the performance times of caregivers to determine which slope would be the best for wheelchairs, in order to propose a ramp slope that incorporates a universal design. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Fifteen of these subjects also volunteered to participate as caregivers. A wooden ramp with an adjustable slope was constructed. As manual wheelchair users, the participants performed propulsion of a wheelchair up the ramp at a self-selected pace. Four ramp slopes (1:12, 1:10, 1:8, and 1:6) were used, and the participants sequentially ascended them in order from the gentlest to the steepest slope. The caregivers also pushed a wheelchair up the ramp at a self-selected pace. The blood pressure and pulse of participants after the ascent, as well as the performance times of the caregivers and manual wheelchair users, were measured on each of the different ramp slopes. The measured data, pulse, blood pressure, and performance time, were analyzed using repeated ANOVA. [Results] Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher after ascending the 1:6 slope than after ascending the 1:12 and 1:8 slopes. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher after ascending the 1:6 slope than after ascending the 1:12 and 1:8 slopes. The participants’ pulses tended to increase significantly with an increase in slope. An assessment of the propulsion performance times revealed significant differences among the slopes. [Conclusion] Considering the results of the wheelchair users and caregivers, the 1:12 and 1:10 slopes are suitable ramp slopes for wheelchairs.
[Purpose] This study was performed to examine the immediate effects of spinal mobilization with arm movements (SMWAMs) for strengthening the shoulder muscles. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 12 healthy male students who were studying at S University, Busan City. They had no musculoskeletal disease, or upper congenital malformation, and had no history of surgery or neurological disease. [Methods] The SMWAMs were performed on the 4th cervical vertebra (C4). For stimulation of the 5th cervical nerve, the spinous process of the C4 was pushed to the left and held in place. Then the arm was abducted to the point where spinous process was felt, and the range of abduction was examined. Subsequently, the abduction movement was repeated 10 times to the same point, and the gliding of C4 was held until the arm returned to the starting position. During the treatment, the head and the trunk were held in the correct posture. [Results] After SMWAMs had been performed, the muscular strength of shoulder flexion, extension and adduction significantly increased. [Conclusion] In our opinion, the SMWAMs are a very useful method for correcting spinal malalignment, and for stimulating the joint mechanoreceptors without the risks of manipulation. SMWAM is a valuable therapy method that can complement the demerits of mobilization.
[Purpose] Smartphone use reportedly changes posture. However, how neck posture is altered in smartphone users with neck pain is unknown. This study examined changes in the posture of young adults with and without mild neck pain (MNP) when using a smartphone. [Subjects] Thirteen control subjects and 14 subjects with MNP who used smartphones were recruited. [Methods] The upper cervical (UC) and lower cervical (LC) angles in the sagittal plane were measured using an ultrasound-based motion analysis system while the seated subjects used a smartphone for 5 min. [Results] During smartphone use, the MNP group exhibited greater UC and LC flexion angles than the control group. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that young adults with MNP are more careful and more frequently utilize a neutral neck posture than young adults without MNP when using a smartphone while sitting.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in pulmonary function and pulmonary strength according to time of day. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 healthy adults who had no cardiopulmonary-related diseases. Pulmonary function and pulmonary strength tests were performed on the same subjects at 9:00 am, 1:00 pm, and 5:00 pm. The pulmonary function tests included forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25–75%). Pulmonary strength tests assessed maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP). [Results] FEV1 showed statistically significant differences according to time of day. Other pulmonary function and pulmonary strength tests revealed no statistical differences in diurnal variations. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that pulmonary function and pulmonary strength tests should be assessed considering the time of day and the morning dip phenomenon.
[Purpose] To investigate the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on pain in patients with spinal cord injury. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-two spinal cord injury patients with central pain were randomly allocated into two groups TENS and control with 26 subjects per group. The patients in TENS and control groups were treated with TENS and sham TENS for 20 min (three times a week) for 12 consecutive weeks, respectively. The two group’s pain was assessed using visual analog scale (VAS) and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (including pain rating index-total, pain rating index-affective, pain rating index-sensory, present pain intensity, and number of words chosen) before and after the treatment. [Results] After the intervention, we found significant differences in VAS, pain rating index-total, pain rating index-affective, pain rating index-sensory, present pain intensity, and number of words chosen between the TENS group and the control group. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that TENS effectively decreases pain in patients with spinal cord injury.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effects of whirlpool bath and neuromuscular electrical stimulation on complex regional pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty outpatients (30 per group) with complex regional pain syndrome participated. They received 15 treatment 5 days per week for 3 weeks. The outcome measures were the visual analogue scale for pain, edema, range of motion of the wrist (flexion and extension), fingertip-to-distal palmar crease distance, hand grip strength, and pinch strength. All parameters were measured at baseline (week 0) and at the trial end (week 3). [Results] There were significant improvements in all parameters after therapy in both groups. The whirlpool bath group showed significantly better improvements in the visual analogue score, hand edema, hand grip strength, wrist range of motion (both flexion and extension), fingertip-to-distal palmar crease distance, and the three-point and fingertip pinch strengths than the neuromuscular electrical stimulation group; however, the lateral pinch strengths were similar. [Conclusion] Both whirlpool bath and neuromuscular electrical stimulation are effective in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome, but the efficacy of the whirlpool bath treatment was better.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n1 = 10) or a control group (n2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition data (abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage). [Results] Significant main effects of time in the waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage were found. Significant time-by-group interactions were found for waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage. [Conclusion] The use of the high-frequency current therapy may be beneficial for reducing the levels of abdominal obesity in young women.
