[Purpose] This study examined the changes in the thickness of the deep cervical flexor according to the contraction intensity of the masticatory muscle during deep cervical flexor training. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy adults were randomly selected and the thicknesses of their longus colli and sternocleidomastoid were measured with ultrasound when the masticatory muscle contracted during deep cervical flexor training. [Results] The thickness of the longus colli tended to increase in proportion to the contraction intensity of the masticatory muscle, with a significant difference. However, the thickness of the sternocleidomastoid did not significantly differ with the contraction intensity of the masticatory muscle. [Conclusion] During deep cervical flexor training, when co-contraction of the masticatory muscle occures, changes in the thickness of the longus colli may be selectively increased. Deep cervical flexor training was most effective during contractions of a submaximal intensity.
[Purpose] This research was conducted to investigate the effects of modified trampoline training on the balance, gait, and falls efficacy of stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-four stroke patients participated in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated to one of two groups: the trampoline group (n=12) or the control group (n=12). [Methods] Both groups participated in conventional physical therapy for thirty minutes per day, three times a week for six weeks. The trampoline group also took part in trampoline training for thirty minutes per day, three times a week for six weeks. We evaluated balance (Berg balance scale, timed up and go test), gait (dynamic gait index), and falls efficacy (falls efficacy scale-K) to confirm the effects of the intervention. [Results] Both the trampoline and the control group showed significant improvements in balance, gait, and falls efficacy compared to before the intervention, and the improvements were significantly greater in the trampoline group than in the control group. [Conclusion] Modified trampoline training resulted in significantly improved balance, dynamic gait, and falls efficacy of stroke patients compared to the control group. These results suggest that modified trampoline training is feasible and effective at improving balance, dynamic gait, and falls efficacy after stroke.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of Kinesio Taping (KT) on the swallowing function of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two stroke patients were randomly assigned to two groups; an experimental group which received KT, and a control group which received no taping intervention. Two-dimensional kinematic analysis was used to determine the displacement of the hyoid bone and the angular variation of the epiglottis using human anatomy-based coordinates. The functional dysphagia scale (FDS) was determined by a videofluoroscopic study (VFSS). [Results] The experimental group presented statistically significant improvements in kinematic changes of the vertical excursion of the hyoid bone and epiglottal rotation. [Conclusion] Clinical use of KT for dysphagia patients should be considered as a treatment approach. In future research, more subjects and more diverse patterns should be studied to accumulate further evidence.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dynamic sitting exercises during prolonged sitting on the lower back mobility of sedentary young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-one subjects aged between 18–25 years participated in this study. Following a randomized crossover study design, subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: sitting only and dynamic sitting exercise. The dynamic sitting exercise was a combination of lower back hyperextension and abdominal drawing-in movements which were repeated 6 times in a 1-minute period and performed every 20 minutes during a 2-hour sitting session. Lumbar range of movement was measured with the modified-modified Schober test, and the pain intensity was evaluated using the visual analog scale. [Results] After the experiment, the lumbar range of movement was significantly impaired in the sitting only group; however, it was significantly improved in the dynamic sitting exercise group. There were significant differences in lumbar range of movement of both flexion and extension between the groups. No significant difference in pain intensity between the groups was found. [Conclusion] These results suggest that dynamic sitting exercises during prolonged sitting can prevent decreases in lumbar range of movement in both back flexion and extension following a 2-hour sitting period.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in body stability of the elderly while walking on even surface ground under low light. [Subjects] Ten young males and ten elderly males participated in this experiment. [Methods] Each subject walked along a 7 m walkway five times at their preferred walking speed under normal (>300 lux, NORM) and low light conditions (<5 lux, LOW). To compare the changes in body stability, the root mean square of acceleration (RMSacc) at the head and pelvis was used. [Results] The results show that the body stability of young adults showed a similar RMSacc in all directions at the head and pelvis between the normal and low light walking conditions. In contrast, the RMSacc in all directions at the head and pelvis during low light walking by elderly adults was significantly greater than that of normal light walking. [Conclusion] It was confirmed that, despite walking on even ground, low light condition affects the body stability of the elderly. To clearly evaluate the effect of low light with aging on gait pattern, further study will be necessary to perform additional experiments under various environmental conditions to investigate walking speed, multi-tasking, stairs, and uneven walkway performance.
[Purpose] This study aims to provide information on safe walker-aided walking by analyzing elderly subjects’ walking with a walker pocket of different weights attached at different locations. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty elderly right-handed males participated in the study, and a walking analyzer was used to examine their walking with a pocket attached to the left, center, and right side of the walker. The weight of the pocket was set at three levels relative to the average weight of the subject group: 0% (without pocket), 2.5% (2 kg), and 5.5% (4 kg). [Results] In terms of the pocket location, step width was the narrowest when the pocket was attached to the right side, while the other elements of walking did not change. In terms of the pocket weight, all elements of walking showed changes. A heavier pocket led to a shorter step length and stride, a greater step width, and longer time. [Conclusion] When elderly people use a pocket-attached walker, the pocket is recommended to be attached to the right side of the walker, and its weight should be kept under 5.5% of the user’s weight to ensure safe walking.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine differences in postural sway and tolerance to exercise before and after full-body, forearm, and lower leg bathing in warm-water. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy, young adult males were subjected to full-body, forearm, and lower leg bathing at 41 °C for 10 minutes. [Results] The 2-point discrimination sense value and total trajectory length significantly decreased after bathing. [Conclusion] In summary, we found that warm-water bathing sharpens plantar sensation, and thus may help to prevent falls in the elderly. Even partial forearm and lower leg bathing increased exercise tolerance to levels similar to full-body bathing.
