[Purpose] To measure the activities of the upper, middle, and lower trapezius and serratus anterior muscles during shoulder abduction at two angles and compare their relative isolation. [Subjects and Methods] Ten men were enrolled. The tester measured the isolation ratios of upper, middle, and lower trapezius and serratus anterior muscles during shoulder abduction exercises at 60° and 120°. [Results] Neither the upper nor the lower trapezius isolation ratios differed statistically between 60° and 120°. The middle trapezius showed higher isolation ratio at 60° than at 120°. The serratus anterior showed higher isolation ratio at 120° than at 60°. [Conclusion] The upper, lower, and middle trapezius can be strengthened sufficiently with exercises at a low range of angles.
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of neurodevelopmental treatment-based physical therapy on muscle tone, strength, and gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] One-hundred-seventy-five children with spastic cerebral palsy (88 diplegia; 78 quadriplegia) received neurodevelopmental treatment-based physical therapy for 35 minutes per day, 2–3 times per week for 1 year. Spasticity, muscle strength, and gross motor function were measured before and after treatment with the Modified Ashworth Scale, Manual Muscle Testing, and Gross Motor Function Measure, respectively. [Results] Spasticity was significantly reduced after 1 year of treatment. The Gross Motor Functional Classification System levels I–II group showed a significant increase in muscle strength compared with the Gross Motor Functional Classification System levels III–V, and the latter showed a significant decrease in spasticity compared with the former. [Conclusion] Neurodevelopmental treatment-based physical therapy in children with cerebral palsy seems to be effective in reducing spasticity, but does not improve gross motor function. Therefore, other interventional approaches are needed to improve gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the immediate effects of diaphragm taping with breathing exercise on the tone and stiffness in the respiratory muscles of patient with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 subjects, 14 in the diaphragm taping with breathing exercise group and 14 in the breathing exercise group, were administered respective intervention methods. Subsequently, the muscle tone and stiffness in upper trapezius, scalene, external oblique abdominal and ractus abdominis muscle of both the respiratory muscles were measured. [Results] The comparison of respiratory muscles on the affected and non-affected sides in stroke patients showed statistically significant declines in the muscle tone and stiffness of all measured muscles but not in the stiffness of the external oblique abdominal muscle and rectus abdominis muscles. After intervention, the diaphragm taping with breathing exercise group exhibited statistically significant increases in the muscle tone of all measured muscles and in the stiffness of the upper trapezius and scalene muscles, and statistically significant declines in the saturation of peripheral oxygen. However, the breathing exercise group showed statistically significant increases only in the muscle tone of the upper trapezius and external oblique abdominal muscles. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that diaphragm taping with breathing exercise had positive effects of immediately increasing the muscles tone and stiffness in the respiratory muscles.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to provide fundamental information for efficient management of patients after a total knee replacement (TKR) through the evaluation of changes of range of motion, pain, functional level, and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] For a total of 63 knee osteoarthritis patients, VAS, KSKS, KSFS, HSS, WOMAC scores and quality of life were evaluated for functional levels at pre-operation, post-operation, six months after operation, and 12 months after operation. [Results] After the TKR operations, participants showed significant improvement in KSKS, KSFS, WOMAC, and SF-36 scores when compared to pre-operation. [Conclusion] After a TKR operation, ROM, and pain management, along with a therapeutic program for improvement of function, should be conducted 6 months after the operation.
[Purpose] This study evaluated whether obesity is a risk factor for low back pain, by using body fat percentage (%FAT) and body mass index (BMI) as indices of obesity among Japanese males. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 1,152 males (average age: 28.0 ± 4.6 years). BMI was calculated from subject’s height and weight, and %FAT was estimated by the thickness of two parts of skin. Low back pain, drinking and smoking were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire, and maximal oxygen uptake was measured by a submaximal exercise test using a cycle ergometer. [Results] A significant positive dose-response relationship was shown between %FAT and persistent low back pain prevalence. Similarly, a significant positive dose-response relationship was confirmed between BMI and persistent low back pain. [Conclusion] This study suggests that both high %FAT and BMI are risk factors for persistent low back pain.
