[Purpose] To verify the effects of short-term plyometric training (PM) on body composition, flexibility and muscle power output in female Futsal athletes. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty female Futsal athletes (19.5 ± 1.29 years) equally and randomly divided into control and experimental groups were submitted to a sit-and-reach flexibility test, body composition measures and horizontal jump, at baseline and one day after the final training session. Both groups retained their training routines while only the experimental group participated in an additional 25 minutes of PM 2 times a week over 4 weeks. [Results] The experimental group showed higher values of flexibility and muscle power and lower body fat after the intervention in comparison to the baseline and control group. In addition, the effect size within-group after intervention indicated a moderate, large and very large effect for body fat, flexibility and muscle power, respectively. [Conclusion] These results show that plyometric training may be effective in reducing body fat and increasing flexibility and muscle power in female Futsal athletes. Thus, it may suggest that PM can be applied in the field of preventive physical therapy.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of calf muscle massage on ankle flexibility and balance. [Subjects and Methods] The study’s subjects were 32 healthy college students, divided into two groups according to the massage methods applied. Both groups received five-minutes of massage to each calf, making a total of ten minutes. Massage group A received effleurage, tapotement and pressure, and massage group B received effleurage, friction and petrissage. The functional reaching test and the modified one leg standing test were performed to measure the flexibility and balance of the ankles both before and after the massage application. [Results] In the functional reaching test performed after the calf muscle massage intervention, both groups showed significant increases. However, no significant differences were found between the two groups. In the modified one leg standing test, massage group A showed a significant increase in flexibility and balance after the intervention only when the left foot was used for support. Massage group B showed a significant increase when each foot was used for support. A significant difference between the groups was only observed only when the left foot was used for support. [Conclusion] Calf muscle massage may be effective for enhancing the flexibility and balance function of the ankle joint. In particular, a combined application of friction and petrissage massage techniques may be more effective for increasing ankle joint flexibility. Therefore, the application of calf massage can be considered an appropriate method for improving balancing ability.
[Purpose] To assess the effects of forearm support and shoulder posture on upper trapezius and anterior deltoid activity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three female university students were evaluated. Muscle activity was assessed by a portable surface electromyography (sEMG) system (Myomonitor IV, Delsys, USA). Upper trapezius and anterior deltoid activity were recorded in five shoulder flexion postures: 0°, 15°, 30°, 45° and 60° and in two conditions: with the forearm supported and unsupported. Descriptive data analysis was performed and statistical analysis was conducted by a multivariate analysis of variance with three repeated factors (posture, support and side). [Results] Three-way interactions were not significant. Two-way interaction was significant for support and posture for both muscles, indicating that the muscular activity depends on the forearm support and shoulder posture. The forearm support reduced upper trapezius and anterior deltoid activity for all shoulder flexion angles. The mean and standard deviation for this decrease was 7.8 (SD=4.6)% of the maximal voluntary contraction for anterior deltoid and 3.8 (SD=2.0)% of the maximal voluntary contraction for upper trapezius. In the unsupported condition, increasing the shoulder flexion angle caused an increase in the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid activation. [Conclusion] These results highlight the importance of using forearm support and to maintain neutral shoulder posture, when the upper arms are not supported, to reduce muscle activation. Thus, this study provides evidence about the effect of these recommendations to reduce muscular activity.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to establish up-to-date data regarding the lung function of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-eight patients of both genders, with a diagnosis of CF, were recruited. As a result our sample presented, according to the GOLD criteria, 23 patients with mild lung obstruction (FEV1%pred: 89.86), 16 patients with moderate lung obstruction (FEV1%pred: 56.1) and 9 patients with severe obstruction (FEV1%pred: 32.1). [Results] All patients presented normal total lung capacity followed by an important residual volume increase. [Conclusion] Our results were important to illustrate the CF patient’s lung functional status and to improve the health system strategy in treating such individuals.