[Purpose] The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the long term functional effectiveness of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) after total knee arthroplasty. [Subjects and Methods] We included 30 patients and they were randomly assigned to two groups. In addition to the standard rehabilitation program the PNF group received proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation therapy and the CPM group received continuous passive motion therapy. The outcome measures included range of motion using a goniometer, pain scores using a numeric pain rating scale, days to reach functional benchmarks, the Beck depression scale and isokinetic torque and isometric strength measurements. [Results] There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of baseline demographic data, clinical findings and length of stay. Days to reach range of motion benchmarks were similar in the two groups. Pain at the 8th week was slightly higher in the PNF group. With the exception of walking with a walker, days to reach functional benchmarks were statistically significantly fewer in patients of the PNF group despite similar isokinetic measurements. Administration of PNF resulted in earlier functional gains in patients after total knee arthroplasty. These functional accomplishments were more pronounced in the PNF group despite it having isokinetic torque measurements similar to those of the CPM group. [Conclusion] PNF techniques can positively affect functional outcomes over the long term.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a training program using the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus on the ankle muscle strengths of subjects with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted using subjects in their 20s who had functional ankle instability. They were randomized to a strengthening training group and a balance training group with 10 subjects in each, and they performed an exercise using Nintendo Wii Fit Plus for 20 minutes. In addition, every participant completed preparation and finishing exercises for 5 minutes, respectively. [Results] The muscle strengths after conducting plantar flexion and dorsiflexion significantly increased at the angular velocities of 60° and 120° in the strengthening training group. Furthermore, the muscle strengths after conducting plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, eversion, and inversion significantly increased at the angular velocities of 60° and 120° in the balance training group. [Conclusion] The balance training group using Nintendo Wii Fit Plus showed better results than the strengthening training group. Consequently, it is recommended to add the balance training program of the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus to conventional exercise programs to improve ankle muscle strength in functional ankle instability at a low cost.
[Purpose] It has been well-established that exercise-induced muscle damage occurs following intense exercise. Massage is commonly used to manage muscle damage resulting from exercise. However the effect of massage after exercise is still not clear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of manual lymph drainage on muscle damage and on the removal of blood lactate following submaximal exercise (SE), as part of a solution to the challenging problem in sports medicine of muscular recovery after exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen healthy male students, with moderate exercise training, were randomly assigned to either receive manual lymph drainage (MLD) or serve as controls. Both groups were subjected to a graded exercise test, performed on a treadmill ergometer, to determine each subject’s individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Seven days later, all subjects were made to run for 30 minutes on the same treadmill ergometer, at a running speed equivalent to the IAT. One group received MLD treatment, while the control subjects received no treatment. [Results] Following an increase immediately after exercise, lactic acid (LA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) serum levels dropped rapidly and significantly at the end of MLD application and two hours after SE in the subjects receiving MLD. The course of creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin levels was comparable, and with myoglobin showing a significant difference at 2 h after SE, and CK at 24 h after SE. [Conclusion] Manual lymph drainage after SE correlated with a more rapid fall in LA and of the muscular enzymes of LDH, CK and myoglobin, and may have resulted in an improvement in the regenerative processes elicted by structural damage to the muscle cells.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact on the shoulder joints of performing inelastic taping and bed physical therapy for acute stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The intervention was conducted for eight weeks with an experimental group of 18 stroke patients who received bed physical therapy and inelastic taping and a control group of 18 stroke patients who received only bed physical therapy. [Results] After the intervention, the subluxation degree of the experimental group, which received bed physical therapy and inelastic taping, was found to be significantly different from that of the control group, which received only bed physical therapy. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the application of inelastic taping for acute stroke patients was confirmed to be effective at reducing shoulder subluxation and pain, and was confirmed to be a good physical therapy intervention, based on its efficacy.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine changes in vagal tone during passive exercise while supine. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy males lay supine for 5 min and then performed passive cycling for 10 min using a passive cycling machine. The lower legs moved through a range of motion defined by 90° and 180° knee joint angles at 60 rpm. Respiratory rates were maintained at 0.25 Hz to elicit respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Heart rate variability was analyzed using the time domain analysis, as the root mean squared standard differences between adjacent R-R intervals (rMSSD), and spectrum domain analysis of the high frequency (HF) component. [Results] Compared to rest, passive cycling decreased rMSSD (rest, 66.6 ± 92.6 ms; passive exercise, 53.5 ± 32.5 ms). However, no significant changes in HR or HF were observed (rest, 68.2 ± 6.9 bpm, 65.6 ± 12.0 n.u.; passive exercise, 70.2 ± 7.2 bpm, 67.9 ± 10.0 n.u.). [Conclusion] These results suggest that passive exercise decreases rMMSD through supine-stimulated mechanoreceptors with no effect on HR or HF. Therefore, rMSSD is not affected by hydrostatic pressure during passive cycling in the supine position.
[Purpose] Force production during a squat action on a rotational resistance device (RRD) under stable and unstable conditions. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one healthy males were asked to perform six sets of six repetitions of squats on an RRD on either stable or unstable surfaces. The stable and unstable sets were performed on different days. Muscular outputs were obtained from a linear encoder and a strain gauge fixed to a vest. [Results] Overall, the results showed no significant differences for any of the dependent variables across exercise modes. Forcemean outputs were higher in the concentric phase than in the eccentric phase for each condition, but there were no differences in velocity, time or displacement. The forcepeak was similar in the eccentric and concentric phases of movement under both stable and unstable conditions. There were no significant differences in forcemean between sets per condition or between conditions. [Conclusion] These results suggest that performing squats with a RRD achieves similar forcemean and forcepeak under stable and unstable conditions. The forcepeak produced is also similar in concentric and eccentric phases.