[Purpose] The fluid goniometer is an instrument for measuring range of motion. Reliability of the fluid goniometer has not been established for subjects with painful knee joints. The purpose of this study was to determine the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the fluid goniometer in measuring active knee flexion of painful knees and to test its agreement with the gold standard ruler goniometer. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five individuals with either unilateral or bilateral painful knees participated in the study. Two raters each took three measurements with the same Baseline® fluid goniometer on 35 knees. [Results] Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were 0.97 for both intra-rater and inter-rater measurements, denoting high relative reliability. The large standard error of measurement (SEM) value of 6.6 degrees, and the 95% limits of agreement, which revealed a potential difference of 18.4 degrees between raters of similar subjects, however, revealed poor absolute reliability. The smallest detectable difference (SDD) of 18 degrees was also large. [Conclusion] The results revealed excellent relative reliability, but a large amount of variability between the raters’ measurements. The sensitivity of the fluid level of the goniometer to end range tremors of the lower leg flexed against gravity in the obligatory prone position may contribute significantly to the large variability in knee ROM values.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the task-oriented circuit training on balance and gait ability in subacute patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly allocated to two groups: group 1 (subjects who performed task-oriented circuit training) and group 2 (subjects who underwent conventional physical therapy). Berg balance scale, timed up and go test, functional ambulation category, 6-minute walk test were assessed before and after four weeks of training. [Results] There were significant differences between groups for the 6-minute walk test. [Conclusion] The result of this study showed that task-oriented circuit training could improve the gait ability in patients with subacute stroke.
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of the breathing maneuver combined with dynamic motion of the upper limbs on respiratory capacity in healthy adult men. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four healthy adult men participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (n=12) or an experimental group (n=12). The subjects in the control group performed the breathing maneuver without the upper extremity exercise. The subjects in the experimental group performed upper extremity exercise with the breathing maneuver three times a week for 4 weeks. Outcomes were measured using maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures. [Results] There was a significant difference in maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures before and after intervention in the experimental group and the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference in maximal expiratory pressure between groups after intervention. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest the respiration maneuver combined with upper extremity exercise could be used as a program for clinical respiration training.
[Purpose] The present study was to validate the importance of the trunk function evaluated by trunk righting test (TRT) with motor function in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to show the clinical use of TRT. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 50 patients with knee osteoarthritis who underwent total knee arthroplasty in our hospital. Correlations between physical functional test, such as muscle strength, balance function, and performance and TRT were statistically evaluated. [Results] The independent factors for ipsilateral TRT were maximal isometric knee extensor strength test and ipsilateral step test. The operator and non-operator side TRT were significantly associated with TUG. [Conclusion] The results showed that the physical functions are correlated with the trunk function evaluated by TRT of patients with knee OA, suggesting that healthcare workers must take into consideration the trunk function, as well as lower extremity function to improve physical function.
[Purpose] There are no reliable evidences that the weakening of intrinsic foot muscles causes the decrease of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) height. The purpose of this study was to confirm whether the fatigue of intrinsic foot muscles decrease the MLA height during standing and gait using 3D motion analysis system. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy male subjects participated in this study. Foot kinematics was measured using an Oxford Foot Model before and after fatigue-inducing exercises of the abductor hallucis and flexor hallucis brevis muscles. [Results] Following fatigue-inducing exercise, in both standing and gait, the MLA height did not decrease but slightly increased. In addition, the reduction of a rear foot eversion angle was noted. [Conclusion] Fatigue of the abductor hallucis and flexor hallucis brevis muscles did not cause a change associated with collapsing of the MLA during both standing and gait. This suggested that the MLA support force from these muscles would be compensated by other MLA support structures, such as extrinsic foot muscles.
