[Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify the effects of initial position of the hip joint with changes in the hip joint angle on the respective muscle activities of the bilateral erector spinae (ES), unilateral gluteus maximus (GM), and biceps femoris (BF) and the amount of pelvic anterior tilt during prone hip extension (PHE). [Subjects] Fifteen healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. [Methods] The subjects performed PHE in three positions: neutral, 20°, and 45° flexed hip joint. The activities of the ES, GM, and BF were measured using surface electromyography, and kinematic values for pelvic anterior tilt were calculated using a motion capture system. [Results] There was a significant decrease in muscle activity of the contralateral ES at 45°, and an increase in the GM muscle activity and decrease in the BF muscle activity at 20°. The amount of pelvic anterior tilt was lower at 20°. [Conclusion] These results suggest that a hip flexion position of 20° would have an advantage over the other measured positions.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility of interapical distance (IAD) and to analyze its correlation with the Cobb angle (CA). [Subjects and Methods] IAD, a handy tool for assessment of the lateral deviation of vertebrae with a metric scale, was defined as the horizontal distance between one apical vertebra and its counterpart, the opposite apical vertebra in the case of a double curve and the farthest vertebra in the case of a single curve. Fifty full-length, standing anteroposterior radiographs of “idiopathic scoliosis” were reviewed. Three investigators independently measure the CA and IAD at the same time and remeasured the IAD on the same radiograph a week later. [Results] There was no interobserver difference (reliability) in the measurement of IAD or statistical differences in intraobserver reproducibility for each observer. IAD was well correlated with the CA for each observer (r=0.765, r=0.737, and r=0.764). [Conclusion] IAD is useful when assessing lateral deviation in scoliosis and may be a reliable and reproducible index that is well correlated with the CA, and it can be used as a supplementary measure to describe the overall derangement of scoliosis in the coronal plane.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the knee joint proprioception in weight-bearing (WB) and non-weight-bearing (NWB) positions and to study the difference between the methods in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 15 stroke patients who were randomly scheduled to perform both positions by a physical therapist not involved in the study. The subjects performed the positions (WB and NWB) based on a randomized controlled cross-sectional design. WB subjects were positioned in one-leg standing to assess the knee joint position sense. NWB subjects were instructed to sit comfortably in a chair and maintain the knees at 90° of flexion with the leg out of the plinth. [Results] The results revealed that the WB position showed a significant difference in knee position sense. The proprioception sense in the WB position was a higher than that in the NWB position. [Conclusion] The knee proprioception of chronic stroke patients differs between the weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing positions.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in onset timing between the vastus medialis and lateralis among the different knee alignments, as well as the best isokinetic angular velocity for an isokinetic concentric contraction. [Subjects] Fifty-two adults (20 with genu varum, 12 genu valgum, and 20 controls) were enrolled in this study. Subjects with > 4 cm between the medial epicondyles of the knee were placed in the genu varum group, whereas subjects with > 4 cm between the medial malleolus of the ankle were placed in the genu valgum group. [Methods] Surface electromyography was used to measure the onset times of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis during concentric contractions at 30, 60, and 90°/sec. [Results] The vastus lateralis showed more delayed firing than the vastus medialis in the genu varum group, whereas vastus medialis firing was delayed more than that of the vastus lateralis in the genu valgum group. No differences in onset timing were observed between the vastus medialis and lateralis according the different angular velocities during concentric contractions in all three groups. [Conclusion] Genu varum and valgum affect quadriceps firing. Therefore, selective rehabilitation training of the quadriceps femoris should be considered to prevent pain or knee malalignment deformities.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a functional foot orthosis on the knee angle in the sagittal plane of college students in their 20s who had flatfoot. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 college students diagnosed as having flatfoot. The variations of their knee angle (Q-angle) in the sagittal plane during the stance phase were measured using the VICON Motion System (Vicon, Hansung, Korea) before and while wearing a foot orthosis. The experimental data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 for Windows. [Results] The Q-angle in the test group during the stance phase showed statistically significant declines on the right and left sides while wearing the foot orthosis during the gait-phases of loading response and midstance. During initial contact, terminal stance, and preswing, the Q-angle also decreased on the right and left sides after wearing the foot orthosis, but the changes were not statistically significant. [Conclusion] The college students with flatfoot exhibited declines in the Q-angle in the sagittal plane while wearing a foot orthosis. In this regard, the application of active gait training using orthotic shoes for long hours is likely to help individuals with flatfoot to achieve normal gait.