[Purpose] To investigate whether transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) mitigates the spasticity of hemiplegic stroke patients, as assessed by electrophysiological variables, and the effects, if any, on the clinical appearance of spasticity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven subjects who had acute hemiplegia and 24 healthy people as the control group, were enrolled in this study. Some of the acute cerebrovascular disease patients could walk. Subjects who did not have spasticity, who were taking antispasticity medicine, or had a previous episode of cerebrovascular disease were excluded. The walking speed of the patients was recorded before and after TENS. EMG examinations were performed on the healthy controls and in the affected side of the patients. A 30-minute single session of TENS was applied to lower extremity. At 10 minutes after TENS, the EMG examinations were repeated. [Results] A statistically significant decrease in the spasticity variables, and increased walking speed were found post-TENS. The lower M amplitude and higher H reflex amplitude, H/M maximum amplitude ratio, H slope, and H slope/M slope ratio on the spastic side were found to be statistically significant. [Conclusion] TENS application for hemiplegic patients with spastic lower extremities due to cerebrovascular disease resulted in marked improvement in clinical scales of spasticity and significant changes in the electrophysiological variables.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mechanical massage via Endermologie® after total knee arthroplasty in reducing edema and pain and improving knee range of motion, in the early postoperative period. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen patients with knee edema following total knee arthroplasty were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n=8) or the control group (n=10). The intervention group received mechanical massage therapy using Endermologie® and the control group received conventional physical therapy for 20 minutes a day, 5 times a week from the seventh day postsurgery. Clinical assessments included active knee flexion and extension range of motion, knee pain using a numeric rating scale, the operated limb circumference, the soft tissue cross-sectional area using ultrasonography, the extracelluar fluid volume, and single frequency bioimpedance analysis at 5 kHz using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. [Results] Both groups showed significant reduction in edema and pain, and improvement in active knee flexion at the end of treatment. There were no significant inter-group differences before or after treatment. [Conclusion] Mechanical massage could be an alternative way of managing knee edema after total knee arthroplasty in early postoperative recovery.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy, speed and subjective ease of imitation of movement using three different imitation models. [Subjects] Thirty-four right-handed healthy males participated in this study. [Methods] The imitation task chosen for this study was an asymmetric combined motion of the upper and lower limbs. Three kinds of imitation models were displayed on a screen as follows: a) third person perspective mirror imitation (3PM), b) third person perspective anatomical imitation (3PA), and c) first person perspective ipsilateral imitation (1PI). Subjects were instructed to imitate the movement shown on a screen as quickly and as accurately as possible. They executed four sets of the movement with each set consisting of one trial of each of the three imitation models. [Results] 3PM was the most accurate, and 1PI was the fastest in speed and subjective ease of imitation, compared with the other two imitation models. [Conclusion] These results suggest that 1PI and 3PM, which do not require mental rotation of the movement task as required by 3PA, should be considered more suitable imitation models for teaching healthy subjects how to move.
[Purpose] This study examined the impact of low-intensity laser therapy on wound healing and pain control using a rat cutaneous wound model. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (between 220−240 g, 7 weeks) were used in this study. The rats were anesthetized and a circular fragment of skin was removed from the dorsal region of the back by a punch with an 8-mm diameter. The animals were randomly divided into 6 groups, Groups C 1, C 3, and C 5, control groups, received no laser treatment. Groups T 1, T 3, and T 5 received laser treatment for 20 min per day for 1, 3 and 5 days, respectively. Lumbar spine and dorsal skin were extracted and processed using western blot analysis. [Results] Periodical observation showed increases in NGF expression on the skin, and decreases in c-fos expression by the spinal cord in the treatment groups compared to the control group. [Conclusion] The present findings suggest that low-intensity laser therapy could be used as an effective therapy for wound healing and pain relief, and could be further used as a clinical approach for treating cutaneous wounds.
[Purpose] The present study investigated differences in the kinematics of the neck and activation of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle during neck rotation between subjects with and without forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight subjects participated in the study (14 with FHP, 14 without FHP). Subjects performed neck rotation in two directions, left and right. The kinematics of rotation-lateral flexion movement patterns were recorded using motion analysis. Activity in the bilateral SCM muscles was measured using surface electromyography. Differences in neck kinematics and activation of SCM between the groups were analyzed by independent t-tests. [Results] Maintaining FHP increased the rotation-lateral flexion ratio significantly in both directions. The FHP group had significantly faster onset time for lateral flexion movement in both directions during neck rotation. Regarding the electromyography of the SCM muscles during neck rotation in both directions, the activity values of subjects with FHP were greater than those of subjects without FHP for the contralateral SCM muscles. [Conclusion] FHP can induce changes in movement in the frontal plane and SCM muscle activation during neck rotation. Thus, clinicians should consider movement in the frontal plane as well as in the sagittal plane when assessing and treating patients with forward head posture.
