[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the application of elderly-customized hatha yoga on the vascular inflammation factors of elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] This research was conducted with 14 elderly women, between 70 and 80 years old, divided into an elderly-customized hatha yoga group (n=7) and a control group (n=7). The application group participated in a hatha yoga program designed to be elderly-friendly for 10 weeks. At the end of the program, the vascular inflammation factors were measured, including the albumin, white blood cell count, fibrinogen, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). [Results] In the hatha yoga group, the albumin increased significantly after the application, when compared to the level before the application, while the fibrinogen, hs-CRP, and ESR decreased significantly. In the control group, the vascular inflammation factor levels before and after the application period were not significantly different. [Conclusion] Based on the results of this study, the application of elderly-customized hatha yoga created positive changes in the vascular inflammation factors of elderly women.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical capacity and fear avoidance beliefs in patients with chronic low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] This cross sectional study included 131 male university students with chronic low back pain. All the patients completed a fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire. Each participant performed a physical capacity test, which included hand grip force, leg strength, abdominal muscle endurance, flexibility, and cardiopulmonary endurance testing. [Results] Negative correlation was observed between physical capacity (leg strength, abdominal muscle endurance) and fear avoidance beliefs regarding work. Physical capacity (hand grip force, leg strength, cardiopulmonary endurance) showed a negative correlation with fear avoidance beliefs about physical activity. Abdominal muscle endurance and cardiopulmonary endurance were predictors of fear avoidance beliefs. [Conclusion] Physical capacity showed a negative correlation with fear avoidance beliefs in patients with chronic low back pain. The results of this study suggest that physical capacity is an important factor for predicting fear avoidance beliefs in patients with chronic low back pain.
[Purpose] The study investigated the effects of lower extremity injuries on aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power, and knee isokinetic muscular function in high school soccer players. [Subjects and Methods] The study assessed U High School soccer players (n=40) in S area, South Korea, divided into 2 groups: a lower extremity injury group (n=16) comprising those with knee and ankle injuries and a control group (n=24) without injury. Aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power, and knee isokinetic muscular function were compared and analyzed. [Results] Regarding the aerobic exercise capacity test, significant differences were observed in maximal oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold between both groups. For the anaerobic power test, no significant difference was observed in peak power and average power between the groups; however, a significant difference in fatigue index was noted. Regarding the knee isokinetic muscular test, no significant difference was noted in knee flexion, extension, and flexion/extension ratio between both groups. [Conclusion] Lower extremity injury was associated with reduced aerobic exercise capacity and a higher fatigue index with respect to anaerobic exercise capacity. Therefore, it seems necessary to establish post-injury training programs that improve aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity for soccer players who experience lower extremity injury.
[Purpose] This study compared the effects of visual feedback training and unstable surface training on the static and dynamic balance of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The study enrolled 20 stroke patients and randomly assigned them to visual feedback training and unstable surface training groups. Both groups performed 30 minutes of conventional exercise therapy twice a week for 4 weeks. In addition, the subjects in the visual feedback training group completed a visual feedback training regimen and the subjects in the unstable surface training group completed training on an unstable surface (30-minute session three times a week for 4 weeks in both groups). Static and dynamic balance parameters were recorded immediately before and after the 4 weeks of training. For data analysis, the paired and independent t-test was used to compare the two groups. [Results] In the visual feedback training group, the sway line at the postural sway of the center of pressure and trace length decreased significantly after training. In both groups, the sway range at the limits of stability in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions increased significantly after training. [Conclusion] Visual feedback training was better at improving static and dynamic balance than unstable surface training in stroke patients.