[Purpose] This study was conducted to find out the effect of arm swing during treadmill training on the gait of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study subjects were 20 stroke subjects patients who were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG), 10 subjects in each group. Therapists induced arm swing of affected side of EG subjects using Nordic poles, while subjects in CG had the affected arm restricted to prevent arm swing. Training was performed for 30 minutes, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The timed up and go test (TUG), the dynamic gait index (DGI) and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) were assessed before and after the training. [Results] After the training, there were no significant differences in the TUG times of EG and CG. There were significant differences in the DGI and the 6-minute walking distance of EG, but not of CG. There were also significant differences in the improvements of the DGI and the 6-minute walking distance between the groups. [Conclusion] Arm swing training had a positive effect on patients’ gait ability. Further studies are required to generalize the results of this study.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate changes from resting of the evoked cortical activity when participants performed three levels of therapeutic activities. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five students participated in this study. Changes in the amplitude of 16 pairs of evoked potentials were compared for three different activities: adjunctive, enabling, and purposeful. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA. [Results] Significant differences were found among the selected three activities for the Alpha 1 waveform. The complexity hierarchy was confirmed by descriptive statistics, as well as analyses of the three brain regions: central position (motor) Beta 1; parietal lobes, Beta 2, and occipital lobes, Alpha 1. In each instance, purposeful activity was confirmed as the most complex activity, followed by enabling, and then adjunctive. [Conclusion] This study will provide rehabilitation professionals with valuable information regarding what type of activity they should choose for a correct level of therapeutic challenge when they work with patients to plan meaningful interventions.
[Purpose] Spinocerebellar ataxia consists of a group of autosomal dominant disorders that cause progressive degeneration, mainly in the cerebellum and its connections. Falls, which are a significant concern of this condition, reduce patients’ mobility, deteriorate their health and have physical and social consequences. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a modified protocol for improving balance and diminishing the fall risk of spinocerebellar ataxia patients exclusively. [Subjects and Methods] Exercises aiming to improve static and dynamic balance, whole body movements, measures to prevent falls and falling strategies were performed twice per week for four weeks by 11 spinocerebellar ataxia patients. Balance was evaluated using the Berg Balance Scale. [Results] The results show that there was a significant increase in Berg Balance Scale scores after the interventions (Wilcoxon p=0.0034). [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the modified protocol is effective at reducing the fall risk of spinocerebellar ataxia patients. This protocol may be a useful option for appropriately coping with falls caused by spinocerebellar ataxia.
[Purpose] Temporomandibular disorder is one of the many different adverse health conditions that can be triggered by stress. Therefore, a biopsychosocial model has been proposed to characterize the multifactorial nature of temporomandibular disorder. The aim of the present study was investigate the correlation of salivary cortisol levels with the activities of the masseter and anterior temporal muscles of patients with different degrees of temporomandibular disorder. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-nine women between 18 and 40 years of age with a diagnosis of myogenous temporomandibular disorder based on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for temporomandibular disorders were evaluated using the Fonseca Index to determine the degree of the disorder. Salivary cortisol levels were determined and surface electromyography was used to evaluate electrical activity in the masticatory muscles. [Results] Positive correlations were found among the degree of temporomandibular disorder, electromyographic activity and salivary cortisol: as women with more severe temporomandibular disorder had greater electrical activity in the muscles analyzed, especially the anterior temporal muscle, and higher levels of cortisol. [Conclusion] Muscle activity was greater among individuals with severe temporomandibular disorder and positive correlations were found among electromyographic activity, salivary cortisol and the degree of temporomandibular disorder severity.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the intensity of physical activity and symptoms of depression. [Subjects and Methods] We analyzed the influence of different intensities of physical activity on depressive symptoms using the data of 12,350 adults over the age of 20 years who had completed the 2011 Korea Health Panel. After controlling for confounding variables, a multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the association between the intensity of physical activity and depressive symptoms. [Results] The results showed that vigorous physical activity had a significant effect on depressive symptoms. The incidence of depressive symptoms was 1.487 (95% CI 1.137, 1.943) OR higher among people who did not participate in regular activity than it was among those who took part in regular intense physical activity. [Conclusion] It appears that physical activity affects depressive symptoms, a result which is in agreement with previous studies. However, we also showed a difference in influence according to activity intensity. Thus, the intensity of physical activity should be considered when developing physical activity programs for improving depressive symptoms.