[Purpose] We developed a new arm sling with an elastic bandage which we hearafter refer to as “the elastic arm sling”. This study investigated the immediate effects of the elastic arm sling on the gait patterns of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen stroke patients were enrolled in this study after providing their informed consent. They walked on a GAITRite mat twice, with a 5-min rest between the trials. [Results] Significant improvements were seen in cadence and walking velocity during walking while wearing the elastic arm sling. Furthermore, patients who used the elastic arm sling showed significant increases in step lengths of the affected and unaffected limbs. The stride lengths of the affected and unaffected sides while wearing the elastic arm sling and those without the elastic arm sling also significantly differed. [Conclusion] These results demonstrate that the elastic arm sling is a useful tool for the gait training of stroke patients, especially cadence, walking velocity, and the step and stride lengths of both limbs. Therefore, therapists should use the elastic arm sling as a gait-training assistive device for stroke patients.
[Purpose] This study investigated the changes in the slope of EMG-time curves (relationship) at the maximal and different levels of dynamic (eccentric and concentric) and static (isometric) contractions. [Subjects and Methods] The subject was a 17 year-old male adolescent. The surface EMG signal of the dominant arm’s biceps brachii (BB) was recorded through electrodes placed on the muscle belly. [Results] The results obtained during the contractions show that the regression slope was very close to 1.00 during concentric contraction, whereas those of eccentric and isometric contractions were lower. Significant differences were found for the EMG amplitude and time lags among the contractions. [Conclusion] The results show that the EMG signal of the BB varies among the three modes of contraction and the relationship of the EMG amplitude with a time lag gives the best fit during concentric contraction.
[Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13 years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50 kg/m2) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30 min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.
[Purpose] The present study sought to investigate the influence on static and dynamic lumbar stability of bridge exercise accompanied by an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) performed on an uneven support surface. [Subjects] A total of 30 participants were divided into an experimental group (15 participants) and a control group (15 participants). [Methods] The experimental group performed bridge exercise on an unstable surface, whereas the control group performed bridge exercise on a stable surface. The respective bridge exercises were performed for 30 minutes, 3 times per week, for 6 weeks. The static lumbar stability (SLS) and dynamic lumbar stability (DLS) of both the experimental group and the control group were measured using a pressure biofeedback unit. [Results] In the comparison of the initial and final results of the experimental and control groups, only the SLS and DLS of the experimental group were found to be statistically significant. [Conclusion] The results of the present study show that when using bridge exercise to improve SLS and DLS, performing the bridge exercise accompanied by ADIM on an uneven surface is more effective than performing the exercise on a stable surface.
[Purpose] To verify the effects of different intensities of aerobic exercise on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) responses in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and prehypertension. [Subjects and Methods] Ten individuals with T2D and prehypertension (55.8 ± 7.7 years old; blood glucose 133.0 ± 36.7 mg·dL−1 and awake BP 130.6 ± 1.6/ 80.5 ± 1.8 mmHg) completed three randomly assigned experiments: non-exercise control (CON) and exercise at moderate (MOD) and maximal (MAX) intensities. Heart rate (HR), BP, blood lactate concentrations ([Lac]), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at rest, during the experimental sessions, and during the 60 min recovery period. After this period, ambulatory blood pressure was monitored for 24 h. [Results] The results indicate that [Lac] (MAX: 6.7±2.0 vs. MOD: 3.8±1.2 mM), RPE (MAX: 19±1.3 vs. MOD: 11±2.3) and VO2peak (MAX: 20.2±4.1 vs. MOD: 14.0±3.0 mL·kg−1·min−1) were highest following the MAX session. Compared with CON, only MAX elicited post-exercise BP reduction that lasted for 8 h after exercise and during sleep. [Conclusion] A single session of aerobic exercise resulted in 24 h BP reductions in individuals with T2D, especially while sleeping, and this reduction seems to be dependent on the intensity of the exercise performed.
[Purpose] This study showed the effects of different computer typing speeds on acceleration and peak contact pressure of the fingertips during computer typing. [Subjects] Twenty-one male computer workers voluntarily consented to participate in this study. They consisted of 7 workers who could type 200–300 characteristics/minute, 7 workers who could type 300–400 characteristics/minute, and 7 workers who could type 400–500 chracteristics/minute. [Methods] This study was used to measure the acceleration and peak contact pressure of the fingertips for different typing speed groups using an accelerometer and CONFORMat system. [Results] The fingertip contact pressure was increased in the high typing speed group compared with the low and medium typing speed groups. The fingertip acceleration was increased in the high typing speed group compared with the low and medium typing speed groups. [Conclusion] The results of the present study indicate that a fast typing speed cause continuous pressure stress to be applied to the fingers, thereby creating pain in the fingers.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of yoga training on static and dynamic standing balance in obese individuals with poor standing balance. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen obese volunteers were randomly assigned into yoga and control groups. The yoga training program was performed for 45 minutes per day, 3 times per week, for 4 weeks. Static and dynamic balance were assessed in volunteers with one leg standing and functional reach tests. Outcome measures were tested before training and after a single week of training. Two-way repeated measure analysis of variance with Tukey’s honestly significant difference post hoc statistics was used to analyze the data. [Results] Obese individuals showed significantly increased static standing balance in the yoga training group, but there was no significant improvement of static or dynamic standing balance in the control group after 4 weeks. In the yoga group, significant increases in static standing balance was found after the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks. Compared with the control group, static standing balance in the yoga group was significantly different after the 2nd week, and dynamic standing balance was significantly different after the 4th week. [Conclusion] Yoga training would be beneficial for improving standing balance in obese individuals with poor standing balance.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a bridge exercise with vibration training and an unstable base of support on lumbar stabilization. [Subjects] This study assigned healthy adults in their 20s to a bridge exercise with a sling and vibration group (BESV, n=20) and a bridge exercise with a sling group (BESG, n=20). [Methods] Electromyography was used to comparatively analyze the activity of the internal obliques (IO), external obliques (EO), and rectus abdominis (RA) when local vibration was applied during a bridge exercise that used a sling as an unstable base of support. [Results] There were statistically significant increases in the activity of the IO and EO within each group after the intervention. The activity of the IO and the EO was significantly higher in the BESV group than in the BES group after the intervention. [Conclusion] The bridge exercise performed using vibration training on an unstable base of support increased the activity of the IO and the EO, which improved lumbar stabilization.