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine effectiveness of axial side-lying wiper exercise using the visual feedback with a laser pointer on infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 22 healthy adults (18 males, 4 females) in their 20s who consented to participate in the present study. Surface Electromyography was used to measure the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscle activity before and after an intervention. The intervention consisted of performing side-lying wiper exercise with a 1-kg dumbbell and a ruled paper for 30 minutes. [Results] The infraspinatus illustrated significantly increased muscle activity after intervention. The posterior deltoid also showed increased activity after intervention but it was not significant. [Conclusion] Axial side-lying wiper exercise using the visual feedback has the therapeutic effectiveness for the selective infraspinatus muscle strengthening. Therefore it can be useful to provide shoulder movements with stability.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate reliability of the test of gross motor development second edition (TGMD-2) for Kindergarten children in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty healthy Kindergarten children (23 males, 27 females) whose parents/guardians had given written consent were participated. The subjects were explained and demonstrated all 12 gross motor skills of TGMD-2 before the assessment. Each subject individually performed two trials for each gross motor skill and the performance was video recorded. Three raters separately watched the video recordings and rated for inter-rater reliability. The second assessment was done one month later with 25 out of 50 subjects for test-rest reliability. The video recordings of 12 subjects were randomly selected from the first 50 recordings for intra-rater reliability six weeks after the first assessment. The agreement on the locomotor and object control raw scores and the gross motor quotient (GMQ) were calculated. [Results] The findings of all the reliability coefficients for the locomotor and object control raw scores and the GMQ were interpreted as good and excellent reliability. [Conclusion] The results represented that TGMD-2 is a highly reliable and appropriate assessment tool for assessing gross motor skill development of Kindergarten children in Myanmar.
[Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between gross motor function, measured using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM), and Function, and Activity and Participation components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health-Child and Youth Check List (ICF-CY) in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-seven children with spastic CP participated in the study. The GMFM, GMFCS, MACS, and WeeFIM were administered in their entirety to patients without orthoses or mobility aids. The ICF-CY was used to evaluate the degree of disability and health. [Results] The score of the ICF component of Activity and Participation had a significantly strong correlation with the scores of GMFM, GMFCS, MACS, WeeFIM, and ICF component of Function. [Conclusion] When establishing a treatment plan for children with spastic CP, the children’s physical abilities, and their limitation in activity, performance, and participation, which would be measured using the ICF-CY, should be taken into consideration.
[Purpose] There is a relationship between physical and cognitive functions; therefore, impairment of physical function would mean cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate the association between change in physical and cognitive functions. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were 169 healthy community-dwelling older adults who attend the survey after three years from baseline (mean age, 72.4 ± 4.8 years). Grip strength, one-leg standing balance, five-times-sit-to-stand test, timed up and go, 5-m habitual walk, and a peg-moving task were used to evaluate physical performance. Five cognitive function tests were used to assess attention, memory, visuospatial function, verbal fluency, and reasoning. Cognitive function was defined as the cumulative score of these tests. [Results] At baseline, five-times-sit-to-stand test, timed up and go, and hand dexterity were independently associated with cognitive function. In longitudinal analyses, changes in habitual walking speed and hand dexterity were significantly associated with change in cognitive function. [Conclusion] Deterioration of specific physical function, such as hand dexterity and walking ability, may be associated with progression of cognitive decline. Decreasing extent of daily functions, such as hand dexterity and walking ability, can be useful indices to grasp changes in cognitive function.
[Purpose] To determine the efficacy of high intensity laser therapy (HILT) versus pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. [Subjects and Methods] This was a randomized clinical trial that included 52 girls diagnosed with primary dysmenorrhea and who were assigned randomly into two groups of equal numbers. The treatment was three sessions every cycle for three consecutive cycles where group (A) included those participants treated with HILT 15 min/session and group (B) those who were treated with PEMF 30 min/session. All patients were evaluated before starting the treatment as well as after the end of treatment by present pain intensity scale and the prostaglandin level in blood and pain relief scale at the end of treatment for both groups. [Results] The results showed a significant decrease in the severity of pain, statistically significant decrease in prostaglandin level in blood, and a statistically significant pain alleviation in both groups. With comparison between both groups there was a statistically significant decrease in the severity of pain, significant decrease in the blood levels of PGF2α, in group (A) than group (B). [Conclusion] Both HILT and PEMF are effective in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea with HILT being superior to PEMF.