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study is to detail the protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of neural manual vs. robotic assisted on pain in sensitivity as well as analyse the quantitative and qualitative movement of hand in subjects with hand osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-two patients, aged 50 to 90 years old of both genders, with a diagnosis of hand Osteoarthritis (OA), will be recruited. Two groups of 36 participants will receive an experimental intervention (neurodynamic mobilization intervention plus exercise) or a control intervention (robotic assisted passive mobilization plus exercise) for 12 sessions over 4 weeks. Assessment points will be at baseline, end of therapy, and 1 and 3 months after end of therapy. The outcomes of this intervention will be pain and determine the central pain processing mechanisms. [Result] Not applicable. [Conclusion] If there is a reduction in pain hypersensitivity in hand OA patients it can suggest that supraspinal pain-inhibitory areas, including the periaqueductal gray matter, can be stimulated by joint mobilization.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a self-managed physical activity program using a pedometer and diary on physical function, ADL, and QOL in patients with chronic respiratory disease. [Subjects and Methods] 17 outpatients with chronic respiratory disease were assessed for dyspnea, muscle strength, exercise tolerance, ADL, and QOL at baseline, after 3-, and 6-months after the start of the program. Patients were randomly assigned to “Control” or “Diary” group. In the Diary group, the number of steps was counted with a pedometer and recorded in a diary together with self-evaluation of physical activity, while patients assigned to the Control group did not use a pedometer or keep a diary. [Results] The Diary group showed significant improvement in the daily step count over time. The Diary group showed significant improvement of the dyspnea, muscle strength, and exercise tolerance at 3 months, dyspnea and muscle strength at 6 months. Significant differences found between two groups with regard to the extent of change in the muscle strength, exercise tolerance, and QOL at 3 months. [Conclusion] This study suggests that a self-managed physical activity program using a pedometer and diary can increase the level of physical activity.
[Purpose] The age at menarche in Korean women has been declining sharply. However, for the students who are just beginning to menstruate, taking pain medication might become a long-term habit continuing until adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated whether balance taping would be more helpful than medication in relieving the pain. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects of this study included 125 female students. The participants were assigned to the balance taping group, the control group, and the medication group. The medication group was given 1 dose of Tylenol (acetaminophen 500 mg) and the balance-taping group had taping applied, and the changes in pain were measured before the taping, as well as1 hour, 4 hours, 8 hours, and 24 hours after. The measurement was done two times for the repeatability of the result. [Results] The balance-taping group showed a difference in pain from 1 hour after the taping compared with the control group, and the pain was significantly reduced until 24 hours after the taping. The balance taping group showed a statistically significant difference in pain compared with the medication group from 4 hours after the taping, and it lasted until 24 hours after the taping. The results were similar in the second measurement as well. [Conclusion] Balance taping was shown to be effective in relieving menstrual pain. Balance taping could be an effective alternative to medication in relieving menstrual pain and distress.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of proprietary foot orthotics in young adults with flatfoot to determine changes in the ankle joint angle in the coronal plane during the midstance phase. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 15 college students diagnosed with flatfoot. Changes in the ankle joint angle in the coronal plane in the midstance phase were measured using the Vicon Motion System before and after use of the orthotic. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Win 16.0. [Results] The subjects showed significant increases in left and right ankle joint angles in the coronal plane during the midstance phase of the gait cycle after use of the orthotics. However, the difference between the left and right ankle joint angles showed no significant change, even though the difference increased after use of the orthotics. [Conclusion] Young adults with flatfoot showed increased ankle joint angles after use of the orthotics. This suggests that orthotic footwear can shape the plantar arch and affect the ankle joint, and that constant use of orthotics would cause a dynamic change in normal walking.
[Purpose] To improve walking efficiency could be useful for reducing fatigue and extending possible period of walking in children with cerebral palsy (CP). For this purpose, current study compared conventional parameters of gross motor performance, step length, and cadence in the evaluation of walking efficiency in children with CP. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one children with CP (21 boys, 10 girls; mean age, 12.3 ± 2.7 years) participated. Parameters of gross motor performance, including the maximum step length (MSL), maximum side step length, step number, lateral step up number, and single leg standing time, were measured in both dominant and non-dominant sides. Spatio-temporal parameters of walking, including speed, step length, and cadence, were calculated. Total heart beat index (THBI), a parameter of walking efficiency, was also calculated from heartbeats and walking distance in 10 minutes of walking. To analyze the relationships between these parameters and the THBI, the coefficients of determination were calculated using stepwise analysis. [Results] The MSL of the dominant side best accounted for the THBI (R2=0.759). [Conclusion] The MSL of the dominant side was the best explanatory parameter for walking efficiency in children with CP.