[Purpose] This study researched the effects of different types of high heels on the muscles surrounding the cervical spine, the thoracic spine, and the lumbar spine by analyzing muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles during standing while wearing high heels. The high heels were all of the same height: 8 cm. [Subjects and Methods] The 28 subjects in this experiment were females in their 20s with a foot size of 225–230 mm and a normal gait pattern. To measure the muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles, EMG electrodes were attached on the paraspinal muscles around C6, T7, and L5. The muscle activation during standing while wearing 8-cm-high wedge heels, setback heels, and French heels was then measured. The measurements were performed 3 times each, and the mean value was used for analysis. [Results] The levels of muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles induced by standing on wedge heels, setback heels, and French heels in the cervical and lumbar areas were significantly higher than those induced by standing on bare feet. But there was no significant difference according to the heel types. [Conclusion] The height of the heels presented a greater variable than the width of the heels on the muscle activation of paraspinal muscles. Therefore, wearing high heels is not recommended for those who have pain or functional problems in the cervical and/or lumbar spine.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of an unstable support surface (USS) on the activities of trunk and lower extremity muscles during pulley-based shoulder exercise (PBSE). [Subjects] Twenty healthy college students were included in this study. [Methods] Surface EMG was carried out in twenty healthy adult men. The activities of trunk and lower extremity muscles performed during PBSE using a resistance of 14 kg on a stable or unstable support surface were compared. The PBSE included shoulder abduction, adduction, flexion, extension, internal rotation, and external rotation. [Results] On the unstable surface, the rectus abdominis and erector spinae showed significantly less activation during shoulder external rotation, but the extent of activation was not significantly different during other shoulder exercises. The external oblique and rectus femoris showed no significant difference during any shoulder exercises. The tibialis anterior showed significantly greater activation during all shoulder exercises, except flexion and extension. The gastrocnemius showed significantly greater activation during shoulder abduction, extension, and internal rotation. However, during shoulder adduction, flexion, and external rotation, the gastrocnemius showed no significant difference. [Conclusion] The use of USS to increase core stability during PBSE is probably not effective owing to compensatory strategies of the ankle.
[Purpose] The effect of turn direction and relation between turn performance and walking ability in patients with hemiparetic stroke is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of turn direction on the performance of standing turns and to examine the relations between turn performance and walking ability in patients with hemiparetic stroke. [Subject and Methods] The participants were 38 outpatients with chronic hemiparesis due to stroke. Turn performance was evaluated using the time and number of steps required to complete a 360° standing turn, and was evaluated for turns toward the paretic side and the non-paretic side. Walking ability was assessed using gait speed in the 10-m walk test, the Timed Up and Go test, and the Functional Ambulation Category. [Results] Thirty-six participants were analyzed, and the time needed for turns and number of steps were similar for turns to the paretic and non-paretic sides. The time needed for turns was correlated walking ability. A turn time of 10.0 s distinguished FAC 5 (independent ambulation in the community) from FAC ≤4 with a sensitivity of 0.94 and specificity of 0.85. [Conclusion] The performance of standing turns was not affected by the turning direction and was closely correlated with walking ability.
[Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the changes in the body balance index when spiral taping is applied to the neck and ankle. The findings are expected to serve as evidence of the usefulness of taping the neck instead of the ankle when ankle taping is not feasible in clinical practice. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy male students at A university were enrolled in this study. Balance measurements were made under three conditions: no intervention, ankle intervention and neck intervention. Static balance was measured with subjects’ eyes open and closed, and dynamic balance was measured with subjects’ eyes closed. [Results] There were significant differences in dynamic balance assessed by the Overall Balance Index (OBI), and the Anteroposterior Balance Index (ABI) with subjects’ eyes open when ankle or neck taping was applied compared to no intervention. The static balance (OBI) of subjects with eyes open showed significant differences from the no intervention condition in both the ankle and neck intervention. The static balance (OBI) with subjects’ eyes closed also showed significant differences in both the ankle and neck interventions compared to the no intervention condition. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that neck taping stimulates the somatic senses around the neck and increase proprioception, resulting in balance improvement similar to that elicited by ankle taping. Further studies with larger sample sizes various experimental conditions should be performed to more systematically and objectively elucidate the effects of neck taping.