[Purpose] This study investigated the reliability of an automated sphygmomanometer based on an oscillometric method, when used during exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Ten healthy subjects were included. Blood pressure (BP) was measured with an automated sphygmomanometer based on a cuff-oscillometric method. The experiment consisted of five tests: sitting posture at rest, walking with swinging the upper limbs, walking without swinging the upper limbs, walking on a treadmill, and riding a bicycle ergometer. Right and left brachial artery BP was measured twice at the same times. If the difference in systolic BP on bilateral testing was less than 15 mmHg, it was judged to be accurate, and accurate measurement rates were calculated. [Results] BP could not be measured in most limbs on walking with swinging the upper limbs, walking without swinging the upper limbs, or walking on a treadmill. The accurate measurement rates in bilateral limbs were 95.0% in sitting posture at rest, 0.0% on walking with swinging upper limbs, 5.0% on walking without swinging upper limbs, 15.0% on walking on a treadmill, and 65.0% on riding a bicycle ergometer. [Conclusion] An automated sphygmomanometer based on an oscillometric method was useful for BP measurement only at rest.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Structural Integration and Fascial Fitness, a new form of physical exercise, on body image and the perception of back pain. [Subjects and Methods] In total, 33 participants with non-specific back pain were split into two groups and performed three sessions of Structural Integration or Fascial Fitness within a 3-week period. Before and after the interventions, perception of back pain and body image were evaluated using standardized questionnaires. [Results] Structural Integration significantly decreased non-specified back pain and improved both “negative body image” and “vital body dynamics”. Fascial Fitness led to a significant improvement on the “negative body image” subscale. Benefits of Structural Integration did not significantly vary in magnitude from those for fascial fitness. [Conclusion] Both Structural Integration and Fascial Fitness can lead to a more positive body image after only three sessions. Moreover, the therapeutic technique of Structural Integration can reduce back pain.
[Purpose] Interferential therapy and electrical stimulation are electrophysical modalities commonly used in physical therapy departments to treat patients with musculoskeletal problems. These machines are applied directly to the patient’s skin via a medium or electrodes, which can facilitate the transmission of microorganisms from one patient to another. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of microorganism contamination in the machines sponges at physical therapy departments in Kuwait hospitals. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty samples comprising sponges from interferential therapy and electrical stimulation machines, and water from hot pack units were collected from 5 physical therapy departments in 5 different hospitals. The samples were analyzed at a Medical Laboratory to explore the extent and type of microorganisms present. [Results] Forty-one of the 60 samples (68.3%) were positive for microorganism contamination. Of the 41 contaminated samples, 28 (68.3%) were sponges and 13 (31.7%) were water samples. The major microorganisms found were Acinetobacter baumannii (21.9%), Serratia marcescens (12.2%), and Staphylococcus lentus (7.3%). [Conclusion] Interferential therapy and electrical stimulation in physical therapy departments have a high probability of causing cross contamination between patients. Physical therapists are encouraged to adhere to safety guidelines, such as disinfection management, disposal of used sponges, and regular sponge replacement.
[Purpose] To compared activation of the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles during the sit-to-stand movement in elderly people. [Subjects and Methods] Ten elderly women were enrolled. The activities of the dominant lower extremity muscles were measured using a wireless electromyography system. Subjects performed natural sit-to-stand tasks. [Results] In the pre-thigh off phase, the tibialis anterior isolation ratio was significantly higher than the soleus isolation ratio. In the post-thigh off phase, the tibialis and soleus isolation ratios did not significantly differ. [Conclusion] This result suggests that selective soleus exercises might help to reduce the risk of falling in the elderly.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of sleep posture on neck muscle activity. [Subjects and Methods] The study recruited 20 healthy subjects, who were positioned in three supine sleeping positions: both hands at sides, both hands on the chest, and dominant hand on the forehead. The activities of the scalene and upper trapezius muscles bilaterally were measured by surface electromyography. [Results] The upper trapezius and scalene muscle activity on the right side was significantly greater in the supine with dominant hand on the forehead position than in the other positions. [Conclusion] Sleep posture is important and prevent neck and shoulder musculoskeletal pain.
[Purpose] This study evaluated balance tests in users of a day care service who needed nursing care or support, and investigated the usefulness of the Two-step Test for evaluating balance. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were users of a day care service, and had certified need for long-term care or support. All subjects were able to undergo the balance evaluations. Balance tests included the 3-m Timed Up and Go test (TUG), the one-leg standing time, and the Two-step Test. [Results] The Two-step Test and other balance tests were strongly correlated. [Conclusion] In this study of subjects who needed nursing care or support, the results were the same as in a previous study of subjects who did not need nursing care or support. The Two-step Test should be considered as an indicator of balance ability in elderly individuals requiring nursing care or support.