[Purpose] The present study aimed to clarify the effects of balance control on the pronation and supination movements of the talocrural joint in community-dwelling elderly women by conducting a frequency analysis of the center of pressure during tandem stance. [Subjects and Methods] The study participants were 18 subjects who maintained tandem stance for 20 s and 11 who had difficulty maintaining tandem stance for 20 s. The frequency-power spectra were computed and classified into three frequency bands. Each power spectral value was divided by the sum of the power spectral values to obtain the %power. [Results] Significant differences in high-frequency band %power value for the center of pressure in both the mediolateral and anteroposterior components were evident between the groups. [Conclusion] A markedly significant difference was observed, particularly in high frequency band %power, depending on balance control. The present findings indicated that elderly participants with diminished balance control had difficulty with rapid adjustment centered on the ankles, suggesting that rapid joint movement involving interlimb coordination centered on the ankles is required to maintain tandem stance.
[Purpose] Low back pain is a pervasive problem in modern societies. Physical rehabilitation in treatment of low back pain should reduce pain, muscle tension and restore spine stability and balance. The INFINITY® rehabilitation method that is based on a figure of eight movement pattern was proved to be effective in low back pain treatment. The aim of the paper is to estimate the effect of a figure of eight motion on the L5/S1 load and lumbar spine muscle activation in comparison to other motion patterns. [Subjects and Methods] Three-dimensional model of lumbar spine musculoskeletal system is used to simulate effect of various load motion pattern induced by displacement of the center of gravity of the upper body. Four motion patterns were examined: lateral and oblique pendulum-like motion, elliptical motion and figure of eight motion. [Results] The simple pendulum-like and elliptical-like patterns induce harmonic muscle activation and harmonic spinal load. The figure of eight motion pattern creates high-frequency spinal loading that activates remodeling of bones and tendons. The figure of eight pattern also requires muscle activity that differs from harmonic frequency and is more demanding on muscle control and could also improve muscle coordination. [Conclusion] The results of the study indicate that complex motion pattern during INFINITY® rehabilitation might enhance the spine stability by influencing its passive, active and neural components.
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of phase proprioceptive training on balance in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included 30 patients with stroke who were randomly assigned to the proprioceptive training group (n=15) or control group (n=15). Participants in the proprioceptive training group underwent proprioceptive training and received general physical therapy each for a total of 20 thirty-minute sessions, five times per week, during a period of four weeks; the control group received general physical therapy for a total of 20 sixty-minute sessions, five times per week, during a period of four weeks. [Results] All participants were evaluated with the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale instrument before and after intervention. After training, the differences in BBS, TUG, and ABC scores in the proprioceptive group were significantly greater than those in the control group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, proprioceptive training was effective on balance ability. Therefore, proprioceptive training may be efficient when combining general physical therapy with phase proprioceptive training for patients with impairments of balance. Further research is needed to investigate proprioceptive training methods.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of open kinetic chain and closed kinetic chain exercises on the static and dynamic balance of ankle joints in young healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty women in their 20s were randomly assigned to two groups of ten women each: an open kinetic chain exercise group and a closed kinetic chain exercise group. Each group performed five sets of exercises three times per week for four weeks. Exercise intensity was increased once after two weeks. The subjects’ Romberg’s test results and their limits of stability were measured to evaluate their static and dynamic balance. The data were analyzed using a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance test. [Results] In the results of Romberg’s test, the main effect of the time showed a significant difference in the trace length with eyes closed (Effect size: d=0.97). In the result of limits of stability, the interaction effect showed a significant difference in the backward, and the main effect of the group showed a significant difference in the forward. [Conclusion] The open kinetic chain and closed kinetic chain exercises both improved the balance of the subjects. The closed kinetic chain exercise was more effective at improving the dynamic balance of young healthy women than the open kinetic chain exercise.