[Purpose] To investigate responses of Korean physical therapy students, receiving medical terminology education in physical therapy both in Korean and English, after practice with a virtual anatomical system. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 25 physical therapy students from Konyang University in South Korea visiting the International University of Health and Welfare for training purposes. The virtual anatomy practice was conducted in English using 3 dimensional virtual anatomy software constructed using real cadaver photographs. A questionnaire about this practice and anatomy was completed after the practice. [Results] The results of the questionnaire showed a trend toward high scores for virtual anatomy practice. [Conclusion] The present virtual anatomy system was created using multi-directional photographs from a real cadaver; therefore, it can be used as an auxiliary means of education using cadavers.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on local fat deposition and body weight of wearing a near-infrared light belt around the abdomen. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight obese female subjects participated in this experiment. For measurement of body composition, an impedance-style body fat analyzer was used. The experimental group performed treadmill walking 3 times per week for 12 weeks while wearing an activated near-infrared belt around the abdomen. The near-infrared belt was composed of light-emitting diodes having wavelengths of 630 nm, 830 nm, 880 nm, and 956 nm. [Results] The analysis of abdominal circumference indicated that the abdominal circumference of the experimental group was reduced in post-test measurements compared to pre-test. [Conclusion] This investigation showed significant reductions in abdominal circumference, abdominal fat percentage, fat mass, and body-mass index for the experimental compared to the control group, suggesting that changes in body composition can be enhanced when near-infrared radiation is applied to the abdomen during walking.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term lumbar stability cross taping program on muscle strength of trunk extension and lumbar pain level in patients with chronic back pain. [Subjects and Methods] The present study divided 14 patients with chronic back pain into the stability cross taping group (SCTG; n=7) and the control group (CONG; n=7). Lumbar cross taping was applied to SCTG for 7 days, but the taping was not applied to CONG. After 7 days of the lumbar stability cross taping application to SCTG, lumbar muscle function and lumbar pain levels were measured using a Medx lumbar extension machine (Medx, USA) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) for the subjects in both SCTG and CONG. [Results] For SCTG, all the elements in lumbar muscle function and were significantly improved and lumbar pain level was also significantly reduced after the application of the 7-day lumbar stability cross taping. However, CONG did not show any statistically significant changes. [Conclusion] The results of the present study showed that the lumbar stability cross taping is an effective rehabilitation to improve lumbar muscle function and reduce lumbar pain level in patients with chronic back pain.
[Purpose] This study examined whether the interval at the target angle during knee joint position sense (JPS) affected reposition accuracy, and evaluated the consequence of this factor on test-retest reliability. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. Reposition ability was measured after the knee was placed at a target angle (ranging from 40° to 60°) for intervals of 3, 6, 9, and 12 seconds, in randomized order. Two trials were performed for each condition. The measurement was repeated after a week. The absolute error (AE) of each trial and average AE under each condition within the two measures were used for data analysis. [Results] No significant difference was found in comparing the AE or the average AE during all trials and between the two measures. Fair-to-good reliability was found for the AE results of all trials under the conditions of 3, 6, and 12 seconds. Poor reliability was found with time interval of 9 seconds. [Conclusion] The length of time needed to memorize the target angle during knee JPS test might affect test reliability. Practitioners can use this information when collecting JPS data.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reliability of linear and nonlinear measures of the center of pressure (COP) during visual deprivation. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen young adults participated in this study. COP signals were recorded in two conditions: eyes open and eyes closed. Three trials were performed in each condition with a rest period of approximately 1 min. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and standard error of measurement (SEM) were calculated. [Results] The investigation of ICC and SEM between trials showed that the Lyapunov exponent (ICC: 0.76–0.96, SEM: 0.03) and total mean velocity (ICC: 0.71–0.95, SEM: 0.05) were more reliable and repeatable than range and area (95% confidence ellipse), while area had the least reliability (ICC: 0.49–0.77, SEM: 0.56). [Conclusion] The Lyapunov exponent can be considered an appropriate postural control index, and the evaluation of postural stability should be done by considering linear and nonlinear tools.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Kindergarten children in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Total 472 healthy Kindergarten children (237 males, 235 females) of 2016–2017 academic year from four schools in urban area and four schools in rural area of Myanmar were recruited. The gross motor skill development of all subjects was assessed with the test of gross motor development second edition (TGMD-2). All subjects performed two trials for each gross motor skill and the performance was video recorded and scored. The assessment procedures were done according to the standardized guidelines of TGMD-2. [Results] The majority of subjects had average level of gross motor skill rank. The significant differences were found on the run and gallop of locomotor skills and the most of object control skills except the catch between males and females. The significant differences were also found between subjects from urban and rural areas. [Conclusion] Gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Kindergarten children in Myanmar had gender-based and region-based differences on both locomotor and object control skills. This study added a valuable information to the establishment of a normative reference of Kindergarten aged children for future studies.