[Purpose] This study evaluates the immediate effect of ankle eversion taping on dynamic and static balance of chronic stroke patients with foot drop. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted with nine subjects who were diagnosed with stroke. A cross-over randomized design was used. Each subject performed three interventions in a random order. Subjects were randomly assigned to an ankle everion taping, placebo taping, and no taping. For dynamic and static balance, ability was measured using BIO Rescue. Limit of stability, sway length and sway speed for one minute were measured. [Results] The Limit of Stability, Sway length and Sway speed differed significantly among the three different taping methods. [Conclusion] We conclude that ankle eversion taping that uses kinesiology tape instantly increases the dynamic and static balance ability of chronic stroke patients with foot drop.
[Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the push-up plus while using a balance ball, a sling, and a sling with a pulley in a creeping position on an unstable floor. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were divided into three groups of 15 members each who performed the different three type methods of push-up plus (with scapulae protruding) in a random order while in a creeping posture. The muscle activity of each group in the push-up plus posture was measured using electromyography, and the measurement values were compared among the groups using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). [Results] The intergroup comparison revealed that the activation of the pectoralis major muscle of the balance ball exercise group was significantly decreased. In this comparison, the activity ratio for the pectoralis major muscles of the balance ball exercise group significantly decreased, and the activity ratio of their serratus anterior muscles significantly increased. From the post analysis, the differences in the activity ratios of the pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscles for the balance ball exercise group were significant when compared with those of the other groups. [Conclusion] Among the three different exercise methods in unstable situations presented in this study, the push-up plus exercise in a creeping posture using the balance ball can be recommended for the selective strengthening of the serratus anterior muscle.
[Purpose] The present study aimed to investigate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on visual perception, depression, and activities of daily livings (ADLs) in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-four stroke patients were divided equally into an experimental group that underwent rTMS and a control group that underwent mock rTMS. Changes in patient visual perception, depression, and ADLs were evaluated. All subjects underwent treatment for 20 minutes, 5 times per week, for 4 weeks. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Motor-free Visual Perception Test (MVPT) and Functional Independent Measurement (FIM) were respectively used to assess depression, visual perception and ADLs. [Results] The experimental group showed significant improvements in depression, visual perception, and ADLs between week 1 and 4, between week 1 and 8, and between week 4 and 8. Meanwhile, the control group showed no differences between week 1 and 4, and although, like in the experimental group, a significant difference was observed in depression and visual perception between Week 1 and 8, there was no significant difference in ADLs. [Conclusion] These demonstrate that rTMS has a positive impact on visual perception, depression, and ADLs.
[Purpose] This study was designed to investigate the effects of spiral taping (ST) on the pain and walking performance of individual with chronic ankle instability (CAI). [Subjects and Methods] 12 men and 13 women (mean: 21.52 years; range: 20–31 years) with unilateral CAI (Cumberland ankle instability score: ≤24) were included. All the participants received 3 mm-wide ST. The latter was applied in a 3 × 4 cross shape onto the medial malleolus, the lateral malleolus, and the anterior talotibial joint of the unstable ankle. The pain and walking performance were measured on the visual analogue scale (VAS) and with a timed up and go test (TUGT) at the baseline and 30 minutes after the intervention. [Results] VAS and TUGT scores were significantly improved after application of the ST. [Conclusion] The results indicated that ST can improve the pain and walking performance of CAI individuals.
[Purpose] This study examined the activation of the rhomboid muscle according to the angle of the arm. [Subjects and Methods] The current study was conducted on 15 healthy males. The participants performed the pulling exercise in 5 conditions. The surface electromyography system was used to measure the muscle activities of the rhomboid and upper trapezius. [Results] The activity of the upper trapezius in condition 5 was significantly increased compared to that in condition 4. The activity of the rhomboid in condition 4 was significantly increased compared to that in conditions 1 and 5. [Conclusion] This study showed that performing a pulling exercise with the arms raised above the head (shoulder flexion at 120°) is more effective for reducing upper trapezius tension, while also selectively strengthening the rhomboid muscle.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of changes in support and inclined boards on lower-extremity muscle activity. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 15 healthy adult males. Aero-Step equipment was used as an unstable support, and an inclined board was used to maintain angles of 0° and 20°. Electromyography was employed to analyze lower-extremity muscle activity. [Results] The vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior muscles showed significant differences according to changes in the support and inclined board. In post-hoc tests the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and rectus femoris muscles showed significantly increased activity when exercises were performed on the unstable inclined board (20°) than the stable support (0°), unstable support (0°), or stable inclined board (20°). The gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior muscles showed significantly increased activity when exercises were performed on the unstable support (0°), stable inclined board (20°), or unstable inclined board (20°) than on the stable support (0°). [Conclusion] An unstable support and increased slope of the inclined board may increase lower-extremity muscle activity.