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the changes in the muscle activities of each section of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles in the functional reach test. [Subjects and Methods] This study selected those who can walk independently, can reach out their arm up to over 25 cm, can show over 90° shoulder joint bending, have not undergone an operation in the lower limb joint, and are not taking any medication affecting their ability to keep their balance from among 24 elderly males and 24 elderly females. The muscular activities of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles were measured using the functional reach test and electromyogram. The functional reach test was conducted at a total of four sections: 0, 15, 20, and 25 cm. [Results] Gender and age affected the muscular activity by section in the functional reach test. It was also found that the gastrocnemius muscle was used more than the tibialis anterior muscle to keep the balance, and the aged subjects with good balance ability showed no great change in muscular activity on both stable and unstable ground. [Conclusion] It was found that the subjects used the tibialis anterior muscle more, and the lower limbs of the frequently used part, to keep their balance. As the aged subjects had good balance ability, they showed no great change in muscular activity on both stable and unstable ground.
[Purpose] Investigation of the efficacy of robot-mediated therapy of the upper limb in patients with chronic stroke, in task-oriented training activities of daily living in real environment. [Subjects and Methods] 20 patients, each more than one year post-stroke (13–71 months) received 20 sessions of upper limb robot-mediated therapy. No other treatment was given. Each therapy session consisted of a passive motion and an active task therapy. During the active therapy, subjects exercised 5 activities of daily living. Assessments of the subjects were blind, and conducted one month prior to, at the start, at the end, and three months after the therapy course. The following outcome measures were recorded: Fugl-Meyer Scale—upper extremity subsection, Modified Ashworth Scale, Action Research Arm Test, Functional Independence Measure, Barthel Index. [Results] Significant improvements were observed between the start and the end of the therapy, except for Modified Ashworth Scale and Barthel Index. Results still held up at the follow-up visit three months later. [Conclusion] Practicing activities of daily living in real environment with robot-mediated physical therapy can improve the motor and functional ability of patients, even with relatively good initial functions, and even years post-stroke.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of dry cupping on pain and function of patients with plantar fasciitis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine subjects (age 15 to 59 years old, 20 females and 9 males), randomly assigned into the two groups (dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy groups), participated in this study. The research design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Treatments were provided to the subjects twice a week for 4 weeks. Outcome measurements included the Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAS) (at rest, first in the morning, and with activities), the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), as well as the pressure pain threshold. [Results]The data indicated that both dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy could reduce pain and increase function significantly in the population tested, as all the 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) did not include 0 except for the pressure pain threshold. There was no significant difference between the dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation groups in all the outcome measurements. [Conclusion] These results support that both dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy could reduce pain and increase function in the population tested.
[Purposes] Although it is recommended to develop a habit of physical activities, there is no easy way to measure skeletal muscle mass in preschool children, which cause the difficulty of evaluation. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of body composition including the skeletal muscle mass assessment using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis by comparing body fat mass obtained by using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis method and body mass index formulas. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety-four children were surveyed for age, height, weight, grip strength, maximum occlusal force, thickness of muscle and fat mass (masseter and lower limb), body fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and calf circumference. We assessed additional parameters, which were thought to be related to skeletal muscle mass, to ensure validity. [Results] A strong correlation was found in body fat mass values obtained using the multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis method and those obtained using the body mass index formulas. Additionally, strong correlation coefficients were found between the skeletal muscle mass/height obtained using the multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis method and grip strength and calf circumference. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that skeletal muscle mass can be reliably measured using the multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis method in preschool children.
[Purpose] This study was conducted to compare and analyze influence of craniocervical flexion and suboccipitalis relaxation in cervicogenic headache patients of their cervical muscular fatigue, tone, and headache intensity. [Subjects and Methods] 30 patients with cervicogenic headache were selected and 10 subjects per group were randomly assigned to control group, craniocervical flexion exercise group, and suboccipitalis relaxation group. Intervention for each group was provided 5 times a week for 4 weeks. Muscular tone test and muscular fatigue test were conducted on both sides of upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoideus and visual analogue sclae on the headache intensity was conducted before the intervention, after 2 weeks, and after 4 weeks. [Results] Difference from intervention was significant in muscular fatigue of upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoideus, muscular tone of sternocleidomastoideus, and headache intensity. Correlation between intervention duration and the groups showed significant difference in muscular fatigue, muscular tone, and headache intensity except left upper trapezius muscle. [Conclusion] From this study, 4 week application of crainiocervical flexion exercise and suboccipitalis relaxation on cervicogenic headache patients was found to be effective in decrease of muscular fatigue of upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoideus, muscular tone of sternocleidomastoideus, and headache intensity.