[Purpose] To study muscle atrophy, the muscle atrophy model mice have been used frequently. In particular, cast immobilization is the most common method to induce muscle atrophy. However, it is time consuming and often causes adverse events including skin injury, edema, and necrosis. The present study, we developed a hook-and-loop fastener (Velcro) immobilization method as a new, simple, and less invasive approach to induce muscle atrophy. [Subjects and Methods] Mice were bandaged in the knee joint extension and ankle plantar extension position. Muscle atrophy was induced by either winding a cast or Velcro around the limb. [Results] According to weight and fiber size, Velcro immobilization induced equivalent muscle atrophy to cast immobilization. Velcro immobilization reduced significantly the time for the procedure and the frequency of adverse events. [Conclusion] Velcro immobilization can induce muscle atrophy comparable to cast immobilization, but in a shorter time and with less complications. Velcro immobilization may contribute to the study of disuse muscle atrophy in clinical practice of physical therapy using a mouse model.
[Purpose] Lower extremity strength is a contributing factor to energy efficiency of gait. However, this contribution has not previously been evaluated in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between energy consumption, measured by the physical cost index (PCI), and strength of lower extremity, measured by the maximum knee extensor strength (MKES), in children with hemiplegic CP. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 10 children (4 males and 6 females; age, 7–17 years) with hemiplegic CP, but no history of orthopedic intervention or botulinum toxin treatment over the 1 year prior to the assessment. The PCI was measured during a 6-min walk test, and MKES using hand-held dynamometry, with the highest of two measures used for analysis. [Results] A negative correlation was identified between the PCI and MKES (R-value, −0.81 (affected) and −0.83 (unaffected) lower limb). [Conclusion] Higher lower extremity strength was associated with lower fatigability during a 6-min walk test in children with hemiplegic CP, providing evidence for the inclusion of strengthening exercises for both the affected and unaffected extremities in the rehabilitation of these children.
[Purpose] This study aims to determine the specific proprioceptive control strategy used during postural balance in older patients with low back pain (LBP) and non-LBP (NLBP) and to assess whether this strategy is related to proprioceptive decline and LBP. [Subjects and Methods] Pressure displacement center was determined in 47 older persons with LBP and 64 older persons with NLBP during upright stance on a balance board without vision. Gastrocnemius (GS) and lumbar multifidus muscle (LM) vibratory stimulations of 60 and 240-Hz, respectively, were applied to evaluate the relative contributions of different proprioceptive signals (relative proprioceptive weighting ratio, RPW) used in postural control. Age, height, weight, back muscle strength, L1/2 and L4/5 lumbar multifidus cross section area ratio, skeletal muscle mass index, sagittal vertical axis, and Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RDQ) were evaluated. [Results] Compared with older patients with NLBP, those with LBP showed a lower RPW 240-Hz, lower L4/5 lumbar multifidus cross-sectional area ratio, and a significantly higher age and RDQ. Logistic regression analysis showed that RPW 240-Hz and age were independently associated with LBP, after controlling for confounding factors. [Conclusion] Older patients with LBP decreased their reliance on GS (RPW 240-Hz) proprioceptive signals during balance control.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate mirror therapy (MT) condition by analyzing kinematic parameters according to mirror size and angle. [Subjects and Methods] Three hemiparesis stroke patients and five healthy adults participated in this cross-sectional study. Kinematic parameters during the MT were collected over a total of 5 trials for each subject (3 mirror angles × 3 mirror sizes). Center of pressure (COP) excursion data was collected by force plate, and other kinematic parameters by infra-red cameras. [Results] The larger the size and smaller the angle, the overall dependent variables decreased in all participants. Particularly, when virtual reality reflection equipment (VRRE) was used, the value of the flexion and the lateral tilt was the closest to the midline compared to all other independent variables. Moreover, it showed tendency of moving towards the affected side. Based on the results, MT for stroke patients has a disadvantage of shifting weight and leaning towards the unaffected side during therapy. [Conclusion] Therefore, it seems to be more effective in terms of clinics to apply VRRE to make up for the weak parts and provide more elaborate visual feedback.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of task-oriented training (TOT) on hand dexterity and strength in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy were randomly assigned to either the TOT group (n=6) or the control group (n=6). In both groups, conventional occupational therapy was performed 40-min/day, 2 times a week, for 4 weeks. In the TOT group, TOT was additionally performed for 20 min, and the control group received usual care. The box and block test (BBT) was performed to assess hand dexterity. Hand strength was also assessed using hand dynamometer. [Results] After intervention, the TOT group showed a significant improvement of hand dexterity. In the control group, BBT and grip strength were not significantly improved after intervention. [Conclusion] In clinical settings, we suggest that TOT may be used as an intervention to improve hand dexterity in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy.