[Purpose] It is well known that vision is an important factor contributing to postural control. However, there has been little discussion about the effect of vision on sit-to-stand movement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of constrained vision on sit-to-stand movement. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three healthy subjects (11 males, 12 females) aged 18–23 years with normal body mass indices were recruited for this study. Each participant was asked to stand as quickly as possible from a height-adjustable chair 3 times under 2 conditions: with eyes closed (EC) and eyes open (EO). The weight transfer time, rising index, and center of gravity sway velocity were measured using a NeuroCom Balance Master. [Results] The results show there were significant differences between the EC and EO conditions in the weight transfer time and the centre of gravity sway velocity. No significant difference was found between the EC and EO conditions in the rising index. These findings suggest that visual perception may play a role in balance control while performing sit-to-stand movement.
[Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the effects of running in place accompanied by abdominal drawing-in on the gait characteristics of healthy adults. [Subjects] The total number of subjects was 30, and 15 were randomly placed in the training group (TG) and 15 in the control group (CG). [Methods] To determine the gait characteristics of TG and CG, step length difference (SLD), stance phase difference (STPD), swing phase difference (SWPD), single support difference (SSD), and step time difference (STD) were evaluated using OptoGait, a gait analysis system. [Results] When the pre-intervention and post-intervention results of TG and CG were compared, statistically significant differences in SLD, SWPD, SSD, and STD of TG were found. [Conclusion] Running in place accompanied by abdominal drawing-in might help reduce the deviation between left and right gait variables during walking.
[Purpose] To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of a newly developed diagnostic tool, the Amer Dizziness Diagnostic Scale (ADDS), to evaluate and differentially diagnose vestibular disorder and to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the scale and its usefulness in clinical practice. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred subjects of both genders (72 males, 128 females) aged between 18 to 60 (49.5±7.8) who had a history of vertigo and/or dizziness symptoms for this previous two weeks or less were recruited for the study. All subjects were referred by otolaryngologists, neurologists or family physicians in and around Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. On the first clinic visit, all the patients were evaluated once using the ADDS, following which they underwent routine testing of clinical signs and symptoms, audiometry, and a neurological examination, coupled with tests of Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex function, which often serves as the “gold standard” for determining the probability of a vestibular deficit. [Results] The results show that the ADDS strongly correlated with “true-positive” and “true-negative” responses for determining the probability of a vestibular disorder (r =0.95). A stepwise linear regression was conducted and the results indicate that the ADDS was a significant predictor of “true-positive” and “true-negative” responses in vestibular disorders (R2 =0.90). Approximately 90% of the variability in the vestibular gold standard test was explained by its relationship to the ADDS. Moreover, the ADDS was found to have a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 96%. [Conclusion] This study showed that the Amer Dizziness Diagnostic Scale has high sensitivity and specificity and that it can be used as a method of differential diagnosis for patients with vestibular disorders.
[Purpose] This study examined the differences in the activities of three parts of the trapezius muscle—the upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), and lower trapezius (LT)—among three different rotation conditions of the shoulders, while subjects performed prone horizontal abduction (PHA) at 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of abduction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this experimental study were 16 healthy male adults. Surface electromyography was used to collect data on the activity of each part of the trapezius. A two-way analysis of variance was used to compare the activities of each area of the trapezius—the UT, MT, and LT—among internal rotation (IR), the neutral position (NP), and external rotation (ER) of the shoulders during PHA with shoulder abduction of 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120°. [Results] Activity of the UT, MT, and LT significantly increased as the shoulder abduction angle increased during PHA. There was a significant difference only in the activity of the LT, with change in shoulder rotation. In addition, the muscle activity of the LT was highest during shoulder IR at 120°. [Conclusion] Although activity of the LT was the highest during IR at 120 abduction, PHA accompanied by ER at an abduction angle of 120° would be effective at eliciting high activity in the LT when PHA is performed. Nonetheless, at an early stage of rehabilitation, PHA accompanied by ER at low abduction angles of 30° and 60° would be desirable to elicit low activity of the UT and high activity of the LT.
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of closed chain exercises performed with local vibration applied to an unstable support surface on the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis. [Subjects] The subjects were 64 healthy university students who were randomly assigned to a bridge exercise with sling and vibration group (BESVG, n=30) and a bridge exercise with sling group (BESG, n=34). [Methods] The bridge exercise was repeated four times per set and a total of 18 sets were performed: 9 sets in a supine position and 9 sets in a prone position. In both the BESVG and the BESG groups, the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis (TrA) were measured using ultrasonography with the abdomen “drawn-in” and the pressure of a biofeedback unit maintained at 40 mmHg, both before and after the intervention. [Results] In intra-group comparisons, the BESVG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA and significant decreases in the length of the TrA. The BESG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA. The BESVG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA and significant decreases in the length of the TrA compared to BESG. [Conclusion] Closed chain exercises for the lumbar region performed with local vibration applied to slings, which are unstable support surfaces, are an effective intervention for altering the thickness and length of the TrA.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of low-frequency electrical stimulation on fatigue recovery of the erector spinae with cumulative fatigue induced by repeated lifting and lowering work. [Subjects] Thirty-two healthy men volunteered to participate in this study and they were randomly divided into three groups: a MC group of 12 persons who underwent microcurrent, a TENS group of 10 persons who underwent Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and a control group of 10 persons who only rested. [Methods] Cumulative fatigue was induced and then, EMG, muscle tone, CK and LDH serum levels of the erector spinae were measured. Each group then underwent the assigned intervention and was re-measured. To analyze the differences in fatigue between before and after the intervention, the paired t-test was conducted, while groups were compared using analysis of covariance with a control group. [Results] The MC groups showed a significant reduction in muscle fatigue and decreased muscle tone when compared to the control group. However, no significant differences were found between the TENS and control groups. [Conclusion] These results suggest that microcurrent stimulation was effective for recovery from cumulative muscle fatigue while TENS had no effect.