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the quality of life (QOL) of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders and factors that affect it. [Subjects] The subjects were 27 community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders (mean age: 76.3 ± 7.4 years). Their physical and psychological conditions, QOL, and other characteristics were researched. [Methods] The Japanese version of Life-Space Assessment was used to assess the subjects’ daily life activities; the Japanese version of Fall Efficacy Scale (FES), to assess their fear of falling; the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15), to assess their depression status; and the Life Satisfaction Index K (LSIK), to assess their QOL. [Results] The results indicated that the number of family members living together, degree of pain, fear of falling, and depression affect the LSIK scores of the community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders. [Conclusion] The study results suggest that the LSIK scores of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders can be improved by easing their pain, improving their physical abilities to prevent falls, and improving their mobility. The results also suggest that continuing rehabilitation treatment is required.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in dynamic balance performance of junior soccer players after progressive resistance treatment with neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF). [Subjects] The subjects were 14 healthy males who were divided into two groups, namely the NJF and control groups. The NJF group consisted of 8 subjects, and the control group consisted of 6 subjects. [Methods] The participants in the NJF group received NJF progressive resistance treatment. Dynamic balance performance was measured before and after 3 weeks of exercise. [Results] Significant improvement in dynamic balance performance was observed both in the NJF and control groups. In the NJF group, dynamic balance performance was significantly increased compared with that in the control group. [Conclusion] The NJF intervention shortened movement time, which implies that NJF is effective for dynamic balance performance.
[Purpose] Exercise is one of the most important components of a healthy life. The purpose of this study was to analyze exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in sedentary and active healthy women and observe the changes in these parameters resulting from clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-six healthy women were included in the study. Participants were divided into clinical Pilates (n=21), verbal education (n=25), and control groups (n=20). Prior to and at the end of the study, demographic information, body mass index, waist-hip circumference, exercise beliefs, physical activity index, and psychosocial factors (Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Body Cathexis Index, SF-36 quality of life, Beck Depression Scale, visual analog scale for tiredness) of the subjects were recorded. [Results] Meaningful changes for all the parameters took place in the clinical Pilates and verbal education groups. Our analyses indicated that the changes in the clinical Pilates group were more meaningful than those in the verbal education group. When the data of the study groups were compared with those of the control group, the clinical Pilates group showed meaningful differences. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicate that both clinical Pilates and verbal education are effective in changing exercise beliefs and physical and psychosocial parameters.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of resistance training on atrophied skeletal muscle in rats based on evidence derived from physical therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Rats were forced to undergo squats as resistance training for 3 weeks after atrophying the rectus femoris muscle by hindlimb suspension for 2 weeks. The intensity of resistance training was adjusted to 50% and 70% of the maximum lifted weight, i.e., 50% of the one-repetition maximum and 70% of the one-repetition maximum, respectively. [Results] Three weeks of training did not alter the one-repetition maximum, and muscle fibers were injured while measuring the one-repetition maximum and reloading. The decrease in cross-sectional area in the rectus femoris muscle induced by unloading for 2 weeks was significantly recovered after training at 70% of the one-repetition maximum. The levels of muscle RING-finger protein-1 mRNA expression were significantly lower in muscles trained at 70% of the one-repetition maximum than in untrained muscles. [Conclusion] These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training can promote atrophic muscle recovery, which provides a scientific basis for therapeutic exercise methods for treatment of atrophic muscle in physical therapy.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of superficial trunk muscle and deep trunk muscle exercise on gait. [Subjects] The subjects were 45 young adults who voluntarily consented to participate. The subjects were divided into a control group, a superficial muscle exercise group, and a deep muscle exercise group with 15 participants in each group. [Methods] Each group performed the exercises 5 times a week for 4 weeks. A Gait Analyzer was used to measure the subjects’ gait. A one-way ANOVA was conducted for analysis between each group. [Results] After 4 weeks, the values from right heel contact to foot flat, left foot flat to heel off, right foot flat to heel off, and left heel off to toe off significantly differed among the groups. [Conclusion] The superficial trunk muscle exercise improved stability, such as the period of mid stance during gait. The deep trunk muscle exercise improved mobility, such as heel contact to foot flat and heel off to toe off during gait.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of muscle activity and the number of resistance exercise repetitions on perceived exertion in tonic and phasic muscles in young Korean adults. [Subjects] Janda’s classification system was used to divide 40 Korean males and females in their 20s into a tonic muscle group (10 males, 10 females) and phasic muscle group (10 males, 10 females). [Methods] Each participant performed resistance exercise at 70% of maximum exertion for a single repetition. Muscle activity and number of repetitions were measured according to the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion scale, with fairly light, hard, and very hard rated as 11, 15, and 19, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was performed. [Results] As the number of tonic and phasic muscle repetitions for males and females and female phasic muscle activity increased, the perceived exertion increased. Perceived exertion increased as the number of tonic muscle repetitions and activity of gastrocnemius muscles in males and females and the hamstring in males increased. Increased activity of phasic muscles in males and females and rhomboid muscle activity in males was associated with significantly increased perceived exertion. [Conclusion] Muscle activity and number of repetitions affect perceived exertion. The perception of exertion differs by muscle type and can differ by gender. The influence of the number of repetitions exceeds that of muscle activity.