[Purpose] Degenerative changes take place in the musculoskeletal system of elderly people, resulting in a reduced range of motion. For this reason, stretch training is recommended for elderly individuals. To date, there have been no studies of the adaptations of the passive properties of muscles following long-term stretch training. The aim of this study is to investigate the hamstring elasticity of elderly people following a 10-week stretch training and compare the results to a younger cohort. [Subjects and Methods] The experimental groups consisted of 15 younger (24.0 ± 4.0 years) and 14 older (65.1 ± 7.9 years) individuals. Both experimental groups undertook a standardised 10-week static passive hamstring stretch training. Passive properties of the hamstring were measured with an instrumented Straight Leg Raise Test. [Results] After a 10-week stretch training, there were increases in range of motion, passive resistive force and passive elastic energy in both age groups. Passive elastic stiffness decreased. Changes of hamstring passive properties did not differ significantly between age groups after a 10-week stretch training. [Conclusion] Increasing age has a negative effect on muscle passive properties, but older individuals benefit from regular stretch training, just as younger individuals do.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine effects of diaphragm breathing exercise applied on the basis overload principle on respiratory function. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 35 normal adults. They were randomly assigned to two group; the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group and self-diaphragm exercise group. The respiratory function was evaluated using the CardioTouch 3000S (BIONET, Korea) as a pulmometry device. [Results] The maneuver-diaphragm exercise was more effective on functional vital capacity and forced expiratory volume at one second when compared to the self-diaphragm exercise. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study, although the self-diaphragm exercise did not show effects as much as the maneuver one, but the self-diaphragm exercise had a similar effects as the maneuver-diaphragm exercise. The self-diaphragmatic respiration applied on the basis of overload principle may be used as an effective respiratory exercise as a part of home respiration program.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify fundamental changes induced by lower trunk muscle contraction during single-leg standing. [Subjects and Methods] Ten healthy normal males participated in this study. All subjects could accurately perform lower trunk muscle contraction-type Abdominal Expansion (AE), Abdominal Bracing (AB), and Abdominal Cave-in (AC). The alignment and position of the center of foot pressure (COP) during single-leg standing with SLR and step position after rotating the body from single-leg standing with maximum SLR were measured in each lower trunk muscle contraction type. [Results] When AC was performed during single-leg standing with SLR, the SLR angle increased, COP shifted backward, and the posterior tilt angle of the trunk and cross step distance decreased. [Conclusion] It was assumed that AC during wind-up increases the angle of lower limb elevation and decreases the posterior tilt angle of the trunk and cross step distance.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability and validity of Upper Limb Functional Index (ULFI), which has been translated into Korean, in treating patients with upper limb complaints. [Subjects and Methods] Fourty-nine subjects with upper limb disorder, 20 males and 29 females, participated in this study. Reliability was determined by using the intra class correlation coefficient and Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency. Validity was examined by correlating ULFI scores with Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH). [Results] Test-retest reliability was 0.90. The criterion-related validity was established by a comparison with the Korean version of DASH. [Conclusion] The Korean version of ULFI was shown to be a reliable and valid instrument for assessing upper limb complaints.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the measurement posture and stimulation intensity on the nociceptive flexion reflex (RIII reflex). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty normal female adult subjects were selected for this study. Their RIII reflexes were measured in three positions and with three degrees of stimulation intensity. The measurement posture was randomly selected. The analysis items were the stimulation intensity of the induced RIII reflex, the amplitude of the RIII reflex, and the numeric rating scale (NRS). [Results] The study results showed statistically significant differences in the interaction effects between the measurement posture and the stimulation intensity. The NRS showed no statistically significant differences in the interaction effects but showed statistically significant differences in the main effect. The amplitude of the RIII reflex showed no statistically significant differences in the interaction effects and showed statistically significant differences only in the stimulation intensity. [Conclusion] The study results suggest that the RIII reflex may be influenced by the measurement posture and stimulation intensity.