[Purpose] The present study attempted to identify the effect of olfactory stimulation on the balance ability of stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty-three (33 males) stroke patients participated in the study. The stroke patients were divided into three groups: a black pepper oil (BPO) group (n=11), lavender oil (LVO) group (n=11), and distilled water (DW) group (n=11). [Methods] Two sessions (control trial/stimulus trial) of Romberg’s test (eyes open 1 min/eyes closed 1 min) were conducted on a force platform to measure the data for the COP (center of pressure). Olfactory stimulation was provided at as a stimulus. [Results] With the eyes open, a statistically significant difference was found in average anterior posterior displacement (Ymean) and average medial lateral displacement (Xmean) among the three groups when comparing the groups before and after stimulation. The comparison between the eyes open and eyes closed conditions in each group showed a significant difference in the area of the 95% confidence ellipse (area) and Xmean of the BPO group and in the area of the LVO group (area, Xmean). [Conclusion] The findings indicate that the interaction of brain areas activated by the olfactory stimulation exerts an influence on the balance ability of stroke patients.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the initial effect of local vibration on the stability of the shoulder joints by applying local vibration to the shoulder joints. [Subjects and Methods] For the test, the subjects held a FlexBar with one hand, at about 10 cm from one end, and performed the oscillation movement with the shoulder at 90° flexion and the elbow in the full-extension position in scaption; the vibration stimulus was set to 5 Hz. Then, the subjects underwent the Upper Quarter Y Balance Test to evaluate the stability of the shoulder joints. [Results] The moving distances in the left, right, and upper directions after the oscillation movement were increased significantly compared with the results before the oscillation movement. [Conclusion] A vibration stimulus is effective as an exercise method to increase the stability of the shoulder joints.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the ratio between the upper trapezius and the serratus anterior muscles during diverse shoulder abduction exercises applied with vibrations in order to determine the appropriate exercise methods for recovery of scapular muscle balance. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects voluntarily participated in this study. The subjects performed shoulder abduction at various shoulder joint abduction angles (90°, 120°, 150°, 180°) with oscillation movements. [Results] At 120°, all the subjects showed significant increases in the muscle activity of the serratus anterior muscle in comparison with the upper trapezius muscle. However, no significant difference was found at angles other than 120°. [Conclusion] To selectively strengthen the serratus anterior, applying vibration stimuli at the 120° shoulder abduction position is considered to be appropriate.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of humeral head compression taping (HHCT) on the strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with rotator cuff tendinitis were recruited. The shoulder external rotator strength was measured using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer system. A paired t-test was performed to evaluate within-group differences in the strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle. [Results] Significantly higher shoulder external rotator peak torque and peak torque per body weight were found in the HHCT condition than in the no-taping condition. [Conclusion] HHCT may effectively increase the shoulder external rotator muscle strength in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis.
[Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of motor neuron excitability by examining the soleus H-reflex in the ready position adopted immediately before making a return during badminton games. [Subjects] Sixteen individuals with (badminton group) and 16 without (control group) experience of playing badminton were studied. [Methods] Each subject was instructed to take up various stances for returning a shuttlecock to measure the H- and M-waves in the soleus. [Results] The H-wave was significantly decreased when gripping a racket was held in the dominant hand than compared to just standing in the badminton group. In contrast, in the control group, no significant differences were observed between when standing and the other stances. [Conclusion] Based on these results, the excitability of spinal motor neurons may have been reduced (H-wave suppression) by badminton training to increase the instantaneous force (power training).
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine the difference in self-satisfaction in patients by comparing class-based task-oriented circuit training (CTCT) and individual-based task-oriented circuit training (ITCT). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 30 patients who had been diagnosed with hemiplegia due to stroke more than six month previously. They were divided into Group I (n=9) for conventional therapy, Group II (n=10) for conventional therapy and ITCT, and Group III (n=11) for conventional therapy and CTCT. In order to determine self-satisfaction as a psychological factor in patients, we used a self-esteem scale (SES), motivation of rehabilitation scale (MR), and relationship change (RCS) scale. [Results] SES, MR, and RCS, which were measured to determine self satisfaction as a psychological factor were significantly different between groups. The Bonferroni post hoc test revealed a significant difference between Group I and Group III in SES, a significant difference between Group I and Group III and Group II and Group III in MR, and a significant difference between Group I and Group III were found. [Conclusion] Based on the above results, task-oriented circuit training was more effective when performed in a class than when performed individually in terms of self-satisfaction. Based on this result, we determined that CTCT has as positive an effect on the mental aspects of stroke patients compared with ITCT.