[Purpose] Ventilatory limitation is a common problem in patients with chronic heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. Excess ventilation may arise from augmented ventilatory drive, over activity of chemoreceptors and muscle ergoreceptors, or premature onset of lactic acidosis. Exertional dyspnea can cause limitations in the activities of daily living and as a result, reduced quality of life for these patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation program on ventilatory efficiency for these patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty five patients with chronic heart failure and twenty five patients with pulmonary hypertension and only forty of them completed the study. The training program consisted of interval aerobic training program, based on the results of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Training period was about five months. Outcomes were ventilatory equivalent for CO2, (VE/VCO2 at anaerobic threshold), VO2 at anaerobic threshold, VO2 max and peak work load. Echocardiography parameters were also measured; right ventricular systolic pressure for patients with pulmonary hypertension and ejection fraction for patients with chronic heart failure. [Results] Both groups showed an improvement in ventilation during exercise in favor of patients with pulmonary hypertension. VE/VCO2 decreased by 6.65 in pulmonary hypertension and by 2.9 in chronic heart failure. Right ventricular systolic pressure decreased by 12.05 mmHg in pulmonary hypertension and ejection fraction increased by 17.74% in chronic heart failure. [Conclusion] Physical therapy cardiopulmonary rehabilitation should be considered in managing patients with ventilatory limitation such as pulmonary hypertension and chronic heart failure.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was three kinds of stretching methods and measured the change in the thickness of the piriform muscle in real time using ultrasound images and compared the medial rotation angle of the coxal articulation. [Subjects and Methods] Fourty-five subjects who attend B University in Cheonan, divided into three groups. The subjects in these three groups then underwent stretching with flexion of coxal articulation over 90°, stretching with flexion of coxal articulation under 90°, and muscle energy technique (MET) application. The main outcome measures were piriform muscle thickness and medial rotation angle of the coxal articulation. [Results] All groups showed decreased piriform muscle thickness and increased medial rotation angle of the coxal articulation. [Conclusion] Based on the above results, three kinds of piriform muscle stretching methods are effective of reduce muscle thickness and increase medial rotation angle of the coxal articulation.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of self-exercise on oropharyngeal swallowing function in patients with dysphagia. [Subjects and Methods] Nine patients with dysphagia after stroke were recruited. Self-exercise including effortful swallowing, tongue strengthening, and shaker exercise was performed 5 times a week for 4 weeks. Swallowing function was evaluated using the videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) based on a videofluoroscopic swallowing study. [Results] There were significant differences in both the oral and pharyngeal phases of the VDS before and after the intervention. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that bedside self-exercise is a positive method to improve oropharyngeal swallowing function in patients with dysphagia after stroke.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of jaw opening exercise (JOE) on aspiration in patients with dysphagia after stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Three subjects were recruited. Isometric and isotonic JOE were performed using a rubber ball, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Aspiration was evaluated using the penetration-a spiration scale (PAS) based on a videofluoroscopic swallowing study. [Results] All subjects showed a score reduction of at least 1 point and a maximum reduction of 2 points in the PAS in the liquid type. [Conclusion] This study confirmed that JOE can be used to reduce aspiration in patients with dysphagia after stroke.
[Purpose] To investigate the effect of mental practice combined with electromyogram-triggered electrical stimulation (MP-EMG ES) on the upper extremity of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly assigned to experimental group or control group. The experimental group received MP-EMG ES plus conventional rehabilitation therapy for 5 days per week for 4 weeks. The control group received only conventional rehabilitation therapy. Outcome measure included the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Motor Activity Log (MAL). [Results] Experimental group showed more improved in the FMA, MAL-AOU, MAL-QOM compared with the control group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that MP-EMG ES improves the upper extremity of subacute stroke patients better than conventional rehabilitation therapy alone.
[Purpose] In the present study, we hypothesized that exercise of the nonaffected forelimb in the early poststroke phase would stimulate the intact hemisphere, thereby influencing the hemisphere of the infarcted side and improving the performance of the hemiplegic limb. [Subjects and Methods] Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (8–10 weeks of age, weighing 250–300 g, n=12) were used and randomly divided into 3 groups: nonaffected forelimb exercise for 3 days and treadmill exercise 7 days after ischemia (ETF, n=6), resting for 3 days and treadmill exercise 7 days after ischemia (ETN, n=6), and after ischemia 10 days resting group. To validate nerve growth factor (NGF), western blot analysis was performed. The results were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 18.0. and expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD). [Results] Early treadmill exercise increased the expression of NGF protein level in both ETE and ETN groups. Comparing between the nonaffected forelimb exercise and infarct hemisphere in NGF protein expression, the ETE group showed higher increase of NGF protein level in right hemisphere than ETN group, but there was no statistical significance. [Conclusion] The early treadmill exercise increased NGF protein expression levels in both hemispheres and the nonaffected forelimb exercise in the early poststroke recovery phase could enhance neuronal recovery after focal ischemia in rat models.