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of dynamic exercise utilizing the proprioceptor neuromuscular facilitation pattern accompanied by abdominal drawing-in exercises on posture in healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] The total number of subjects were 32; 16 were randomly placed in the training group, and the remaining 16 made up the control group. The subjects in the training group conducted 5 sets of dynamic exercises utilizing the proprioceptor neuromuscular facilitation patterns each day, 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Using BackMapper, their trunk inclination, trunk imbalance, pelvic position, pelvic torsion, pelvic rotation and the position of their scapula were evaluated. [Results] When the training group’s posture pre-test and post-test were compared in this study, there was a statistical significance in trunk inclination, pelvic position, pelvic torsion, pelvic rotation and the position of their scapula. [Conclusion] Dynamic exercise utilizing the proprioceptor neuromuscular facilitation patterns increased the posture that are the basis of trunk stabilization.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate how a time limit affects day-to-day tasks such as attention, hand dexterity, and sit to standing and sitting activity. The grounds for using a time limit as a method of learning tasks related to daily living are examined based on the results of this investigation. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects consisted of 51 healthy college students (20 males and 31 females). The task performance time for SESSION 1, in which there was no time limit, was measured and the task duration privately recorded. The task performance for SESSION 2 was then measured with a time limit of the same duration as the time recorded for SESSION 1. Attention was measured using the trail-making test, hand dexterity using the Purdue pegboard test, and lower extremity activity using the sit to standing and sitting test. [Results] The levels for the attention, hand dexterity, and lower extremity activities were high in the environment in which a time limit was set. The differences between the genders depending on the presence or absence of a time limit was insignificant. [Conclusion] A time limit environment can be used as a task-training method for attention, hand dexterity, and lower extremity activities
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of High Intensity Laser Therapy on pain and function of patients with chronic back pain. [Subjects and Methods] This study evenly divided a total of 20 patients with chronic back pain into a conservative physical therapy group that received conservative physical therapy, and a high intensity laser therapy group that received High Intensity Laser Therapy after conservative physical therapy. All patients received the therapy three times a week for four weeks. For the high intensity laser therapy group, treatment was applied to the L1–L5 and S1 regions for 10 minutes by using a high intensity laser device while vertically maintaining the separation distance from handpiece to skin at approximately 1 cm. A visual analog scale was used to measure the pain and Oswestry Disability Index was used for functional evaluation. [Results] In a within-group comparison of the conservative physical therapy and high intensity laser therapy groups, both the visual analog scale and Oswestry Disability Index significantly decreased. In a between-group comparison after treatment, the high intensity laser therapy group showed a significantly lower visual analog scale and Oswestry Disability Index than the conservative physical therapy group. [Conclusion] High Intensity Laser Therapy can be an effective nonsurgical intervention method for reducing pain and helping the performance of daily routines of patients who have chronic back pain.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Spine Functional Index (K-SFI), a translated version of the original SFI used with patients with spinal disorders. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty participants with spine disorder, 22 males and 38 females, participated in the study. Reliability was determined by using the intra class correlation coefficient and Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency. Validity was examined by correlating K-SFI scores with the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), Neck Disability index (NDI), and the Functional Rating Index (FRI). [Results] Test-retest reliability was 0.94. The criterion-related validity was established by comparison with the Korean version of the RMDQ, NDI and FRI. [Conclusion] The Korean version of the SFI was shown to be a reliable and valid instrument for assessing spine complaints.