[Purpose] Although oxidative stress is known to be present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the effects of exercise on oxidative parameters are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute aerobic exercise on serum oxidant and antioxidant levels in patients with RA. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen patients with RA and 10 age-matched healthy volunteers participated in this study. All participants wore polar telemeters and walked on a treadmill for 30 minutes at a speed eliciting 60–75% of maximal heart rates. Blood samples were obtained before, immediately and 24 hours after exercise and malondialdehyde (MDA) and total sulfhydrile group (RSH) levels were measured. [Results] Both groups had similar heart rates during the test but the treadmill speed of the RA patients was significantly lower than that of the healthy volunteers. Serum MDA levels were lower than in both groups immediately after exercise, with greater decrements in the RA patients than controls. MDA levels returned to baseline 24 hours after the exercise only in the controls; they remained low in the RA patients. There was a slight increase in serum RSH levels after exercise compared to baseline in both groups. [Conclusion] Moderate intensity treadmill exercise did not have any adverse effect on the oxidant-antioxidant balance. The results suggest that such an exercise may be safely added to the rehabilitation program of RA for additional antioxidant effects. Morever, this antioxidant environment is maintained longer in RA patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between breast density and bone mineral density after menopause. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 130 patients who participated in a bone densitometry test and had a mammogram taken between January 1st, 2013 to October 1st, 2014. The mammograms were scored breast imaging-reporting and data system. Grade 1 indicates almost only fat, Grade 2 indicates fibroglandular densities, Grade 3 indicates heterogeneously dense tissue, and Grade 4 indicates an extreme density. Correlation analysis was carried out to investigate the relationship between breast density grades and bone mineral densities by age and body mass index. [Results] Breast density had a close relationship with age (−0.59), Body mass index (−0.39), and T-score (0.29). The results indicate that as age and body mass index increase, the grade of the breast density decreases, and as the T-score increases, the grade increases. [Conclusion] A precise evaluation of the of breast cancer risk associated with breast density should be conducted as a large scale prospective study for women in Korea.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to find whether a fast treadmill gait training speed is effective for the gait training of stroke patients in the early rehabilitation stage. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-nine stroke patients were the subjects of our investigation. They walked on a treadmill with handrail supports at a fast speed (130% of their comfortable gait speed in the 2nd week). The treadmill gaits of the patients were recorded using a 3-dimensional analysis system at two and six weeks after their admissions. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) of the temporal and spatial parameters of the two periods were statistically analyzed. [Results] For all of the patients, the ICCs of the measured parameters were greater than 0.58. In the case of patients whose gait speeds of the two periods were close, the ICC units were greater than 0.7. [Conclusion] The fast gait speed training allowed us to expose the patients to a gait speed that they were expected to acquire at a later stage of their rehabilitation. This training method was found to be beneficial for the mildly paralyzed patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between acceleration and joint movement by synchronizing accelerometers and a three-dimensional motion analysis system, and to show the utility of an accelerometer as a postural control assessment tool. [Subjects and Methods] Head, lumbar, shank accelerations and various joint angles during single-leg standing were measured of 20 healthy males. Root mean squares of acceleration and joint angle were calculated. Fast Fourier transform analysis was performed for head, lumbar, and shank accelerations, and the median frequencies were calculated. Then, principal component analysis was performed for the median frequency of each acceleration. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was also used to examine the relationship between joint angle and acceleration. [Results] The score of the first principal component was highest for shank acceleration, while that of the second principal component was highest for lumbar and head accelerations. In multiple regression analysis, hip flexion/extension and adduction/abduction were identified as variables associated with head acceleration. [Conclusion] We were able to confirm the aggregation of acceleration into two components, which we interpreted as postural control strategies using primarily the ankle and hip joints. Furthermore, though multiple regression analysis, we were able to clarify the joint movement indicated by acceleration of each segment.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinematics of the ankle in the lunge to estabilish effectiveness of an ankle stretching orthosis (ASO) on the ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) of individuals with limited dorsiflexion ROM. [Subjects and Methods] Forty ankles with decreased dorsiflexion ROM of 20 participants were evaluated in this study. After wearing the ASO, participants walked on a treadmill for 15 minutes. Participants walked on the treadmill at a self-selected comfortable speed. Ankle dorsiflexion ROM, maximum dorsiflexion ROM before heel-off, and time to heel-off during the stance phase of gait were measured before and after 15 minutes of treadmill walking with the ASO. The differences in all variables between before and after treadmill walking with ASO were analyzed using the paired t-test. [Results] Ankle active and passive ROM, and dorsiflexion ROM during lunge increased significantly after treadmill walking with ASO. Treadmill walking with the ASO significantly increased the angle of maximal dorsiflexion before heel-off and time to heel-off during the stance phase. [Conclusion] The results of this study show that treadmill walking with the ASO effectively improved ankle flexibility and restored the normal gait pattern of the ankle joint by increasing dorsiflexion ROM, maximal angle of dorsiflexion, and time to heel-off in the stance phase.