[Purpose] The primary objective of this study was to assess the effects of a skilled reaching task on cognition, as indexed by the pattern of GAP-43 expression in the hippocampus, following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats (when the hippocampus plays a critical role in spatial memory and learning). [Subjects and Methods] The model of ICH used in the present study involved intrastriatal injection of collagenase. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 12 weeks) were randomly assigned to either a control (n = 30; CON) or skilled reaching training group (n = 30; SRT). The SRT group were trained 5 days per week for 4 weeks following ICH. Animals were sacrificed 1, 2, or 4 weeks after ICH. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate GAP-43 expression. [Results] GAP-43 expression was increased in the SRT group, in accordance with greater elapsed time, but decreased in the CON group. At 1 week post injury, there were no significant differences between the CON and SRT groups. However, there were significant differences at both 2 and 4 weeks. [Conclusion] The present findings suggest that increased GAP-43 expression in the hippocampus following skilled reaching training may result in enhanced cognition and neural plasticity following ICH.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze lower cervical spine kinematics in protracted and retracted neck flexion positions in healthy people. [Subjects and Methods] The craniovertebral angle (CVA) and intervertebral body angles of the lower cervical spine of 10 healthy individuals were analyzed using fluoroscopy in a neutral sitting with the head in the neutral (N), protracted (Pro), and retracted (Ret) positions and with the neck in full flexion with the head in the neutral (N-fx), protracted (Pro-fx), and retracted (Ret-fx) positions. [Results] There were significant differences in the CVA and intervertebral body angle at the C3–4 level, and the Ret position showed the highest values followed by the N and Pro positions. Regarding the intervertebral body angle at the C4–5 level, the Pro position showed a higher value than the N and Ret positions. At the C6–7 level, the Pro position showed the lowest value compared with the N and Ret positions. In the CVA, the Ret-fx position showed a higher value than the N-fx and Ret-fx positions. [Conclusion] The results suggest that in the neutral sitting position, protraction is an ineffective posture due to overstress of the C6–7 segment, which is placed in a hyperflexed position at this level. Instead, retraction is the recommend posture for the patient with C6–7 degeneration, which makes for a more flexed position in the upper cervical spine and a less flexed position in the lower cervical spine.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of balance training and muscle training around the ankle joints on the gait of elderly people who have experienced a fall. [Subjects] Twenty-six elderly people with a risk of falling and a Berg Balance Scale score of 37 to 50 points who had experienced a fall in the last year were randomly and equally assigned to either a balance training group or an ankle training group. The balance training group received training on a hard floor, training while maintaining balance on a cushion ball in a standing position, and training while maintaining balance on an unstable platform in a standing position; the ankle training group received training to strengthen the muscles around the ankle joints and conducted stretch exercise for the muscles around the ankle joints. [Results] There were significant changes in gait velocity, step length, and stride length in the balance training group after the intervention; there were significant changes in gait velocity, cadence, step time, cycle time, step length, and stride length in the ankle training group after the intervention. In a between-group comparison, the gait velocity of the balance training group showed a significant improvement compared with the ankle training group. [Conclusion] Both balance training and ankle joint training are effective in enhancing the gait ability of elderly people with a risk of falling; in particular, balance training is effective in improving the gait velocity of elderly people who have experienced a fall compared with ankle joint training.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dual-task gait training on foot pressure in elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty elderly people in local communities performed dual-task gait training for 20 minutes three times per week for 8 weeks. Foot pressure was measured using an F-scan System (Tekscan, South Boston, MA, USA) before the intervention and in the 4th and 8th weeks of the intervention. [Results] Foot pressure increased significantly between the 4th and 8th weeks of the intervention in the CFF (central forefoot); between before the intervention and the 4th week, between the 4th and 8th weeks, and between before the intervention and the 8th week in the MF (midfoot); and between before the intervention and the 4th and 8th weeks in the HL (heel). [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that dual-task gait training may improve the gait ability of elderly persons residing in the community.
[Purpose] In this study, we examined the effects of virtual reality dance exercise on the balance, activities of daily living and depressive disorder status of Parkinson’s disease patients. [Subjects] Twenty patients were assigned either the experimental group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). All participants received 30 minutes of neurodevelopment treatment and 15 minutes of functional electrical stimulation 5 times per week for 6 weeks. The experimental group additionally performed 30 minutes of dance exercise. Balance, activities of daily living, and depressive disorder status were assessed before and after the 6-week treatment period using the Berg balance scale, the Modified Barthel Index, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The paired t-test was used to detect differences before and after treatment, and the independent t-test was used to detect differences between the treatment groups. [Results] The values for balance, activities of daily living, and depressive disorder status significantly differed between before and after treatment in the experimental group, and significantly differed between the experimental group and control group. [Conclusion] Virtual reality dance exercise has a positive effect on balance, activities of daily living, and depressive disorder status of Parkinson’s disease patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of isometric exercises using electromyographic biofeedback (EMGBF) and ultrasound biofeedback (USBF) on maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), pain assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and vastus medialis oblique (VMO) thickness in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty females over 65 years of age who had been diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis were recruited and randomly assigned to three groups, each comprising of 10 subjects. The Subjects in the EMGBF training and USBF training groups were trained with the corresponding physical training exercise program targeting the vastus medialis oblique, whereas the subjects in the control group were treated with conventional physical therapies, such as a hot pack, ultrasound, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Subjects in each group were trained or treated for 20 min, 3 times a week for 8 weeks. [Results] The MVIC in the EMGBF and USBF training groups was significantly increased compared with that in the control group, and the VAS score (for measurement of pain) in the EMGBF and USBF training groups was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group. Only the EMGBF training group showed a significantly increased VMO thickness compared with before training. [Conclusion] These results suggest that USBF training is similar to EMGBF training in terms of its effectiveness and is helpful for treating patients with knee OA.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation of age, work experience, cognition, and work ability in older employees working in heavy industry. [Subjects and Methods] The study was conducted using 100 subjects who were over 55 years old and worked in heavy industry. To obtain data, we first had the subjects complete the MoCA-K test and Work Ability Index (WAI). The data were then analyzed by frequency and correlation using statistical software (SPSS 21.0). [Results] Through this study, we discovered a significant positive correlation between WAI and MoCA-K, age, and work experience. [Conclusion] This study revealed that work ability in older employees increases not with the number of years worked but with the enhancement of cognitive ability. Special management that focuses on cognition is therefore required for senior employees working in the field of heavy industry.