[Purpose] Pain catastrophizing is a key predictor of poor compliance to exercises among patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Alteration of pain catastrophizing in this group is thus warranted. This study aimed to provide proof-of-concept of a novel virtual reality exposure therapy program as treatment for exercise-related pain catastrophizing in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] An exploratory, case-controlled study was conducted (fibromyalgia syndrome group and matched control group). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to acquire neural correlates. The functional magnetic resonance imaging task consisted of two stimuli: active (exercise activity visuals) and passive (relaxing visuals). Structural images and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent contrasts were acquired for the conditions and compared within subjects/groups and between groups. Statistic images were thresholded using corrected clusters (determined by Z>2.3; level of significance: 0.05). [Results] Thirteen fibromyalgia syndrome subjects and nine healthy matched controls were included. The right inferior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, right posterior cerebellum, left thalamus, and left supramarginal gyrus were activated in the fibromyalgia syndrome subjects. [Conclusion] The study results provide preliminary proof indicating that exposing patients with fibromyalgia syndrome to visuals of exercises elicits neurophysiological changes in functional brain areas associated with pain catastrophization and add to the current body of knowledge regarding the possibility of objectively identifying cognitive behavioral strategies like pain catastrophization.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of driving errors among patients with left or right hemispheric lesions due to stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients participated in the study. Driving errors were assessed using a virtual reality driving simulator. [Results] Significant differences were shown in center line crossing frequency, accident rate, brake reaction time, total driving error scores, and overall driving safety between participants with left or right hemispheric lesions. [Conclusion] Driving rehabilitation specialists should consider hemispheric function when teaching driving skills to stroke survivors, because patients with lesions in the left or right hemispheres after stroke show differences in driving skills.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify if a periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test with the best periodic sound could be used to evaluate physical endurance more precisely than the conventional 6-minute walk test. [Subjects] The subjects were healthy subjects and 6 ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. [Methods] The subjects initially walked for 1 minute to a long-interval metronome sound, and the walking distance was measured. The sound interval was then gradually shortened, and the subjects walked for 1 minute for each of the intervals. The best periodic sound was considered to be the periodic sound used when the subject walked the longest distance in 1 minute, and the process of determining it was referred to as the period shortening walk test. This study administered the 6-minute walk test with the best periodic sound to twenty healthy subjects and 6 ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and compared the walking distance. [Results] The periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test distances in both the healthy subjects and the patients were significantly longer than the conventional 6-minute walk test distances. [Conclusion] The periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test provided a better indication of ambulatory potential in an evaluation of physical endurance than the conventional 6-minute walk test.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify ethnic differences in walking speed by comparing walking speed in both Japanese and non-Asian elderly individuals and to investigate the necessity of consideration of ethnic differences in walking speed. [Subjects and Methods] Articles that reported comfortable walking speeds for community-dwelling elderly individuals were identified from electronic databases. Articles that involved community-dwelling individuals who were 60 years old or older and well functioning were included in the study. Articles that involved Asians were excluded. Weighted means for 5-m walking times were calculated as walking speeds from the Japanese and non-Asian sample data. The effects of age, gender, and ethnicity on 5-m walking times were then investigated using meta-regression analysis. [Results] Twenty studies (34 groups) were included for Japanese, and 16 studies (28 groups) were included for non-Asians. The weighted mean 5-m walking time was estimated to be 4.15 sec (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.87–4.44) for Japanese and 4.24 sec (95% CI: 4.09–4.40) for non-Asians. Furthermore, using meta-regression analysis adjusted for age and gender, the 5-m walking time was 0.40 sec faster (95% CI: 0.03–0.77) for Japanese than for non-Asian elderly individuals. [Conclusion] Walking speed appeared faster for Japanese community-dwelling elderly individuals than for non-Asian elderly individuals.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of drooling, nutrition, and head control in individuals with quadriparetic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-six individuals between the ages 2 and 15 diagnosed with spastic quadriparetic cerebral palsy and their families/caretakers were included in the study. Drooling severity and frequency of individuals was evaluated by using the scale developed by Thomas-Stonell and Greenberg (Drooling Severity and Frequency Scale). Individuals having a drooling severity value of 1 were included in the not drooling group (group 2) (n=27). Individuals having a drooling severity of 2, 3, 4, or 5 were included in the drooling group (group 1) (n=29). The evaluations were applied to both groups. [Results] There were significant differences between the two groups in terms of gestational age, nutrition behavior, eating abilities, head control, gagging, nutritional status (inadequate nutrition, normal nutrition, over weight-obese), and low weight. It was established that as head control increased, drooling severity diminished, and as drooling severity increased, BMI index decreased. Independence of eating ability was found to be greater in the group having better drooling control. [Conclusion] In the present study, it was determined that drooling control affected nutritional functions and that drooling control was affected by head control.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of traditional Thai self-massage using a Wilai massage stickTM versus ibuprofen on reducing upper back pain associated with myofascial trigger points. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty patients who were diagnosed as having upper back pain associated with myofascial trigger points were randomly allocated to either a massage group using a Wilai massage stickTM or a medication group taking ibuprofen for 5 days. Both groups were advised to perform the same daily stretching exercise program. Pain intensity, pressure pain threshold, tissue hardness, and cervical range of motion were assessed at baseline, immediately after the first treatment session, and on the fifth day after the last treatment session. [Results] The massage group had significant improvement in all parameters at all assessment time points. Similar changes were observed in the medication group except for the pressure pain threshold and tissue hardness. The adjusted post-test mean values for each assessment time point were significantly better in the massage group than in the medication group. [Conclusion] Tradition Thai self-massage using a Wilai massage stickTM provides better results than taking ibuprofen for patients who have upper back pain associated with myofascial trigger points. It could be an alternative treatment for this patient population.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mental practice combined with electromyogram-triggered electrical stimulation on neglect and activities of daily living in stroke patients with unilateral neglect. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-three stroke patients with unilateral neglect were recruited from a local university hospital, and were divided into two groups. The experimental group received an intervention consisting of mental practice combined with electromyogram-triggered electrical stimulation on the neglected side, while the control group received cyclic electrical stimulation at the same site. In addition, both groups received an identical intervention of conventional occupational and physical therapy. [Results] After the intervention, the experimental group showed a statistically significant improvement in the line bisection test result, star cancellation test result, and Catherine Bergego Scale scores. The control group showed a significant improvement only in the line bisection test result. [Conclusion] These data suggest that mental practice combined with electromyogram-triggered electrical stimulation is an effective, novel treatment for reducing unilateral neglect in stroke patients.