[Purpose] While electromyography (EMG) biofeedback has been recently used in diverse therapeutic interventions for stroke patients, research on its effects has been lacking. Most existing studies are confined to functions of the lower extremities, and research on upper extremity functional recovery using EMG biofeedback training is limited. Therefore, this study examined the effects of training using EMG biofeedback on stroke patients’ upper extremity functions. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study included 30 hemiplegia patients whose disease duration was longer than six months. They were randomly divided into a control group (n=15) receiving traditional rehabilitation therapy and an experimental group (n=15) receiving both traditional rehabilitation therapy and training using EMG biofeedback. The program lasted for a total of four weeks. In order to examine the subjects’ functional recovery, the author measured their upper limb function using the Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Manual Function Test, and activities of daily living using the Functional Independence Measure before and after training. [Results] A comparison of the study groups revealed that those in the experimental group experienced greater improvement in upper extremity function after training in all tests compared to the control group; however, there was no significant difference in terms of the activities of daily living between the two groups. The results of this study were as follows. [Conclusion] Thus, stroke patients receiving intensive EMG biofeedback showed more significant upper extremity functional recovery than those who only received traditional rehabilitation therapy.
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the degree of straightness of the wrist joint, depending on the use of a wrist splint while opening a bottle cap. Its results may provide data for later studies on preventing accidents at workplaces and improving efficiency. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty Male and Female in their twenties who did not have hand-related diseases, fractures, or history that included neurological impairments associated with the hand were selected as subjects of the study. Wrist splints were made to fit the hand and lower arm of each subject. Evaluation assignments were carried out without and with the splints after 10 minutes of rest. To analyze the wrist movement in opening the bottle cap, a three-dimensional movement analyzing system by Zebris was used. [Results] Wrist angle decreased while opening caps of four different diameters while wearing splints, but not when splints were not worn. This means that wearing a splint may aid weakened wrist muscles. [Conclusion] Future studies should be conducted among subjects with damaged wrist muscles and evaluate the subjects in actual workplaces to obtain more objective and more valid data.
[Purpose] Competitive sport places strict demands on the cardiovascular systems of veteran trail runners. Our research objective was to evaluate the dynamics of microcirculation parameters of veteran runners in hypoxic and mid-altitude conditions. [Subjects and Methods] Seven male runners from Russia and Italy between the ages of 50 and 60 years were examined whilst competing at mid-altitude (1,500–2,000 m above sea level). The same runners were examined in a simulated mid-altitude hypoxic environment, which was a hypoxic chamber with 16% oxygen concentration, for 720 minutes. Under both conditions, peripheral circulation was studied using a laser Doppler flowmeter attached to the distal phalange of the second finger of the subject’s right hand. All subjects had a microcirculation parameter assessed, which was the standard deviation of the erythrocytes flow vibration in peripheral circulation, under both conditions. In order to assess the intensity of vasomotor reactions of the microcirculatory vessels, the coefficient of variation was used. [Results] In the hypoxic environment, a decrease in the microcirculation parameter was noted in the short-term (360 minutes), with a subsequent compensatory increase in the long-term (720 minutes). However, the coefficient of variation showed a reverse trend with an increase in the vasomotor activity of microvessels from 12.4% to 18.2% at the stage of maximum training load within one month in the mid-altitude in the hypoxic environment, with a consequent reduction in preparation for the start. [Conclusion] In the hypoxic environment, the subjects demonstrated a two-stage change in the dynamics of the microcirculation parameter: an initial fall and a subsequent increase reaching the initial values. Similar changes were found when subjects were competing at mid-altitude. Our results show that the assessment of the peripheral circulation in a simulated mid-altitude hypoxic environment can be used to determine the readiness of veteran sportsmen for long-term trail running in mid-altitude conditions.
[Purpose] To investigate the effects of Neuro-Development Treatment on development in the preterm infants. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 96 premature infants were recruited for this study; 62 low birth weight preterm infants (<2.5 kg, high risk infants for developmental delay) and 34 premature infants (>2.5 kg, low risk infants for developmental delay). High risk infants were divided into intervention group (32 infants) and control group (30 infants) at time of admission. Low risk infants were into comparative group (34 infants). All infants received general nursing care in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Additionally, Intervention group received Neuro-Development Treatment for 15 minutes 4 times per week up to 40 week postconceptional age. We evaluated Test of Infant Movement Performance at baseline, 2 weeks after and 40 week postconceptional age. [Results] In score on Test of Infant Movement Performance there was more increase in intervention group than in control group and comparative group. [Conclusion] According to findings in this study, we find that Neuro-Development Treatment in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit has an effect on development in the preterm infants.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment on the type of taping applied before proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation treatment. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted on thirty patients diagnosed with stroke. The study subjects were divided into three groups: experimental group 1, experimental group 2, and control group 3. Experimental group 1 applied Kinesio taping to the lower limb before applying proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique. Experimental group 2 applied McConnell taping to the lower limb before applying proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique and control group applied only proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique. In this study was used Dartfish to analyze the gait of the lower limbs. [Results] Experiment group 1 showed a significant difference of ankle angle compared to the control group, but a statistically significant difference of ankle angle was observed in week 8. Experiment group 1 and experiment group 2 showed a significantly longer stride length on the affected side than the control group. [Conclusion] Application of Kinesio taping has a more positive effect on the ambulation than McConnell taping.