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the health-related and subjective quality of life of community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients, and also examined how such quality of life correlate with their daily life activities and instrumental activities of daily living. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 27 community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients (mean age: 76.3 ± 7.4 years). Their health-related quality of life and subjective quality of life, life-space assessment, frenchay activities index were researched. [Results] For the relationships between the total subjective quality of life scores and health-related quality of life scores, significant positive correlations were observed for body pain, general health, vitality, social functions and mental health. The correlations were not statistically significant between the subjective quality of life scores and the life-space assessment and frenchay activities index scores. The correlations were statistically significant between some health-related quality of life scores and the life-space assessment and frenchay activities index scores. [Conclusion] The results suggest that supporting community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients to improve their sense of physical and mental well-being, and prevent and reduce their depression and physical pain, is required in order to improve their QOL.
[Purpose] To examine the efficacy of Ai Chi in relieving the pain and stiffness of knee osteoarthritis and improving, physical functioning, proprioception and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five persons with knee osteoarthritis completed 5 weeks Ai Chi practice (60 minutes per session, twice per week, 10 sessions in total). Knee pain and stiffness were measured before and after the intervention program. [Results] Significant improvements in pain, self-perceived physical functioning and self-perceived stiffness were observed after the Ai-Chi intervention. On average, no significant change in knee range of motion, 6-minute walk test distances or proprioception was observed. [Conclusion] A five-week Ai Chi intervention can improve the pain and stiffness of knee osteoarthritis and self-perceived physical functions and quality of life improvement. Ai Chi may be another treatment choice for people with knee OA to practice in the community.
[Purpose] The aim of this study is to compare patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) with those with non-specific chronic back pain (NSCBP) in terms of pain, depression, and quality of life levels to explain the effects of surgery experience on low-back pain. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 50 patients with FBSS and 51 patients with NSCBP who consecutively applied to the outpatient clinic from September 2012 to April 2013 were included in the study. Patients completed questionnaires on demographics, body mass index, education level, work history, and pain duration (in months). Lumbar pain at rest, during movement, and at night were measured with a visual analogue scale (VAS). The Short Form 36 scale was used for evaluating quality of life, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used for assessing depression. [Results] VAS scores reporting pain at rest and at night and BDI scores were significantly higher in the FBSS group than in the NSCBP group. Role limitations due to physical functioning, which is one of the measures of quality of life, were significantly higher in the FBSS group than in the NSCBP group. [Conclusion] These assessments show that surgery experience in patients with ongoing low-back pain makes their pain and depression worse.
[Purpose] To compare two platelet-rich plasma kits with different platelet concentrations for treatment of knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Male and female patients with knee osteoarthritis who had confirmed diagnosis with X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging were included in this retrospective study. Eligible patients were divided into two groups: Group I, which received platelet-rich plasma kit I, and Group II, which received platelet-rich plasma kit II. Platelet concentrations of both kits were measured by manual counting. For each group, platelet-rich plasma kit was injected twice with a one-month interval between injections. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and the Visual Analog Scale were applied for clinical evaluation before the first injection and one, three and six months after the second injection. [Results] Kits I and II contained 1,000,000 and 3,000,000 platelets/µl respectively. In both groups, initial Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and Visual Analog Scale scores were significantly higher compared to the latter evaluations. However, no significant difference was observed between groups in terms of clinical evaluations. [Conclusion] Similar clinical results were found in groups receiving different platelet concentrations, therefore, a concentration of 1,000,000 platelet/µl is considered sufficient for pain relief and functional recovery.