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of forward head posture-improving exercises on rounded shoulder posture when employing the self-stretch exercise, the McKenzie exercise, and the Kendall exercise as intervention methods based on previous studies that reported negative effects of unbalanced posture and musculoskeletal problems on forward head posture and rounded shoulder posture. [Subjects and Methods] The selected 28 subjects were randomly assigned into the McKenzie exercise group (n=9), the self-stretch exercise group (n=10), and the Kendall exercise group (n=9). To compare the forward head posture, the craniovertebral angle was used. To measure the rounded shoulder posture, the scapular index was used. [Results] There were significant differences in the craniovertebral angle and scapular index within the groups and no significant differences between the groups. [Conclusion] The result of this study showed that all interventions increased the craniovertebral angle and the scapular index, which revealed that the applied exercises had a positive effect on forward head posture and rounded shoulder posture.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify differences in maximal strength and endurance of the tongue among healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 60 healthy volunteers (30 men; 30 women; age range, 20–26 years) were recruited and evaluated for maximal strength and endurance of the anterior and posterior regions of the tongue using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. [Results] Tongue strength in the anterior region was greater than that in the posterior region. In contrast, tongue endurance in the posterior region was greater than that in the anterior region. [Conclusion] In conclusion, these results confirm that the anterior region of the tongue exhibits greater strength, whereas the posterior region exhibits greater endurance.
[Purpose] This study was to observe the influence of Pilates training on the quality of life in chronic stoke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Forty chronic stroke patients participated in this study. They were divided into same number of experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). EG participated in a 60-min Pilates training program, twice a week for 12 weeks, while the CG did not participate in any exercise-related activities for the duration and participating in general occupational therapy without any exercise-related activities. Then the MMSE-K was performed before and after Pilates training to observe the influence of Pilates training on the quality of life in chronic stroke patients. [Results] Statistically significant improvement in the physical, social, and psychological domains was found in EG after the training. No statistically significant difference was found in all three quality of life domains for the CG. EG experienced a statistically significant improvement in all quality of life domains compared with that of CG. [Conclusion] Therefore, participation in Pilates training was found to effectively improve the quality of life in stroke patients. Pilates training involves low and intermediate intensity resistance and repetition that match the patient’s physical ability and can be a remedial exercise program that can improve physical ability and influence quality of life.
[Purpose] The present study aimed to conduct a comparative analysis of changes in mechanical characteristics of cervical muscles and cervical posture in patients with cervicogenic headache following exercise program intervention in order to present effective treatment methods for such patients. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 30 patients with cervicogenic headache were recruited and 15 patients were allocated to cervical stretching exercise group and 15 to cervical stretching exercise and cranio-cervical flexion exercise group. After 3 weeks of exercise intervention, craniovertebral angle and tone (Hz) and stiffness (N/m) of the suboccipital and upper trapezius muscles were measured. [Results] After the exercise program intervention, a greater amount of change in tone of suboccipital and upper trapezius muscles was found in the experimental group, as compared to the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Greater amount of change in muscle stiffness and craniovertebral angle was found in the experimental group, as compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Findings of the present study showed that cranio-cervical exercise was an effective form of exercise for changing muscle characteristics and posture in patients with cervicogenic headache. Such findings will be helpful in providing effective treatments for patients with cervicogenic headache.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to quantitatively analyze changes in muscle tone and stiffness in the posterior cervical region of individuals in a static prone position in a sling or on a plinth. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four men in their 20s were divided into a sling group and a plinth group, and their changes in muscle tone and stiffness over time in the upper cervical region, lower cervical region, and upper trapezius muscles during a static prone position were measured. [Results] The sling group showed increases in the mean values of muscle tone and stiffness in the upper cervical region immediately after the suspension. In addition, this group exhibited statistically significant declines in the muscle tone and stiffness of the upper cervical region and a statistically significant decline in the muscle tone of the upper trapezius region. [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggest that for the treatment of the posterior upper cervical region after sling suspension in a static prone position, the time required to reduce the muscle tone and stiffness of this region should be taken into account.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of the vibration form-roller exercise on the pain in the hip joint and the joint performances. [Subjects and Methods] 30 adult patients were randomly sampled and divided into form-roller group (15) and the vibration form-roller group (15). The two groups were exposed to an exercise regimen of 3 sessions per week, over 4 weeks. Each session was composed of warming-up (5M), main exercises (20M), and five minutes of cool-down (5M). [Results] The result of this study, in the intra-group comparison of the Performance, the PRE group increase in the flexion, extension, and abduction of the hip joint, the VPRE group increase in flexion, extension, external rotation and internal rotation. In the comparison between groups, the VPRE group increase in the flexion and internal rotation. Through the intra-group comparison the pressure pain, the PRE group and the VPRE group decreases in the all muscles. In the comparison between the groups, there was increase in the iliotibial tract of the VPRE group. [Conclusion] The result of this study the effect of the form-roller & vibration form-roller exercises. Therefore, various exercise methods would have to be developed in order to overcome the limitations in the existing form-roller exercises.