[Purpose] Most previous studies have shown that body weight support treadmill training (BWSTT) can improve gait speed poststroke patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of a short-term intensive program using BWSTT among community dwelling poststroke survivors. [Subjects] Eighteen subjects participated in this study. The treatment group was composed of 10 subjects (2 women; 8 men; mean age, 59.1 ± 12.5 years; time since stroke onset, 35.3 ± 33.2 months), whereas the control group was made up of 8 subjects (3 women; 5 men; mean age, 59.8 ± 6.3 years; time since stroke onset, 39.3 ± 27.3 months). [Methods] The treatment group received BWSTT 3 times a week for 4 weeks (a total of 12 times), with each session lasting 20 minutes. The main outcome measures were maximum gait speed on a flat floor, cadence, and step length. [Results] No differences were observed in the baseline clinical data between the 2 groups. The gait speed in the treatment group was significantly improved compared with that in the control by 2-way ANOVA, while the other parameters showed no significant interaction. [Conclusion] These results suggested that short-term intensive gait rehabilitation using BWSTT was useful for improving gait ability among community dwelling poststroke subjects.
[Purpose] It is important to facilitate intestinal motility in patients with reduced bowel movement through physiotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of passive exercise of the lower limbs and trunk (PELT) and combination therapies (COM) with those of conventional thermotherapy (TT) on bowel sounds (BSs) in healthy adult subjects. Since autonomic activity (AA) significantly influences intestinal motility, we also investigated the relation between intestinal motility and AA by measurement of BSs. [Subjects] The subjects were 16 healthy adult males. [Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to 3 different physiotherapies, and BSs and sympathetic nerve activity were measured before and after the physiotherapies. [Results] While BSs significantly increased following all physiotherapies, the temporal changes in BSs were different among the physiotherapies. AA measurement showed that PELT and TT significantly decreased the heart rate. While the high-frequency (HF) component was increased in all physiotherapy groups, the increases in HF did not reach statistical significance. There were no significant correlations between BSs and AA. [Conclusion] We found that all of the tested physiotherapies increased BSs, suggesting that they are clinically useful for treatment of patients with reduced intestinal motility due to limited spontaneous movement or inability to rise up from bed.
[Purpose] This study applied variable plank exercises on a stable surface consisting of a mat, on an unstable surface consisting of a dynamic cushion placed under the upper extremities and lower extremities. [Subjects] Forty-three healthy male and female subjects in their 20s voluntarily consented to participate in this study. [Methods] The subjects performed the plank exercises on the three support surfaces. Ultrasound imaging was conducted while they carried out plank exercises. [Results] The changes in the thicknesses of both the transversus abdominis and internal abdominal obliques were statistically more significant for LEDCP than for MatP. In addition, the changes in the thickness of the transversus abdominis were statistically more significant for LEDCP than for UEDCP. [Conclusion] Therefore, applying an unstable condition to the lower limbs using a dynamic cushion is considered more effective during plank exercises.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise using a rehabilitational sliding machine and conventional neurological physical therapy on the balance of stroke patients. [Subjects] Forty patients with hemiplegia resulting from stroke were divided into a rehabilitational sliding machine exercise group (ST group, n=20) and a conventional neurological physiotherapy group (C group, n=20). [Methods] The STG underwent training with a rehabilitation sliding machine for 30 minutes per day, five times per week for eight weeks. The CG underwent training with a conventional neurological physiotherapy for 30 minutes per day, five times per week for eight weeks. [Results] The balance ability of both groups significantly improved. Although there were significant differences between the groups, the CG showed weight bearing on the affected side, an anterior range within the stability limits standing, and a posterior range within the stability limits standing. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that conventional neurological physiotherapy is a more dedicated, effective intervention than rehabilitational sliding training methods.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of lumbar stabilization on pressure distribution in old women. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 14 women aged 65 or older who agreed to participate in this study. They had a sufficient range of motion and muscle strength to perform the postures in this study’s program and were without gait problems, congenital deformity, orthopedic disorder, or neurological disorder. [Methods] The participants performed a group exercise program that promotes lumbar stabilization for 50 minutes per session by following the instructions of a physical therapist. Gait Analyzer was used to measure the foot pressure of individual participants from three measurements for each lumbar stabilization exercise, and the mean values were used. The mean values were then compared between before and after the exercises by paired t-test. [Results] Pressure in F3 and F6 statistically significantly decreased from 2.06±1.23% N/cm2 to 1.55±1.02% N/cm2 and from 7.40±1.52% N/cm2 to 5.95±1.76% N/cm2, respectively, after the intervention, but no significant differences were found in the other foot areas. [Conclusion] The lumbar stabilization exercises affected the pressure evenly over the entire foot and, in particular, in the inner area of the forefoot.