[Purpose] Currently, the six-minute walk distance (6MWD) is used to evaluate exercise capacity in people following lung resection for non-small cell lung cancer. However, it is unclear whether the 6MWD can detect changes in cardiorespiratory fitness induced by exercise training or lung resection. Conversely, the stair-climbing test is used frequently for the preoperative evaluation of lung resection candidates. It is considered a sensitive method for detecting changes associated with training, but is not used to evaluate exercise capacity after lung resection. The purpose of this study was to compare the stair-climbing test and the six-minute walk test (6MWT) after lung resection. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen patients undergoing lung resection completed the stair-climbing test and the 6MWT preoperatively, and one month postoperatively. The postoperative values and the percentage change in the stair-climbing test and the 6MWT were evaluated. [Results] The stair-climbing test results showed a significant deterioration at one month after lung resection; however, a significant change in the 6MWD was not observed. [Conclusion] When compared with the 6MWT, the stair-climbing test was more sensitive in detecting lung resection-induced changes in cardiorespiratory fitness.
[Purpose] This pilot study examined the immediate effects of quick-seated trunk exercise on sit-to-stand movement in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Five children with spastic cerebral palsy (hemiplegia, 3; diplegia, 2; age 6–17 years) performed five sessions of natural-seated trunk exercise at a self-selected speed (control). Following a 50-min rest period, five sessions of the quick-seated trunk exercise were conducted (experimental intervention) for each child. Each seated trunk exercise included 10 repetitions in the anterior-posterior and lateral directions. Sit-to-stand was assessed before and after each intervention using a motion analysis system. The total sit-to-stand task duration and sagittal, angular movements of the trunk, hip, knee, and ankle were calculated. [Results] There was a significant difference in the total duration of the sit-to-stand movement before and after natural-seated trunk exercise (2.40 ± 0.67 s vs. 2.24 ± 0.44 s) as well as quick seated trunk exercise (2.41 ± 0.54 s vs. 2.06 ± 0.45 s). However, the sit-to-stand duration increased after natural-seated trunk exercise in one participant while that after quick-seated trunk exercise decreased in all participants. [Conclusion] Performing a trunk exercise in a seated position resulted in immediate improvement of the temporal sit-to-stand parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy.
[Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the weight control behaviors among Koreans. [Subjects and Methods] The study is a secondary analysis. Data were extracted from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 through 2014. [Results] The weight control behaviors were exhibited by more than half of the participants each year. The weight control behavior that was most prevalent among Koreans was exercise. The types of exercise included walking, muscle strengthening, flexibility exercises, etc. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that exercise was confirmed as the preferred method for weight control among Koreans.
[Purpose] The newly developed Functional Independence and Difficulty Scale is a tool for assessing the performance of basic activities of daily living in terms of both independence and difficulty. The aim of this study was to examine the predictive validity of the scale for decline of instrumental activities of daily living ability and multiple falls during a 24-month follow-up period. [Subjects and Methods] One-hundred forty older adults (median age 74.0, 60% women) completed baseline data collection and a follow-up postal survey. At baseline, background variables, the Functional Independence and Difficulty Scale, and instrumental activities of daily living ability assessed by the five sub-items of Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence were recorded. At follow-up, data on instrumental activities of daily living ability and falls in the previous 12 months were obtained. [Results] Of the 140 participants, 15 (10.7%) declined in instrumental activities of daily living ability and 14 (10.0%) experienced multiple falls. The Functional Independence and Difficulty Scale at baseline independently predicted decline of instrumental activities of daily living ability and multiple falls. [Conclusion] The Functional Independence and Difficulty Scale predicts subsequent decline of instrumental activities of daily living ability and multiple falls.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the cervical flexion angle on muscle fatigue and pain in the cervical erector spinae and upper trapezius in normal adults in their 20s. [Subjects and Methods] The study’s subjects were 14 normal adults. After sitting on a chair with their back against the wall, they held a smartphone with both hands for 10 minutes and fatigue and pain in the neck and shoulder muscles were measured at different cervical flexion angles (0°, 30°, and 50°). Electromyography was performed to analyze the muscle fatigue of the right upper trapezius, left upper trapezius, right cervical erector spinae, and left cervical erector spinae, and a CommanderTM Algometer was used to measure pain. The cervical range of motion was used as an instrument to compare and analyze the cervical flexion angles. [Results] The study’s results showed statistically significant differences in the muscle fatigue and pain of the right upper trapezius and left upper trapezius depending on the cervical flexion angle and a post-hoc test showed statistically significant lower levels of muscle fatigue and pain at 50° than at 0° or 30°. No statistically significant differences were found between the right cervical erector spinae and left cervical erector spinae. [Conclusion] The cervical flexion angle during smartphone use may influence the muscle fatigue and pain of the upper trapezius.