[Purpose] The convalescent rehabilitation ward (CRW) plays an important role for hip fracture patients in Japanese super-aged society. The purpose of this study is to clarify the usefulness of the CRW concomitant with acute wards in a single hospital. [Subjects and Methods] 110 hip fracture patients were evaluated; 63 patients were moved from acute wards to the CRW in the same hospital (Group C) and 47 patients were treated in acute wards only (Group A). Patient selection was determined by each attending doctor. The outcomes were examined from medical records. [Results] 90.5% of patients in the group C were discharged to home and 57.4% in the group A. 92.9% of patients in the group C had regained their ambulatory ability at discharge and 88.9% in the group A. The average total functional independence measure scores at discharge were 96.4 in the group C and 85.0 in the group A. The one-year mortality was 2.4% in the group C and 8.3% in the group A. [Conclusion] Using a CRW concomitant with acute wards in a single hospital could achieve a high home-discharge rate, good functional recovery, and low mortality in hip fracture patients.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the effects of robot-assisted therapy on the upper extremity in acute and subacute stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The papers retrieved were evaluated based on the following inclusion criteria: 1) design: randomized controlled trials; 2) population: stroke patients 3) intervention: robot-assisted therapy; and 4) year of publication: May 2012 to April 2016. Databased searched were: EMBASE, PubMed and COCHRAN databases. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. [Results] Of the 637 articles searched, six studies were included in this systematic review. The PEDro scores range from 7 to 9 points. [Conclusion] This review confirmed that the robot-assisted therapy with three-dimensional movement and a high degree of freedom had positive effects on the recovery of upper extremity motor function in patients with early-stage stroke. We think that the robot-assisted therapy could be used to improve upper extremity function for early stage stroke patients in clinical setting.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of pain scrambler therapy on antineuralgic pain and quality of life after shingles. [Subjects and Methods] Daily pain scrambler therapy was administered to antineuralgic patients for 10 days, with each session lasting approximately 40 minutes. Pain was measured using the visual analog scale, and quality of life was assessed with the short form 36-item (SF-36). [Results] After10 sessions of pain scrambler therapy, pain had significantly reduced compared to that experienced prior to treatment. The quality of life had also improved following completion of 10 treatment sessions. [Conclusion] Pain scrambler therapy decreased patients’ post-shingles antineuralgic pain and improved quality of life.
[Purpose] The present study aimed at examining changes in aerobic energy metabolism and performance in cycling athletes after 2 weeks of intermittent training in a multistep hypobaric hypoxia environment. [Subjects and Methods] We also aimed at using the findings to propose an efficient training program in hypobaric hypoxia for endurance athletes with disabilities. The study participants were three cycling athletes with physical disabilities from the Korean national team (A, B, and C athletes). They underwent complex (repetition, interval, and continued) training with a roller-type cycle in a multistep hypobaric hypoxia environment (simulated altitude, 4,000 m above sea level). The training was conducted in twelve 60-min sessions for 2 weeks and it was based on the ventilatory threshold intensity, measured in an exercise stress test, conducted prior to training, at constant temperature (23 °C ± 2 °C) and humidity conditions (50% ± 5%). [Results] B and C athletes showed no noticeable changes in relative VO2max and HRmax values after training. A, B, and C athletes all showed increases in all-out time, 2′09″ (13.1%), 2′43″ (18.7%), and 1′22″ (7.4%), respectively after training. Although the relative VO2max and HRmax values were not improved, submaximal exercise performance ability was improved. [Conclusion] Therefore, 2 weeks of intermittent training in a hypobaric hypoxia environment positively affected aerobic energy metabolism and performance.