[Purpose] This research aimed to investigate the relationship between aerobic capacity (VO2,peak) and cardiovascular risk factors in normolipidemic and dyslipidemic Thai men and women. [Subjects and Methods] We recruited 104 dyslipidemic and 100 healthy participants. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for lipid and blood glucose levels. Anthropometry, blood pressure, and body composition were measured before exercise. Each subject underwent exercise testing to determine VO2, peak. Heart rate (HR) was recorded throughout the exercise test. [Results] Dyslipidemic participants had a lower VO2, peak than normolipidemic participants (p<0.01). In normolipidemic male participants, VO2, peak was positively correlated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and negatively correlated with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and triglycerides to HDL-cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratios; in females, VO2, peak was negatively correlated with age, total cholesterol, and LDL-C. In dyslipidemic males, VO2, peak was positively correlated with HDL-C levels and negatively correlated with age, LDL-C and TG levels, and percent body fat; in females, VO2, peak was positively correlated with resting HR and heart rate recovery and negatively correlated with age, TG/HDL-C, and waist circumference. [Conclusion] There was a relationship between aerobic capacity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in both normolipidemic and dyslipidemic participants. This relationship was affected by gender.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the cerebral cortex motor area on the upper extremity functions of hemiplegic patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty four Patients with hemiplegia resulting from a stroke were divided into two groups: a tDCS group that received tDCS and physical therapy and a control group that received only physical therapy. A functional evaluation of the two groups was performed, and an electrophysiological evaluation was conducted before and after the experiment. Statistical analyses were performed to verify differences before and after the experiment. All statistical significance levels were set at 0.05. [Results] The results showed that functional evaluation scores for the elbow joint and hand increased after the treatment in both the experimental group and the control group, and the increases were statistically significantly different. [Conclusion] tDCS was effective in improving the upper extremity motor function of stroke patients. Additional research is warranted on the usefulness of tDCS in the rehabilitation of stroke patients in the clinical field.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to examine the effect of step climbing exercise on the walking ability of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Among hospitalized stroke patients, 24 were selected based on the study criteria and randomly divided into two groups: an experimental group (12 patients) and a control group (12 patients). The patients in both groups participated in 15-minute exercise sessions three times a week for eight weeks. To analyze the effect of the exercise, muscle strength, the Timed Up and Go test, and step length were measured before and after the exercise. [Results] step climbing exercise improved the muscle strength in the lower limbs of the stroke patients, as well as their Timed Up and Go results and step lengths. [Conclusion] The effects were similar to a stair gait exercise, and thus, step climbing may be more broadly applied to the treatment of stroke patients.
[Purpose] The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a very early mirror therapy program on functional improvement of the upper extremity in acute stroke patients. [Subjects] Eight stroke patients who were treated in an acute neurology unit were included in the study. [Methods] The patients were assigned alternatively to either the mirror therapy group receiving mirror therapy and neurodevelopmental treatment or the neurodevelopmental treatment only group. The primary outcome measures were the upper extremity motor subscale of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motricity Index upper extremity score, and the Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale. Somatosensory assessment with the Ayres Southern California Sensory Integration Test, and the Barthel Index were used as secondary outcome measures. [Results] No statistically significant improvements were found for any measures in either group after the treatment. In terms of minimally clinically important differences, there were improvements in Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Barthel Index in both mirror therapy and neurodevelopmental treatment groups. [Conclusion] The results of this pilot study revealed that very early mirror therapy has no additional effect on functional improvement of upper extremity function in acute stroke patients. Multicenter trials are needed to determine the results of early application of mirror therapy in stroke rehabilitation.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of pedometry and accelerometry in the measurement of the energy expenditures in Nordic walking and conventional walking as diagnostic parameters. [Subjects and Methods] The study included 20 female students (age, 24 ± 2.3 years). The study used three types of measuring devices, namely a heart rate monitor (Polar S610i), a Caltrac accelerometer, and a pedometer (Yamax SW-800). The walking pace at the level of 110 steps/min was determined by using a metronome. [Results] The students who walked with poles covered a distance of 1,000 m at a speed 36.3 sec faster and with 65.5 fewer steps than in conventional walking. Correlation analysis revealed a moderate interrelationship between the results obtained with a pedometer and those obtained with an accelerometer during Nordic walking (r = 0.55) and a high correlation during conventional walking (r = 0.85). [Conclusion] A pedometer and Caltrac accelerometer should not be used as alternative measurement instruments in the comparison of energy expenditure in Nordic walking.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stationary cycling exercise on the balance and gait abilities of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty-two chronic stroke patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=16) or a control group (n=16). [Methods] All of the subjects received the standard rehabilitation program for 30 minutes, while the experimental group additionally participated in a daily session of stationary cycling exercise for 30 minutes, 5 times per week for 6 weeks. To assess balance function, the Berg Balance Scale and timed up-and-go test were used. The 10-m walking test was conducted to assess gait function. [Results] Both groups showed significant improvements in balance and gait abilities. The improvements in the Berg Balance Scale and timed up-and-go test scores (balance), and 10-m walking test score (gait) in the stationary cycling exercise group were significantly greater than those in the control group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that stationary cycling exercise training is an effective intervention for increasing the balance and gait abilities of chronic stroke patients. Therefore, we suggest that stationary cycling training is suitable for stroke rehabilitation and may be used in clinical practice.