[Purpose] This study’s working hypothesis is that underwater walking training is beneficial for healthy subjects balance. [Subjects and Methods] Forty eight subjects (Underwater walking group=25, Overground walking group=23) completed the experiment. Healthy subjects with no orthopedic history of lower extremity injuries were recruited. Gait training is performed using the underwater treadmill consisted of 30-minute walking sessions, five times per week for four weeks. [Results] After the intervention, the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior balance indices increased significantly. [Conclusion] This study conducted underwater walking training on the healthy subjects, with positive effects on balancing ability.
[Purpose] This study sets out to investigate whether a short-term high-intensity arm ergometer exercise plan can be of benefit to adults whose poor ventilatory function places them at risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. [Subjects and Methods] A pre-experimental design with a convenience sample was employed. The study enrolled 30 adult smokers, aged between 18–25 years old, all of whom were at a high risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The participants did a daily 20-minute high-intensity arm ergometer exercise, at 75% target heart rate, at the same time over a period of three days. The forced vital capacity test manoeuvre was carried out before the sessions, and once all three had been done. [Results] The study demonstrated a sizeable increase in the mean values of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second. The mean values of expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity as well as peak expiratory flow rate were not significant statistically. [Conclusion] Although further studies, using larger sampling groups, need to be carried out, this research demonstrates that adults at high risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease improve lung function by following short-term high-intensity arm ergometer exercise.
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine static balance according to hip joint angle of the unsupported leg during one-leg standing. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 45 healthy adult males and females in their 20s. During one-leg standing on the non-dominant leg, the position of the unsupported leg was classified according to hip joint angles of point angle was class. Static balance was then measured using a force plate with eyes open and closed. The total length, sway velocity, maximum deviation, and velocity on the mediolateral and anteroposterior axes of center of pressure were measured. [Results] In balance assessment with eyes open, there were significant differences between groups according to hip joint angle, except for maximum deviation on the anteroposterior axis. In balance assessment with eyes closed, there were significant differences between total length measurements at 0° and 30°, 60° and between 30° and 90°. There were significant differences between sway velocity measurements at 0° and 30° and between 30° and 90°. [Conclusion] Thus, there were differences in static balance according to hip joint angle. It is necessary to clearly identify the hip joint angle during one-leg standing testing.
[Purpose] This study performed an effect-size analysis of massage therapy for shoulder pain. [Subjects and Methods] The database search was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, RISS, NDSL, NANET, DBpia, and KoreaMed. The meta-analysis was based on 15 studies, covering a total of 635 participants, and used a random effects model. [Results] The effect size estimate showed that massage therapy had a significant effect on reducing shoulder pain for short-term efficacy (SMD: −1.08, 95% CI: −1.51 to −0.65) and for long-term efficacy (SMD: −0.47, 95% CI: −0.71 to −0.23). [Conclusion] The findings from this review suggest that massage therapy is effective at improving shoulder pain. However, further research is needed, especially a randomized controlled trial design or a large sample size, to provide evidence-based recommendations.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 40-minute race on muscle activity and spatiotemporal cycle variables at four-time points during a 12-km roller skiing test using the double-poling technique. [Subjects and Methods] Five elite cross-country (XC) skiers on the Korean National reserve team participated in the study. Part of a biathlon course that consisted of both flat land and slopes was selected, and three measurements were recorded after every 4-km lap. Spatiotemporal variables, mean frequency and mean amplitude of 6 muscles were the chosen computational parameters. [Results] Significant differences were observed in cycle time and rate. The mean frequency of the upper-body muscles exhibited declining trends, with statistically significant differences for the triceps brachii. In addition, there were significant differences in the mean amplitude of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius. The activity of the triceps brachii, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius showed some degree of dependence on the technique. [Conclusion] Training and race strategies that improve the function of elbow extensors and ankle dorsiflexors are important in XC skiing; the application of roller-ski training research to actual XC skiing competitions is needed.