[Purpose] The final purpose of the present study was to propose easy and quick mental rotation task. Since subjects can easily understand mental rotation task that they have to do, the task is considered to be available in particular children. However, existing mental rotation task using specific software asked subjects more than ten trials per one pictured stimulus, meaning that relatively long time is required to accurately measure. Thus, children have difficulty to keep their attention during the existing task and to demonstrate their ability accurately. To address the purpose of the present study, the performance of mental rotation task using paper was investigated whether the performance has similar characteristics to an existing mental rotation task using specific software, in order to verify the usability of the task using paper. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-three elementary school participants were asked to determine whether a rotating hand picture was left or right as quickly as possible and indicate it by writing a diagonal line on the paper. The total time required judgment of 16 pictures and the number of judgment errors were counted. [Results] The number of judgment errors increased with an increasing stimulus rotation angle. Also, the mental rotation time improved with age. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the performance of mental rotation using paper has the same characteristics as the existing method using specific software. Therefore, the mental rotation using paper would be practical method for subjects having difficulty to keep attention relatively long time, such as elementary school children.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to research the most effective knee flexion angle and ground condition in the squat position. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 15 female college students who were able to perform squat movements and who had never previously experienced surgery, orthopedic disease, or musculoskeletal impairment. This study was conducted to examine changes of muscle activation of low-extremity muscles at different knee flexion angles of 70°, 90°, and 100°. Balance Pad (Aero Step, TOGU, Germany) was used as unstable ground. Surface electromyogram (4D-MT & EMD-11, Relive, Korea) was used for measuring muscle activation. Measured muscles were vastus medialis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius. Muscle activation was determined by the root mean square (RMS). [Results] There was a difference in muscle activation of the vastus medialis and tibialis anterior according to the change of the knee flexion angle with the stable ground. However, there was no difference in muscle activation of the lower extremity muscles according to the change of the knee flexion angle with the unstable ground. [Conclusion] These results suggest that changes in the angle of the knee flexion with the stable ground affect the muscle activation of the vastus medialis and tibialis anterior. It was found that as the joint angle increases, muscle activation also increases. However, ground condition does not affect muscle activation.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether the intensity of static stretching measured quantitatively is related to subjects’ perception of pain. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-eight participants were recruited. Static stretching was performed once for 30 seconds while maintaining the knee at 0° flexion and was continued to the point where pain was recognized. The intensity of stretching exerted by the practitioner was quantitatively measured by using a handheld dynamometer (HHD). A subject’s pain scaled on one’s perception was measured by using the visual analog scale (VAS). [Results] No significant correlation was found between the intensity of stretching and the VAS score representing the subject’s pain scaled on one’s perception. In this study, the most frequent VAS score was 7, and the mean VAS score was 5.57 ± 1.77. The stretching intensity measured by using a HHD ranged from 28.4 to 133.0 N (mean, 72.04 ± 22.37 N). [Conclusion] This study showed that the intensity of stretching quantitatively measured by using HHD did not correlate with the degree of pain reported by the subjects. Therefore, subjective responses cannot guarantee a consistent application of intensity.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate whether transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation simultaneously combined with local heat and cold applications enhances pain relief compared with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation alone in patients with knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Fourty-five patients with knee osteoarthritis participated in this study. They were randomly assigned to the following three interventions: transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation simultaneously combined with local heat using a hot pack; combined with local cold using a cold pack; and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation alone. In each intervention, the knee pain level during walking and standing up from a chair, as well as dynamic balance and gait ability were evaluated immediately before and after a single intervention using the visual analogue scale and the timed up & go test, respectively. [Results] A significant improvement in dynamic balance and gait ability was only observed immediately after transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation simultaneously combined with local heat application, although the degree of pain relief during standing and walking were comparable among the three interventions. [Conclusion] These results suggest that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation simultaneously combined with local heat application can immediately improve not only knee pain during standing and walking but also dynamic balance and gait ability in patients with knee osteoarthritis.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the intrarater reliability of using ultrasonography as a measurement tool to assess the patella position in a weight-bearing condition. [Subjects and Methods] Ten healthy adults participated in this study. Ultrasonography was used to assess the patella position during step down with the loading knee in flexion (0° and 20°). The distance between the patella and lateral condyle was measured to represent the patella position on the condylar groove. Two measurements were obtained on the first day and the day after 1 week by the same investigator. [Results] Excellent intrarater reliability, ranging from 0.83 to 0.93, was shown in both conditions. Standard errors of the measurements were 0.5 mm in the straight knee and 0.7 mm in the knee flexion at 20°. Minimal differences in knee flexion at 0° and knee flexion at 20° were 1.5 mm and 1.9 mm, respectively. [Conclusion] Ultrasonography is a reliable assessment tool for evaluating the positional changes of the patella in weight-bearing activities, and it can be easily used by practitioners in the clinical setting.
[Purpose] The present study aimed to demonstrate the following by using measurements for the definite angles provided by the digital protractor: inter-rater reliability and validity in radiograph measurements and smartphone application measurements. [Subjects and Methods] The subject angles were 26 angles between 15° and 180° that were selected randomly using a computer. Three examiners measured the angles using the radiograph and smartphone application. The radiograph was obtained at a position 250 cm from the chest shooting cassette holder. The smartphone photograph was obtained at positions 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 cm from the holder. [Results] Under all conditions, intra-class correlation coefficients showed 0.999. The correlation coefficient was 0.999 for all conditions. The mean absolute difference to the protractor was ≤0.28° for all conditions. [Conclusion] In comparison with the protractor, radiograph measurements and smartphone application measurements, the results of the present study showed high inter-rater reliability, validity, and small error. The results indicated that radiograph and smartphone application measurements could be used as criteria of validity in angle measurements. It supported the legitimacy of high-quality previous studies that used radiograph measurements as a criterion for validity.
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of single and dual motor tasks on walking in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] Data of 308 community-dwelling elderly people were analyzed. Spatiotemporal gait data were obtained using the OPTO Gait system. The gait ability test was conducted under single- and dual-task conditions. [Results] Age and task main effects showed significant difference. Interaction did not show any significant difference. [Conclusion] Our results showed that gait performance decreased during dual task compared to single task. Moreover, we found that the higher the age, the greater the effect on dual tasks. Further research is needed to determine how to improve dual task abilities in older adults.
[Purpose] The purpose of this research is to take a look at the influences of the dual task training on the hand function and the balance ability of the stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The dual task training was applied to 2 stroke hemiplegia patients. The dual task training had been carried out for 30 minutes by each session for 5 days a week for 3 weeks. The evaluations had been carried out 5 times for 3 weeks before and after the intervention. And the changes of the hand function had been measured by using the box and block test. And, for the changes of the balancing ability, the Berg Balance Scale was used. [Results] Both the hand function and the balancing ability of the subjects were improved after the dual task training. [Conclusion] Through the results of the research, it was able to confirm that the dual task training is effective for the enhancements of the hand function and the balancing ability of the stroke patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study investigated the effects of 4 weeks of dynamic neuromuscular stabilization training on balance ability. [Subject and Methods] An adolescent with spastic hemiparetic cerebral palsy was recruited. The subject performed 4 weeks of dynamic neuromuscular stabilization training. We assessed the balance subtest of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition, the 10-meter walk test, and the 6-min walk test. [Results] The balance subtest scores were improved significantly after training. [Conclusion] This study suggests that 4 weeks of dynamic neuromuscular stabilization training is effective for improving balance and gait performance in spastic hemiparetic cerebral palsy.