[Purpose] We evaluated the relationship between knee alignment and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus medialis (VM) to the vastus lateralis (VL) muscles in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a cross-sectional study. [Subjects and Methods] Forty subjects with knee OA were assessed by anatomic radiographic knee alignment and the VM/VL ratio was calculated. Surface EMG from both the VM and VL muscles were evaluated during maximal isometric contraction at 60° knee flexion. Simultaneously, peak quadriceps torque was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer. Subjects were categorized into low, moderate, and high varus groups according to knee malalignment. The peak quadriceps torque and VM/VL ratio across groups, and their relationships with varus malalignment were analyzed. [Results] All subjects had medial compartment OA and the VM/VL ratio of all subjects was 1.31 ± 0.28 (mean ± SD). There were no significant differences in the peak quadriceps torque or VM/VL ratios across the groups nor were there any significant relationships with varus malalignment. [Conclusion] The VM/VL ratio and peak quadriceps torque were not associated with the severity of knee varus malalignment.
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of auditory feedback during gait on the weight bearing of patients with hemiplegia resulting from a stroke. [Subjects] Thirty hemiplegic patients participated in this experiment and they were randomly allocated to an experimental group and a control group. [Methods] Both groups received neuro-developmental treatment for four weeks and the experimental group additionally received auditory feedback during gait training. In order to examine auditory feedback effects on weight bearing during gait, a motion analysis system GAITRite was used to measure the duration of the stance phase and single limb stance phase of the subjects. [Results] The experimental group showed statistically significant improvements in the duration of the stance phase and single limb stance phase of the paretic side and the results of the Timed Up and Go Test after the training. [Conclusion] Auditory feedback during gait training significantly improved the duration of the stance phase and single limb stance phase of hemiplegic stroke patients.
[Purpose] Nonspecific neck pain is a common musculoskeletal disease. Therapeutic exercise has been shown to improve pain and disability in short-term and midterm follow-ups. This study performed a literature review of the long-term effects of therapeutic exercise on subjects with nonspecific chronic neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] The databases of the CINAHL, MEDLINE, PEDro and PubMed were used. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) published from January 2000 to January 2014 and explicitly including a one-year follow-up were identified. [Results] Only six articles were included in this review. They had scores of 5 to 8 points on the PEDro scale, and the level of evidence was grade I. The study results show that the main exercises used were cervical strengthening and endurance training exercise. Short-term exercises (10 to 12 weeks) helped to improve the body function, structure, activity and participation immediately after the intervention, but not at the long-term follow-up. On the other hand, long-term interventions (1 year) resulted in improvements in body function and structure at the 3 year follow-up. [Conclusion] The results of the six high-quality studies suggest that long-term exercise have long-term benefits for patients with nonspecific neck pain in terms of body function and structure.
[Purpose] This study investigated the efficacy on postural control of a bridging exercise in order to suggest a pertinent procedure for the bridging exercise. [Subject] One poststroke hemiplegic patient who had received surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis participated in this study [Methods] A reverse ABAB single-case experimental design was used. To assess postural control, foot pressure and the stability limit test were evalulated once a week a total of 4 times during the intervention period. [Results] Noticeable improvement in the distribution of foot pressure and increased stability limit were shown after performing the bridging exercise supervised by a physical therapist. [Conclusion] Bridging exercise on a plinth is effective at balancing body weight-bearing and resulted in the patient putting her weight on both feet evenly and in both the anterior and posterior directions.
[Purpose] The purpose of this case report is to present the effects of vestibular stimulation on a child with hypotonic cerebral palsy through the use of swings. [Case Description] The subject was a 19-month-old boy with a diagnosis of hypotonic cerebral palsy (CP) and oscillating nystagmus. The subject had received both physical therapy and occupational therapy two times per week since he was 5 months old but showed little to no improvement. [Methods] Pre and post-intervention tests were completed by the researcher using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development II. The subject was provided with vestibular stimulation 3 times per week for 10 weeks in 1 hour sessions conducted by his mother as instructed by the researcher. During this research all other therapies were stopped to determine the effects of the vestibular stimulation and to exclude the effects of other therapies. [Results] The subject demonstrated improvement of 4 months in motor skills and of 3 months in mental skills as shown by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development II. [Conclusion] Vestibular stimulation was effective in improving postural control, movement, emotional well-being, and social participation of a child with hypotonic cerebral palsy.