[Purpose] This study investigated the relationship between toe grip strength and foot posture in children. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 619 children participated in this study. The foot posture of the participants was measured using a foot printer and toe grip strength was measured using a toe grip dynamometer. Children were classified into 3 groups; flatfoot, normal, and high arch, according to Staheli’s arch index. The differences in demographic data and toe grip strength among each foot posture group were analyzed by analysis of variance. Additionally, toe grip strength differences were analyzed by analysis of covariance, adjusted to body mass index, age, and gender. [Results] The number of participants classified as flatfoot, normal, and high arch were 110 (17.8%), 468 (75.6%), and 41 (6.6%), respectively. The toe grip strength of flatfoot children was significantly lower than in normal children, as shown by both analysis of variance and analysis of covariance. [Conclusion] A significant difference was detected in toe grip strength between the low arch and normal foot groups. Therefore, it is suggested that training to increase toe grip strength during childhood may prevent the formation of flat feet or help in the development of arch.
[Purpose] The main aim of this study was to identify the short-term effects of Kinesio taping (KT) on the static body alignment and overall balance function presented by the coordinate and foot balance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight stroke subjects were randomly allocated into the study groups. The kinematic analysis measured deviation or changes from standard body alignment and foot pressure by the human anatomy-based coordinates were examined using the Shisei Innovation System PA200 ver.9.0. [Results] The glabellas on the front view, larynx on the front view, rt. greater tubercle of the humerus (vertical changes), lt. greater tubercle of the humerus (vertical changes), posterior superior iliac spine, and greater trochanter (horizontal changes) showed statistically significant decreases, indicating dislocation from the axis center, after taping. [Conclusion] The clinical use of KT for stroke patients who have asymmetrical and imbalanced body posture could be an optimal therapeutic approach. Since more evidence based practices are needed, future studies should include large numbers of subjects and examine diverse KT application patterns.
[Purpose] The purpose of the study was to design and implement a multichannel dynamic functional electrical stimulation system and investigate acute effects of functional electrical stimulation of the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris on ankle and knee sagittal-plane kinematics and related muscle forces of hemiplegic gait. [Subjects and Methods] A multichannel dynamic electrical stimulation system was developed with 8-channel low frequency current generators. Eight male hemiplegic patients were trained for 4 weeks with electric stimulation of the tibia anterior and rectus femoris muscles during walking, which was coupled with active contraction. Kinematic data were collected, and muscle forces of the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris of the affected limbs were analyzed using a musculoskelatal modeling approach before and after training. A paired sample t-test was used to detect the differences between before and after training. [Results] The step length of the affected limb significantly increased after the stimulation was applied. The maximum dorsiflexion angle and maximum knee flexion angle of the affected limb were both increased significantly during stimulation. The maximum muscle forces of both the tibia anterior and rectus femoris increased significantly during stimulation compared with before functional electrical stimulation was applied. [Conclusion] This study established a functional electrical stimulation strategy based on hemiplegic gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. The multichannel functional electrical stimulation system successfully corrected foot drop and altered circumduction hemiplegic gait pattern.
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of Mulligan taping on balance and gait in subacute stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty patients with subacute stroke were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). Mulligan taping was applied to the knee joints of participants in the experimental group while placebo taping was applied to knee joints of subjects in the control group. Biodex was used to assess their balance ability and the GAITRite System was used to test gait. All measurements were performed before and after the intervention. [Results] Dynamic standing balance of the experimental group significantly improved after taping. Gait, gait cadence, velocity, step length, and stride length also improved significantly. However, no significant differences in standing balance or gait were observed for the control group. Furthermore, significant differences in dynamic standing balance, cadence, and velocity were found between the two groups after the intervention. [Conclusion] Our results demonstrate that Mulligan taping is effective for improving balance and gait in subacute stroke patients. Thus, this technique is a potential method for actively facilitating rehabilitation programs for hemiplegia patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle activity and gait function following aquatic trunk exercise in hemiplegic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study’s participants included thirteen hemiplegic patients (ten males and three females). The aquatic therapy consisted of administering concentrative aquatic therapy for four weeks in a therapeutic pool. Gait parameters were measured using a gait analysis system adjusted to each subject’s comfortable walking speed. Electromyographic signals were measured for the rectus abdominis, external abdominal oblique, transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique, and erector spine of each patients. [Results] The pre- and post-training performances of the transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique were compared statistically. There was no statistical difference between the patients’ pre- and post-training values of maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the rectus abdominis, but the external abdominal oblique values tended to improve. Furthermore, gait factors improved significantly in terms of walking speeds, walking cycles, affected-side stance phases, affected-stride lengths, and stance-phase symmetry indices, respectively. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the trunk exercise during aquatic therapy may in part contribute to clinically relevant improvements in muscle activities and gait parameters.
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of low-dye taping on paretic side plantar pressure in patients with plantar fasciitis. [Subjects] The 30 patients in this study were randomly allocated to a low-dye taping group (n = 15) or a conservative treatment group (n =15). [Methods] Both groups received treatment thrice a week for six weeks. BioRescue was used to measure the weight distribution of the patients’ paretic side. [Results] Within-group comparison showed that the posterior weight distribution significantly increased among patients in both groups. However, comparison between the two groups showed that the low-dye taping group’s posterior weight distribution was significantly higher than that of the conservative treatment group. [Conclusion] These findings show that the application of low-dye taping is an effective intervention for paretic-side plantar pressure among patients with plantar fasciitis.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise on glycemic control using data from fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and to provide appropriate exercise guidelines for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea. [Subjects and Methods] We selected 1,328 patients from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database who had type 2 diabetes and ranged in age from 30 to 90 years. Statistical analyses included χ2 tests, multiple linear regression, and logistic regression. [Results] Factors found to be significantly related to glycemic control included income level, physical activity based on intensity of aerobic exercise, use of diabetes medicine, presence of hypertension, duration of diabetes, and waist circumference. In addition, engaging in combined low- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise when adjusted for resistance exercise was found to lower the risk of glycemic control failure. [Conclusion] Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea should engage in combined low- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise such as walking for 30 minutes or more five times a week. Physical activity is likely to improve glycemic control and thus prevent the acute and chronic complications of diabetes mellitus.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the validity of accelerometer data for quantifying fluidity during the sit-to-walk task. [Subjects] The participants were 16 healthy young males. [Methods] The timing of events (task onset, maximum trunk inclination, and first heel strike) was determined from the acceleration waveform and compared to the timing determined from a three-dimensional motion analysis (task onset, maximum trunk inclination) or foot pressure sensor data (first heel strike). Regression analysis was used to estimate the fluidity index (FI) from the duration between events and the magnitude of the acceleration peak. The task was performed at two speeds (comfortable and maximum). [Results] A comparison of the timings from two different systems indicated no systematic bias. Specific events could be identified from acceleration data using regression analysis under both speed conditions. In addition, significant regression equations predictive of FI were constructed using the duration between events under both speed conditions. The duration from the maximum trunk inclination to the first heel strike was the best predictor of FI. [Conclusion] Accelerometer data may be used to precisely and conveniently evaluate fluidity. The clinical utility of these data should be tested in elderly individuals or patient populations.