[Purpose] Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder resulting from a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. A consequence of this is chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. We investigated whether there is any difference among DM patients and a control group in terms of lumbar and femur BMD (bone mineral density), and standard deviation scores (Z score and T score). [Subjects and Methods] This randomized, prospective, controlled, single-blind study was conducted in the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department Faculty of Medicine, Bezm-i Alem Vakıf University. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included in the patient groups. Healthy individuals were included in the control group. [Results] A total of 126 patients completed the study (63 in the study group, 63 in the control group). There was no significant difference in the results of the laboratory examinations of the cases. The bone mineral densities of the cases were found to be significantly low in terms of the lumbar (L1–4) T scores in the type 2 diabetes group. [Conclusion] Although osteoporosis is one of the potential complications of type 1 diabetes, its effect on bone mineral density in type 2 DM is controversial. In different studies, the bone mineral density values have increased, decreased or remained normal. With the exception of the lumbar (L1–4) T score, similar results were obtained in this study.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to describe the importance of patient-related factors in rehabilitation. We focused on the type A behavior pattern. If individuals with the type A behavior pattern have better compliance, they would have a shorter length of hospital stay than those with non-type A behavior. We compared the length of stay of patients with the type A behavior pattern with that of patients with a non-type A behavior pattern. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-seven patients staying in a comprehensive rehabilitation unit participated in this study. Type A behavior pattern, length of stay, and Barthel Index were assessed. We use the Student’s t-test to examine the statistical differences in length of stay and Barthel Index at discharge between subjects with type A behavior and those without type A behavior. [Results] Age and Barthel Index at discharge were not significantly different between the two groups. However, length of stay was significantly higher in the non-type A group compared with the type A group. [Conclusion] Patients with the type A behavior pattern had a shorter length of hospital stay than patients with a non-type A behavior pattern. In conclusion, our results suggest that the type A behavior pattern shortens the length of hospital stay. Those data show that we should consider the patient’s characteristics in rehabilitation to protect the patient and for financial benefit.
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine differences in gait abilities by comparing class-based task-oriented circuit training (CTCT) and individual-based task-oriented circuit training (ITCT). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 30 patients who were diagnosed with hemiplegia due to stroke more than six months previously. They were divided into Group I (n=10), which received conventional physiotherapy, Group II (n=10), which received conventional physiotherapy and ITCT, and Group III (n=10), which received conventional physiotherapy and CTCT. To determine the qualitative aspect of gait ability, a GAITRite (CIR Systems Inc., Sparta NJ, USA) was employed, while a two-minute walking test (2MWT) was conducted to determine the quantitative aspect. [Results] The gait ability showed significant differences in velocity, cadence, and 2MWT between groups in the significance test. As a result, the Bonferroni post test showed that gait velocity was significantly different between Groups I and II and between Groups I and III, while cadence showed a significant difference between Groups I and III. In the 2MWT, Groups I and II and Groups I and III also showed significant differences. [Conclusion] Both the individual and class applications task-oriented circuit training were effective for improving gait ability. This result indicates that CTCT can improve the physical ability of stroke patients as much as ITCT.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the structural deformity of the foot joint on the affected side in hemiplegic patients to examine factors that affect this kind of structural deformity. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one hemiplegic patients and 32 normal adults participated. The foot posture index (FPI) was used to examine the shape of the foot, the modified Ashworth scale test was used to examine the degree of ankle joint rigidity, the navicular drop test was used to investigate the degree of navicular change, and the resting calcaneal stance position test was used to identify location change of the heel bone. [Results] The FPIs of the paretic side of the hemiplegic patients, the non-paretic side of the hemiplegic patients, and normal participants were −0.25 ± 2.1, 1.74 ± 2.3, and 2.12 ± 3.4 respectively. [Conclusion] Our findings indicated that in stroke-related hemiplegic patients, the more severe the spasticity, the more supinated the foot. Further, the smaller the degree of change in the navicular height of hemiplegic patients is, the more supinated the paretic side foot is. Additionally, a greater change in the location of the calcaneus was associated with greater supination of the overall foot.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to research the effect of performing the suboccipital muscle inhibition (SMI) and self-myofascial release (SMFR) techniques in the suboccipital area on the flexibility of the hamstring. [Subjects] Fifty persons with short hamstrings participated in this research. According to the results of the finger-floor distance (FFD) test, the subjects were allocated to SMI and SMFR groups of 25 subjects each. [Methods] The SMI and SMFR techniques were applied to the groups. For the analysis, we used the FFD test and the straight leg raise (SLR) test for the flexibility of hamstring. The evaluator was blindfolded. [Results] In the SMI group, FFD, SLR, and PA were significantly changed after the intervention, and in the SMFR group, there was a significant change in SLR after the intervention. In a comparison between the groups, FED was found to be significantly increased in the SMI group. [Conclusion] Application of the SMI and SMFR to persons with short hamstrings resulted in immediate increases in flexibility of the hamstring. However, we could see that the SMI technique was more effective.