[Purpose] In a pilot investigation, extracorporeal shockwave therapy was applied to patients with idiopathic scoliosis. This case report aimed to describe the effects of repeated extracorporeal shockwave therapy on the clinical signs of a patient with scoliosis due to a functional tethered cord syndrome. [Subject and Methods] In June 2016, a 13-year-old girl presented with a left thoracic curvature. Radiograph showed a left thoracic curve of 24°. An angle of trunk rotation of 21° was measured using a scoliometer. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy was proposed to support conservative treatment. Five sessions of extracorporeal shockwave therapy were applied. Finger-floor distance and the angle of trunk rotation before and after each application of extracorporeal shockwave therapy were measured. [Results] The average finger-floor distances before and after extracorporeal shockwave therapy were 22.6 cm and 15.6 cm, respectively. The average angles of trunk rotation before and after the therapy were 13° and 10.2°, respectively. [Conclusion] The short-term effect of extracorporeal shockwave therapy was revealed in this study. The neural structures that inhibited free mobility of the spine were mobilized. Furthermore, deformity was reduced by applying extracorporeal shockwave therapy.
[Purpose] The study aimed to investigate the effects of daily living occupational therapy and resistance exercise on the performance of activities of daily living and muscular fitness in a patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome. [Subject and Methods] A 35-year-old man was diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome. He was hospitalized at A Hospital for 3 years, and was discharged from the hospital after he became able to execute daily life activities. After discharge, he performed daily occupational therapy and resistance exercise twice a week for 70 minutes per session for 12 weeks. Performance in the activities of daily living was assessed using the modified Barthel index, and muscular fitness was measured in terms of isokinetic muscular function using the Biodes system. [Results] The subject’s Barthel index score improved from 54 points before the intervention to 62 points after 4 weeks, 69 points after 8 weeks, and 79 points after 12 weeks. In addition, his shoulder flexion and extension, knee flexion and extension, and lumbar flexion and extension were improved. [Conclusion] The present study suggests that daily living occupational therapy and resistance exercise are effective in improving the activities of daily living and muscular fitness in a patient recovering from Guillain-Barré syndrome.
[Purpose] We report a case in which rehabilitation that targeted the paralyzed side’s upper limb in a hemiplegic stroke patient remarkably accelerated the patient’s ability to perform activities of daily living, improved her Functional Independence Measure score, and facilitated the patient’s return to home. [Subject and Methods] We provided rehabilitation training to a female patient who experienced a cerebral infarction at a nursing home for the elderly and was admitted to the Kaifukuki recovery phase rehabilitation ward in order to improve her activities of daily living and return home. An intensive rehabilitation program incorporating occupational therapy and physical training for upper-limb function on the affected side was instituted over 170 days. [Results] At presentation, the patient had functional disorders and load-induced pain in both lower limbs requiring her to walk with a fixed-type walker. After the intensive rehabilitation program, her activities of daily living improved and she was able to return home. [Conclusion] This case suggests that activities of daily living training and simultaneous active training of upper-limb function on the affected side in patients with functional disorders or lower-limb pain could effectively improve their Functional Independence Measure scores, promote functional recovery, and facilitate their return to home.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of modified Pilates exercise on cardiopulmonary function in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty participants (age, 62.7 ± 7.3 years; height, 163.3 ± 8.5 cm; weight, 68.8 ± 10.3 kg) were recruited for this study, and randomly allocated to the modified Pilates exercise group (n=10) or the control group (n=10). Graded submaximal treadmill exercise test was used to examine the status of patients’ cardiopulmonary function, based on maximal oxygen intake, at the end of a patient’s exercise tolerance limit. [Results] The resting heart rates, maximal oxygen intake, and maximal oxygen intake per kilogram were significantly different after 8 weeks of modified Pilates exercise. In addition, these variables were also significantly different between the Pilates and control groups after 8 weeks. [Conclusion] This study has demonstrated that 8 weeks of modified Pilates exercise program can have a positive influence on patients with chronic stroke, potentially by enhancing the cardiopulmonary function, which may have positive implications for increasing their functional ability.