[Purpose] The main objective of this study was to determine the contributions and extent to which certain physical measurements explain performance in the 6-minute walk test in healthy older adults living in a geriatric nursing home and for older adults dwelling in the community. [Subjects] The subjects were 122 adults aged 65 and older with no cognitive impairment who were independent in their daily activities. [Methods] The 6-minute walk test, age, body mass index, walking speed, chair stand test, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go test, rectus femoris cross-sectional area, Short Physical Performance Battery, and hand-grip strength were examined. [Results] Strong significant associations were found between mobility, lower-limb function, balance, and the 6-minute walk test. A stepwise multiple regression on the entire sample showed that lower-limb function was a significant and independent predictor for the 6-minute walk test. Additionally, lower-limb function was a strong predictor for the 6-minute walk test in our nursing home group, whereas mobility was found to be the best predictor in our community-dwelling group. [Conclusion] Better lower-limb function, balance, and mobility result in a higher distance covered by healthy older adults. Lower-limb function and mobility appeared to best determine walking performance in the nursing home and community-dwelling groups, respectively.
[Purpose] To investigate the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle thickness (MT) of the longus colli according to the inward pressure of an ultrasonography (US) probe (0.5 and 1 kg). [Subjects] Thirteen subjects (11 males and 2 females; age, 23.1 ± 2.9 years) were recruited via convenience sampling of university students. [Methods] Real-time US measurements of the CSA and MT of the longus colli were recorded. Repeated US measurements using a standard protocol were performed on the same day 1 hour apart to assess intra- and inter-rater reliability. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC; 2, 1) were used to determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the CSA and MT measurements. [Results] This study demonstrated that the US measurements (0.5 and 1 kg) of the CSA and MT of the longus colli give reliable and consistent results. [Conclusion] Based on these results, a consistent inward pressure of the probe is needed to ensure precise US measurement of the longus colli muscle.
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the cognitive level of the elderly and their attitude towards the living environment. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 80 elderly people hospitalized in a nursing home in K city, South Korea, participated in this study. Pearson correlation analysis was used to test the relationships between scores on the Mini Mental State Examination-Korean Version and Measurement of Quality of the Environment (facilitators and obstacles). [Results] A positive and moderately strong correlation (r = 0.462) was found between scores on the Mini Mental State Examination and the Measurement of Quality of the Environment (obstacle). [Conclusion] In a nursing home, patients with relatively higher cognitive levels can perceive more obstacles in the surrounding environment.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate the cathepsin-D involvement in signaling pathways for the survival and apoptosis of myofibers in rats with hindlimb-unloading in a low-temperature environment. [Subjects and Methods] Wistar rats were divided into two groups: a control group and a group that underwent hindlimb unloading in a low-temperature environment to induce muscle apoptosis. Cathepsin-D localization in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles, along with the expression of cathepsin-D in apoptotic myofibers, was examined. Expression of the active and inactive forms of cathepsin-D was also analyzed. [Results] Cathepsin-D was mainly expressed in type I myofibers and was observed to have punctate patterns in the control group. In the hindlimb unloading in a low-temperature environment group, the type I myofiber composition ratio decreased, and caspase-3 activation and TUNEL-positive apoptotic myofibers were observed. In caspase-3-activated myofibers, cathepsin-D overexpression and leakage of it into the cytoplasm were observed. In the hindlimb unloading in a low-temperature environment group, the amount of inactive cathepsin-D decreased, whereas that of the active form increased. [Conclusion] Cathepsin-D was deduced to be indicative of a myofiber-type classification and a factor related to myofiber type maintenance. In addition, cathepsin-D leakage into the cytoplasm was appeared to be involved in caspase-3 activation in the hindlimb unloading in a low-temperature environment group.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the activation timing patterns of abdominal and leg muscles during the sit-to-stand movement in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke. [Subjects] Twenty adults with chronic hemiparetic stroke participated in this study. [Methods] Subjects performed five sit-to-stand movements at a self-selected velocity without using their hands. Surface electromyography was used to measure the reaction time of the bilateral transverse abdominis/internal oblique, rectus femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles during the sit-to-stand movement. [Results] There were significant differences in the reaction time between the affected and unaffected sides of the abdominal and leg muscles. Muscles on the unaffected side had faster reaction time than those on the affected side. Activation of the transverse abdominis/internal oblique muscles was delayed relative to activation of the tibialis anterior muscle during the sit-to-stand movement. [Conclusion] Our findings provide information that may aid clinicians in the examination and management of paretic muscles for transfers in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke.