[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to translate the Trunk Control Measurement Scale into a Korean version and to analyze the intra- and inter-rater reliability. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen children with spastic cerebral palsy and four physical therapists with over 10 years of clinical experience participated in this study. A Korean-American physical therapist translated the trunk control measurement scale from English into a Korean version. Four physical therapists viewed the video data of 15 children and scored each child’s trunk control measurement scale performance on seven separate days. Four testers analyzed the test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability using the intra-class correlation coefficient. [Results] Intra-class correlation coefficients for test-retest and inter-rater reliability for the Korean trunk control measurement scale showed significantly high reliability in all testers and sublevels. [Conclusion] The Korean version of the measurement scale is a reliable and suitable instrument for assessing trunk control in individuals with cerebral palsy in Korea.
[Purpose] This study analyzes awareness and participation behavior in disabled sports and disability understanding after Tokyo’s bid for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics. [Subjects and Methods] The study conducted a cross survey on 220 registrants of an Internet research firm. It analyzed: the awareness of citizens and their behavioral changes, in the aftermath of the allocation of Olympic and Paralympic Games; subject attributes and education level; recognition of disabled sports; and the awareness and behavior of participants, with regard to disabled sports. The analysis was conducted using SPSS Ver. 21 (IBM). [Results] The subjects were not interested in watching (72.2%), participating (76.8%), or volunteering (71.8%) in disabled sports. In addition, 76.8% of the subjects exhibited no behavioral changes—such as by watching, participating, or volunteering in disabled sports—after the Olympics and Paralympics bid decision. [Conclusion] This study’s subjects had no confidence in their disability knowledge and no opportunities to interact with disabled persons. Furthermore, the bids for mega-events such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games did not lead to behavioral changes concerning disabled sports. Therefore, disability understanding should promote and deepen participation behavior in disabled sports.
[Purpose] To study the effect that limbering up of the muscles attached to the pelvis has on muscle strength of the trunk and upper and lower extremities, which are not being exercised, and to investigate the possibilities for clinical application. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 152 healthy adult men. Sthenometry was conducted using a handheld dynamometer to assess the effect of limbering up of the upper gluteus maximus, hamstrings, and internal abdominal oblique muscles attached to thoracolumbar fascia on the trunk and upper and lower extremities. The exercises were slowly performed 20 repetitions. Subjects were divided into AB group (n=49) measuring abdominal and back muscle strength, K group (n=42) measuring knee flexor and extensor strength, and S group (n=61) measuring shoulder flexor and external rotator strength and compared to non-exercising controls. [Results] In the exercise groups, exercising either gluteus maximus or hamstrings significantly increased the strength of abdominal and back muscles; exercising gluteus maximus increased knee extensor strength, and exercising the abdominal internal oblique muscle significantly increased knee flexor strength; and shoulder flexor strength significantly increased after exercising gluteus maximus versus controls. [Conclusion] This may be useful in rehabilitation of injuries to the trunk and upper and lower extremities.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of lumbar stabilization exercise and sling exercise on lumbosacral region angle, lumbar muscle strength, pain scale of patients with chronic low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 29 chronic low back pain patient women who were selected among participants in exercise class at K Region Health Promotion Center in South Korea and were randomly assigned to the lumbar stabilization exercise group (n=10), sling exercise group (n=10), and the control group (n=9). Both lumbar stabilization and sling exercise programs were executed for 60 minutes, three times a week, for 12 weeks. Before and after exercise we measured lumbosacral region angle (lumbar lordosis angle, lumbosacral angle, sacral inclination angle), lumbar muscle strength, and pain scale in all subjects. Two-way analysis of variance was conducted to analyze experimental data. In order to analyze the interaction effect, we conducted paired t-test before and after treatment. [Results] Lumbar stabilization exercise group and sling exercises group did not affect lumbar lordosis angle, lumbosacral angle and sacral inclination angle. Whereas the lumbar flexion muscle strength and lumbar extension muscle strength significantly increased in the lumbar stabilization exercise group and sling exercise group. The flexibility increased in the lumbar stabilization exercise group and sling exercise group. The pain scale decreased in the lumbar stabilization exercise group and sling exercise group. [Conclusion] Both lumbar stabilization exercise and sling exercises are useful therapeutic approaches to chronic back pain.
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of a Flexi-Bar exercise program with vibration stimulation on pain and dysfunction in patients with low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 30 patients with low back pain. The participants were divided into a control (n=15) group and an experimental group (n=15). General physical therapy was used in both groups. A Flexi-Bar exercise program with vibration stimulation was used in the experimental group. The Visual Analog Scale was used to measure pain severity. The Oswestry Disability Index was used to measure the extent of dysfunction due to low back pain. [Results] The VAS and ODI of the experimental group showed a significant difference compared to that of the control group. [Conclusion] The results show that a Flexi-Bar exercise program with vibration stimulation is effective in alleviating pain and dysfunction in patients with low back pain.
[Purpose] The aim of this study is to find out the association between anterior pelvic tilt and gait and balance in chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen chronic stroke patients were included in this study. A palpation meter was employed to measure the anterior inclination of the pelvis. A GAITRite system automates measuring temporal and spatial gait parameters. A 10-Meter Walk test was used to measure gait speed. The Timed Up and Go test was used to measure the dynamic balance ability and gait ability of the participants. A BioRescue was used to assess balance by measuring the moving distance and area of the center of pressure. [Results] There were significant negative correlations between pelvic anterior tilt and velocity, step length, and stride. There were significant positive correlations between velocity and cadence, step length, and stride length. There were significant negative correlations between velocity and cycle time, H-H base, TUG, and 10MWT. There was significant negative correlation between cadence and cycle time and H-H base. [Conclusion] This study showed a negative correlation between pelvic anterior tilt and gait function including gait speed and step length.
[Purpose] Measurement of posture is important for those with a clinical diagnosis as well as researchers aiming to understand the impact of faulty postures on the development of musculoskeletal disorders. A reliable, cost-effective and low tech posture measure may be beneficial for research and clinical applications. The purpose of this study was to determine rater reliability and construct validity of a posture screening mobile application in healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Pictures of subjects were taken in three standing positions. Two raters independently digitized the static standing posture image twice. The app calculated posture variables, including sagittal and coronal plane translations and angulations. Intra- and inter-rater reliability were calculated using the appropriate ICC models for complete agreement. Construct validity was determined through comparison of known groups using repeated measures ANOVA. [Results] Intra-rater reliability ranged from 0.71 to 0.99. Inter-rater reliability was good to excellent for all translations. ICCs were stronger for translations versus angulations. The construct validity analysis found that the app was able to detect the change in the four variables selected. [Conclusion] The posture mobile application has demonstrated strong rater reliability and preliminary evidence of construct validity. This application may have utility in clinical and research settings.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to apply early intervention via microcurrent and cryotherapy in patients who underwent rotator cuff reconstruction surgery, and to investigate the effects of such interventions on pain and inflammation levels based on the analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and on changes in muscle tone. [Subjects and Methods] The study population consisted of 30 patients who had undergone rotator cuff reconstruction surgery, with 10 patients each assigned to the control, experimental I (E-1), and experimental II (E-II) groups. On the day after surgery, muscle tone, blood CRP level, and pain were measured. For the following two weeks, continues passive motion (CPM), icing, cryotherapy, and microcurrent were applied to the each group. After the respective interventions, CRP levels, pain, and muscle tone near the shoulder area were measured again. [Results] In the post-hoc test of between-group comparison, a statistically significant difference in CRP level was found in the cryotherapy group. A difference in shoulder muscle tone appeared only in the supraspinatus muscle, with post-hoc test results showing that the biggest change occurred in the cryotherapy group. [Conclusion] Cryotherapy may be able to help stabilize inflammation as well as reduce pain and muscle tension when applied in patients following rotator cuff reconstruction.
[Purpose] Changes in oxidative stress severity and antioxidant potential are routinely used as oxidative stress markers. While several studies have reported the relationship between these markers and exercise, little is known about the dynamic nature of these markers during muscle atrophy and reloading. Therefore, we examined changes in oxidative stress severity and antioxidant potential during muscle atrophy and reloading. [Subjects and Methods] Muscle atrophy was induced in mice by casting the limb for 2 weeks. Mice were then subjected to reloading for 2 weeks. The severity of oxidative stress (hydroperoxide) and antioxidant potential (degree of reduction) were quantified. [Results] Muscle atrophy was induced by cast immobilization. The muscle mass of mice recovered to similar levels as the control group following 2 weeks of reloading. The degree of oxidative stress was within the normal range throughout the experimental period. The antioxidant potential decreased to the clinical borderline level 2 weeks after immobilization, further decreased after 1 day of reloading, and then recovered to within the normal range. [Conclusion] Performing d-ROMs and BAP tests may contribute to the understanding to atrophic process of skeletal muscle in clinical practice of physical therapy.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between measurement time and different expansibility of the elastic tape on the rectus femoris and body sway index with plyometric exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 24 healthy men. C90 area, C90 angle, trace length, sway average velocity for body sway index were measured using a force plate by BT4. The collected data were analyzed using Kendall’s coefficient of concordance. [Results] All of body sway index on measuring follow up 24 hours after removing tape were significantly decreased than before and right after plyometric exercise. No significant correlations were found between body sway index and different expansibility of the elastic tape. [Conclusion] It appears that different expansibility of the elastic tape does not affect the ability to body sway index. Carry over effect of taping was verified on measuring follow up 24 hours after removing tape through the decreasing body sway index.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability and validity of the Korean-translated version of the Lower Limb Functional Index (LLFI) in the assessment of patients with lower-limb disorders. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-six subjects with lower-limb disorders, 24 men and 32 women, participated in this study. Reliability was determined by using the intra-class correlation coefficient and Cronbach’s α for internal consistency. Validity was examined by correlating the LLFI scores with the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) and Short Form 36 (SF-36) scores. [Results] The test-retest reliability was 0.95. The criterion-related validity was established through a comparison with the Korean versions of the LEFS and SF-36. [Conclusion] The Korean version of the LLFI was shown to be a reliable and valid instrument for assessing lower-limb complaints.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in soleus extensibility from a joint contracture caused by a reduction in joint movement with unweighted lower limbs and to interpret the results to aid in the treatment of human joint contractures. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were twenty-one 10-weeks-old male Wistar rats. Twenty-one rats were divided into one control (C) and two experimental groups. The first experimental group included fixed right ankle joints in full plantar flexion (F). The second experimental group’s hind limbs were suspended and the right ankle joints were fixed in full plantar flexion (FS). The period of this study was one week. On the first and last day of this study, all of the rats’ ankle dorsiflexion angles were measured. On the last day of this study, all of the rats’ soleus extensibilities were measured. [Results] On the last day of this study, the ankle dorsiflexion angles and the soleus extensibility in the FS group were significantly more decreased than those of the F group. [Conclusion] It was shown that the skeletal muscle extensibility from joint contracture caused by reduction of joint movement with unweighted lower limbs was more markedly decreased than that from joint contracture caused by reduction of joint movement.
[Purpose] To evaluate the side-to-side difference in dynamic unilateral balance ability and to determine the correlation of the balance ability with pitching performance in collegiate baseball pitchers. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five Japanese collegiate baseball pitchers participated in this study. Dynamic balance ability during a unilateral stance was bilaterally evaluated using the star excursion balance test (SEBT). The pitchers threw 20 fastballs at an official pitching distance; the maximal ball velocity and pitching accuracy (the number of strike/20 pitches × 100) were assessed. Side-to-side difference in scores of SEBT was assessed using a paired t-test. Correlations between SEBT scores and pitching performance were evaluated for both legs using a Pearson’s correlation analysis. [Results] The pivot side showed significantly higher score of the SEBT in the anteromedial direction than the stride side. On the other hand, the SEBT scores in the pivot and stride legs did not have significant correlations with maximal ball velocity and pitching accuracy. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that marked side-to-side difference does not exist in the dynamic unilateral balance ability of collegiate baseball pitchers and that the dynamic unilateral balance ability of each leg is not directly related to maximal ball velocity and pitching accuracy.
[Purpose] Sufficient sleep is required for maximal performance and good mood. Japan has three national wheelchair basketball teams: Top male, Top female, and Under-23 (U23) male teams. Using these team members as model, this study investigated the difference of sleep status of wheelchair basketball players by age and gender. [Subjects and Methods] There were 44 participants: 14 in the Top male team (29.5 ± 5.2 years), 18 in the Top female team (30.6 ± 9.2 years), and 12 in the U23 team (19.1 ± 2.0 years). Sleep status was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); higher scores indicate poor sleep quality. [Results] PSQI scores in the Top male and female teams were higher than in the U23 team. The Top teams showed shorter sleep duration and worse sleep efficacy than the U23 team. Time spent in bed and sleep duration in the female team were shorter than in the Top male and U23 teams. More male players reported “feel too hot” as the reason for sleep disturbance than female players. [Conclusion] Players in the Top Japanese national wheelchair basketball teams had poorer sleep status than U23 players. Among female players, the reason for insomnia was less sleep duration. For males, the reason for insomnia was “feel too hot.”
[Purpose] Sitting position is the dominant position for a professional pianist. There are many static and dynamic forces which affect musculoskeletal system during sitting. In prolonged sitting, these forces are harmful. The aim of this study was to compare pianists’ back extensor muscles activity during playing piano while sitting on a regular piano bench and a chair with back rest. [Subjects and Methods] Ten professional piano players (mean age 25.4 ± 5.28, 60% male, 40% female) performed similar tasks for 5 hours in two sessions: one session sitting on a regular piano bench and the other sitting on a chair with back rest. In each session, muscular activity was assessed in 3 ways: 1) recording surface electromyography of the back-extensor muscles at the beginning and end of each session, 2) isometric back extension test, and 3) musculoskeletal discomfort questionnaire. [Results] There were significantly lesser muscular activity, more ability to perform isometric back extension and better personal comfort while sitting on a chair with back rest. [Conclusion] Decreased muscular activity and perhaps fatigue during prolonged piano playing on a chair with back rest may reduce acquired musculoskeletal disorders amongst professional pianists.
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of a client-centered leisure activity program on satisfaction, upper limb function, self-esteem, and depression in elderly residents of a long-term care facility. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 12 elderly subjects, aged 65 or older, residing in a nursing home. The subjects were divided into an experimental and a control group. Subjects in the control group received leisure activities already provided by the facility. The experimental group participated in a client-centered leisure activity program. The subjects conducted individual activities three times per week, 30 minutes per session. The group activity was conducted three times per week for eight weeks. Each subject’s performance of and satisfaction with the leisure activity programs, upper limb function, self-esteem, and depression were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] After participating in a program, significant improvements were seen in both the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure and upper limb function in the experimental group. Also after the intervention, the subjects’ self-esteem significantly increased and their depression significantly decreased. [Conclusion] A client-centered leisure activity program motivates elderly people residing in a long-term care facility and induces their voluntary participation. Such customized programs are therefore effective for enhancing physical and psychological functioning in this population.
[Purpose] Modified constraint-induced movement therapy and mirror therapy are recognized as stroke rehabilitation methods. The aim of the present study was to determine whether these therapies influence upper extremity function and whether upper extremity function influences the ability to perform activities of daily living in further. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight stroke patients participated in the study. Interventions were administered five times per week for 3 weeks. Activities of daily living or self-exercise were performed after modified constraint-induced movement therapy or mirror therapy, respectively. Analyses were performed on the results of the Manual Function Test and the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index to determine the factors influencing activities of daily living. [Results] Both groups showed improvement in upper extremity function, but only the modified constraint-induced movement therapy group showed a correlation between upper extremity function and performance in the hygiene, eating, and dressing. The improved hand manipulation function found in the modified constraint-induced movement therapy had statistically significant influences on eating and dressing. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that a patient’s attempts to move the affected side result in improved performance in activities of daily living as well as physical function.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pelvic tilt angles and lung function in participants performing pelvic tilts on a ball. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen subjects participated in this study. While they performed pelvic tilt on sitting at a ball, the peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured at 10 degrees of anterior and posterior pelvic tilt, respectively, and neutral position. The repeated measure ANOVA was performed, and the Bonferroni correction was used for post-hoc analysis. [Results] The PEF of the participants was significantly higher at neutral position, compared with an anterior pelvic tilt at 10 degrees. The FEV1 was also higher in neutral position, compared with anterior and posterior pelvic tilt. [Conclusion] This study underlines the need for the standardization of the FVC testing protocol for positioning the pelvic angle in a neutral position in patients with respiratory disorders to promote reliable interpretation of intervention outcomes.
[Purpose] The efficacy of a stabilometer-based index of postural stability (IPS) as an indicator of dynamic balance ability was investigated. [Subjects and Methods] Using a stabilometer, we calculated the IPS in 583 healthy subjects (178 males, 405 females) under two conditions (open eyes/hard surface, OE/HS; closed eyes/soft surface, CE/SS). [Results] Results revealed a negative relation between IPS and age. IPS (OE/HS) began to decrease at middle-age (40–60 years old), and then decreased more rapidly during elderly ages (>60 years old). On the other hand, IPS (CE/SS) decreased linearly with increasing age. There was no gender difference between the two IPSs. [Conclusion] These results suggest that IPS can evaluate balance ability quantitatively and without a ceiling effect. It was concluded that IPS (OE/HS) indicates comprehensive balance ability, while IPS (CE/SS) reveals balance ability without compensation by visual acuity and plantar superficial sense.
[Purpose] The interaction between the visual and tactile modalities influences on different levels from neural activity, perception, higher cognition to behavior. The aim of this study was to examine how a visual stimulus influences tactile sensitivity depending on temporal asynchrony. [Subjects and Methods] In total, 15 participants took part in this study. They were required to perform a two-alternative forced-choice task regarding whether a tactile pulse was felt. The individual participants’ tactile thresholds were estimated using a repetitive stepwise method. Visual stimuli were simultaneously presented with various temporal gaps (0 ms, ± 50 ms, ± 100 ms, and ± 300 ms), whereas no visual stimulus was presented in the tactile only condition. The tactile thresholds in eight conditions were compared using analysis of variance. [Results] Of the participants, 53.5% showed the most sensitive tactile threshold when presented with a visual stimulus with a short temporal gap, especially when the visual stimulus preceded the tactile one by 50 ms. [Conclusion] The preceding visual stimulus facilitates the perceptual sensitivity of the tactile sensation. Providing sensory stimuli in a multisensory mode benefits perceptual encoding. A pre-attentional mechanism led by a particular sensory modality might work as a perceptual advantage for another modality.
[Purpose] This review provides an evaluation of the evidence for the effectiveness of using manual therapy to treat cervicogenic dizziness. [Subjects and Methods] The literature was systematically searched on the May 2, 2016 using the following online databases: Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL and PEDro. This review included randomised controlled trials and compared the efficacy of manual therapy for the treatment of cervicogenic dizziness, compared to other types of intervention. This study measured changes based on dizziness intensity and frequency. [Results] The primary search found 30 articles, but only four articles met the inclusion criteria. Assessment of methodological quality was performed by two researchers using the PEDro scale. The level of evidence was determined using a recognised grading scale. Three out of the four articles were deemed to have high methodological quality, while the fourth was rated as moderate quality. The attributed level of evidence was moderate (level 2). [Conclusion] Manual therapy is potentially effective for managing cervicogenic dizziness. However, due to the heterogeneity of the results and techniques and the low number of studies, further research is recommended to provide conclusive evidence.
[Purpose] To present the case of the resolution of right temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) following the correction of a right lateral head translation posture. [Subject and Methods] A 24 year old female reported facial pain and jaw clicking in the right TMJ. Radiography revealed a 19 mm right head (shift) translation posture. TMJ vibration analysis showed characteristic abnormalities for the right TMJ. The patient was treated with CBP® technique mirror image® left sided exercises, and traction methods as well as spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). [Results] After 36 treatments over a 12-week time period, a complete correction of the lateral head posture was achieved corresponding with a complete resolution of jaw pain and clicking. TMJ vibration analysis demonstrated normal right side TMJ characteristics following treatment. [Conclusion] Abnormal head/neck postures, such as lateral head translation, may be an unrealized source of TMJD and may be explained through the ‘regional interdependence’ model or by how seemingly unrelated anatomy may be associated with a primary complaint.
[Purpose] To present a case of the non-surgical improvement in cervical kyphosis in a patient with history of cervical spine trauma and advanced osteoarthritis. [Subject and Methods] A 38 year old male presented with a chief complaint of chronic neck pain that was not substantially relieved by recent previous traditional physiotherapy and chiropractic manipulation. The cervical radiograph demonstrated a cervical hypolordosis of 5° as measured by the Harrison posterior tangent method from C2–C7. There was a 15° kyphosis at C4–C6 with advanced degenerative changes consistent with previous spine trauma. The patient was treated by CBP® methods incorporating cervical extension traction, extension exercises, and spinal manipulation for 30 sessions over an 18 week period. [Results] After the treatment sessions, there was a substantial (27°) increase in global C2–C7 lordosis, and 5° decrease in C4–C6 degenerative kyphosis corresponding to the reduction in neck pain and disability, and an improvement in overall health status as indicated on the SF-36 health questionnaire. [Conclusion] Although degenerative spondylosis of the cervical spine will have physical limitations to non-surgical correction, this case serves as an example that it is possible to reduce degenerative kyphosis and increase global cervical lordosis corresponding to health improvements in these patients.
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of visual feedback balance training on the balance and ankle instability in adult men with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty eight adults with functional ankle instability, divided randomly into an experimental group, which performed visual feedback balance training for 20 minutes and ankle joint exercises for 10 minutes, and a control group, which performed ankle joint exercise for 30 minutes. Exercises were completed three times a week for 8 weeks. Bio rescue was used for balance ability. It measured limit of stability at one minute. For ankle instability was measured using Cumberland ankle instability tool (CAIT). This measure was performed before and after the experiments in each group. [Results] The experimental group had significant increase in the Limit of Stability and CAIT score. The control group had significant increase in CAIT score. While the Limit of Stability increased without significance. [Conclusion] In conclusion, visual feedback balance training can be recommended as a treatment method for patients with functional ankle instability.
[Purpose] This study assessed the relationship between hamstring length and gluteus maximus (GM) strength with and without normalization by body weight and height. [Subjects and Methods] In total, 34 healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. To measure GM strength, subjects performed maximal hip joint extension with the knee joints flexed to 90° in the prone position. GM strength was normalized for body weight and height. [Results] GM strength with normalization was positively correlated with hamstring length, whereas GM strength without normalization was negatively correlated with hamstring length. [Conclusion] The normalization of GM strength by body weight and height has the potential to lead to more appropriate conclusions and interpretations about its correlation with hamstring length. Hamstring length may be related to GM strength.
[Purpose] It has been reported that exercises focusing upon the transversus abdominis (TrA) ameliorate low back pain (LBP). We investigated whether expiratory muscle training (EMT) can promote activity of the TrA to the same degree as the abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) in elderly individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one elderly subjects (9 males, 12 females; mean age, 84.9 ± 6.6 years) without LBP symptoms were included. Using ultrasound imaging we measured changes in thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles, TrA, internal oblique muscle (IO), and external oblique muscle (EO) during ADIM and EMT. The load in EMT was set to 15% of maximal expiratory pressure. [Results] TrA showed a significant increase in muscle thickness during ADIM and EMT compared with at rest. A significant increase in muscle thickness was noted for EMT in comparison with ADIM. No significant differences were found for IO and EO. [Conclusion] In elderly people, EMT may be an effective alternative to ADIM for promoting activity of the TrA and can be used as an exercise to maintain TrA function.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of proprioception exercise to decrease pain and increase the ability to balance by implementing visual feedback during early rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 24 patients who receive a total knee arthroplasty were randomly and equally assigned to a visual feedback training group (VFT group) and a visual disuse group (Control group). They performed visual feedback training using the My Fitness Trainer (MFT, Austria) for 20 minutes, three times per week for eight weeks. The patients’ balance ability and pain was measured before and after the exercises. Pain was measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS). To assess balance ability, the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions on unstable ground was measured by using the MFT measurement system. [Results] The VFT group showed a significant decrease in VAS and an increase in balance ability within the group, as well as a significant increase in balance ability between groups when compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Visual feedback training during the rehabilitation of patients who received a total knee arthroplasty will be useful in reducing pain and improving balance.
[Purpose] This study investigated the relationship between pain intensity, lumber disability, and psychological factors in patients with low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 166 outpatients (116 female, 50 male) with chronic low back pain presenting for physical therapy participated in this study. Patients were divided into two groups: those with low back pain alone and those with both low back pain and radicular pain. Pain intensity and lumbar disability were measured using a visual analogue scale and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Psychological factors, such as self-efficiency, fear avoidance, and depression were measured using the Chronic Pain Self-efficacy Scale, Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, and Beck Depression Index, respectively. [Results] Patients with low back pain with radicular pain had greater pain and lumber disability and lower psychological factors compared with patients with chronic low back pain alone. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate the presence of low back pain with radicular pain is more related to pain, LBP disability index, Back performance, Self-efficiency (Pain, Function, Symptom), Fear-avoidance (body, work) and depression factors than low back pain. Considering the relationships between in pain, LBP disability index, Back performance, Self-efficiency (Pain, Function, Symptom), Fear-avoidance (body, work) and depression factors in patients with low back pain, therapeutic intervention for not only pain and dysfunction, but also psychological factors is needed.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to determine the effect that secondary postural deformities and chronic postural abnormalities have on lung capacity, as well as correlate the activity of the respiratory muscles. The results provide basic objective data about the forward head posture and respiratory muscle activity that can be used in clinical situations. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects used in this study were 24 patients aged 25 to 35 years old who visited a hospital in Jeollanam-do Province, Korea, between September 2015 and January 2016. The patients were diagnosed with forward head posture because the vertical line between the acromion process and the external acoustic meatus was at least 5 cm. We measured the craniovertebral angle, pulmonary functions, and respiratory muscle activity of the subjects for correlation analysis. [Results] A positive correlation was found between the craniovertebral angle and the forced vital capacity (r=0.63), while a negative correlation was found between the craniovertebral angle and the sternocleidomastoid muscle (r=–0.77). The craniovertebral angle and the anterior scalene muscle showed a negative correlation (r=–0.65). There were positive correlations between the forced vital capacity and the sternocleidomastoid muscle (r=0.71), and between the forced vital capacity and the anterior scalene muscle (r=0.59). [Conclusion] Severe forward head posture increased the activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscles and the anterior scalene muscles, and decreased the forced vital capacity. Thus, it is necessary to develop more efficient interventions for managing forward head posture based on pulmonary function and the activity of the respiratory synergist muscles.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to reveal the relationships between physical therapy students’ motives to become physical therapists and their academic performance. This was investigated by their experience of delayed or non-delayed graduation, and their perceptions of learning in school and internship. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 245 physical therapists participating in a newcomer orientation by the Hiroshima Prefectural Physical Therapy Association in May, 2017. Subjects’ basic attributes and their responses to specially created questionnaires were investigated. [Results] Seventeen of 193 physical therapists in their first year experienced delayed graduation. There were differences between the delayed graduation group and the non-delayed graduation group about motives for becoming a physical therapist. Moreover, there were significant relationships between motives for becoming a physical therapist and perceptions of learning in school as opposed to internship. [Conclusion] We conclude that motives for becoming a physical therapist are related to academic performance.
[Purpose] To investigate the influence of knee immobilization period on recovery of histological damages in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insertion and articular cartilage in rabbits. This knowledge is important for determining the appropriate rehabilitation approach for patients with ligament injuries, fracture, disuse atrophy, and degenerative joint disease. [Materials and Methods] Forty-eight male Japanese white rabbits were divided equally into the remobilization and control groups. The remobilization group had the right knee surgically immobilized, and was divided equally into four subgroups according to the duration of immobilization (1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks). After the immobilization was removed, the rabbits moved freely for 8 weeks. The control group underwent sham operation and followed the same time course as the remobilization group. The chondrocyte apoptosis rate and chondrocyte proliferation rate in the ACL insertion and articular cartilage were analyzed after remobilization. [Results] In the ACL insertion, the remobilization group had a higher chondrocyte apoptosis rate than the control group after 8 weeks of immobilization, and a lower chondrocyte proliferation rate than the control group after 4 and 8 weeks of immobilization. In the articular cartilage, the remobilization group had a lower chondrocyte proliferation rate than the control group after 8 weeks of immobilization. After 8 weeks of remobilization, the ACL insertion and articular cartilage are not completely recovered after 4 and 8 weeks of immobilization, respectively. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that 8 weeks of remobilization will result in recovery of the ACL insertion after 2 weeks of knee immobilization, and recovery of the articular cartilage after 4 weeks of knee immobilization. If 8 weeks of immobilization occurs, a remobilization duration of more than 8 weeks may be necessary.
[Purpose] The purpose is to verify the effectiveness of the 2-step test in predicting cognitive decline in elderly individuals. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred eighty-two participants aged over 65 years underwent the 2-step test, cognitive function tests and higher level competence testing. Participants were classified as Robust, <1.3, and <1.1 using criteria regarding the locomotive syndrome risk stage for the 2-step test, variables were compared between groups. In addition, ordered logistic analysis was used to analyze cognitive functions as independent variables in the three groups, using the 2-step test results as the dependent variable, with age, gender, etc. as adjustment factors. [Results] In the crude data, the <1.3 and <1.1 groups were older and displayed lower motor and cognitive functions than did the Robust group. Furthermore, the <1.3 group exhibited significantly lower memory retention than did the Robust group. The 2-step test was related to the Stroop test (β: 0.06, 95% confidence interval: 0.01–0.12). [Conclusion] The finding is that the risk stage of the 2-step test is related to cognitive functions, even at an initial risk stage. The 2-step test may help with earlier detection and implementation of prevention measures for locomotive syndrome and mild cognitive impairment.
[Purpose] This study aims to analyze the effect that moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has on the respiratory synergist muscles. The results will provide basic data that can be used in the clinical management of COPD. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects in the study were 47 male patients with COPD between 55 and 70 years old who were treated in a medical institution located in Jeollanam-do Province, South Korea, from October 2015 to December 2016. Measurements were analyzed to determine the correlation between the diaphragm thickness and the respiratory synergist muscle activity in patients with mild COPD. [Results] The results showed that there was a negative correlation between the diaphragm thickness and the sternocleidomastoid muscle and between the diaphragm thickness and the scalene muscle; however, there was a positive correlation between the diaphragm thickness and the external intercostal. For patients with severe COPD, negative correlations were found between the diaphragm thickness and the sternocleidomastoid muscle and between the diaphragm thickness and the scalene muscle. [Conclusion] The mechanical deformation of the thoracic cage caused by severe COPD reduces the lung capacity of patients and, thus, increases the difficulty in breathing. As the disease worsens, the patients tend to maintain ventilation using the respiratory synergist muscles. Thus, offering early and aggressive treatment and a respiration rehabilitation program to patients with COPD can help to reduce the actions of the respiratory synergist muscles to ensure normal breathing.
[Purpose] To measure electromyographic activity of the piriformis using fine-wire electrodes during 7 hip movements. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy men, without severe low back pain or lower limb injury, participated in this study. Fine-wire electrodes were inserted into the piriformis and surface electrodes were attached to the muscles in the hip region and the trunk muscles on the dominant arm side. Electromyographic signal amplitude was measured during 7 hip movements: side-lying external rotation in hip neutral position, side-lying abduction in hip neutral position, side-lying abduction in hip external rotation, side-lying abduction in hip internal rotation, prone extension in hip neutral position, prone extension in hip external rotation, and prone extension in hip internal rotation. Repeated-measures one-way analysis of variance was used to examine electromyographic activity in each of the 7 hip movements. [Results] Piriformis electromyographic activity was highest during prone hip extension in external rotation. Both the superior and inferior portions of the gluteus maximus were also highly activated during prone hip extension in external rotation. [Conclusion] Prone hip extension in external rotation induced high electromyographic activity in the piriformis and superior and inferior gluteus maximus muscles.
[Purpose] Sensorimotor experience modulates motor resonance, such as motor interference, which occurs when observing others’ movements; however, it is unclear how motor resonance is modulated by intentionally imitating others’ movements. This study examined the effects of imitation experience on subsequent motor resonance. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven healthy participants performed horizontal arm movements while observing non-biological, incongruent (vertical) movements of a visual stimulus (triangle object) in pre- and post-test procedures. Thirteen participants in the imitation group imitated vertical movements (non-biological motion) of the triangle object between pre- and post-test procedures and fourteen participants in the non-imitation group observed that. [Results] Variance in the executed movements was measured as an index of motor resonance. Although there was no significant difference in the non-imitation group, there was a significantly smaller variance for post-test compared to pre-test in the imitation group. [Conclusion] Motor resonance was inhibited by intentionally imitating non-biological motions. Imitating movements different from one’s own motor property might inhibit subsequent motor resonance. This finding might be applied to selectively using motor resonance as a form of rehabilitation.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the musculoskeletal pain of care workers and investigate its effect on their job satisfaction. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 87 care workers working at C elderly care service center in P region. The average age of men was 62.5 ± 3.4 years and that of women was 57.3 ± 2.7 years. The ‘Guidelines for Risk Factor Survey on Tasks with Musculoskeletal Burden’ of the KOSHA CODE (H-30-2003) of the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) was used for measurement of musculoskeletal pain. This survey tool for job satisfaction consisted of 12 questions including the areas of wage satisfaction, professional satisfaction, job performance satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction. [Results] Study results showed that musculoskeletal pain varied depending on professional satisfaction, job performance satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction. The correlation between the areas of musculoskeletal pain and job satisfaction was examined and the following was revealed. Professional satisfaction was correlated with arm/elbow pain and lower back pain, job performance satisfaction with lower back pain, and relationship satisfaction with shoulder pain and lower back pain. [Conclusion] In this study, subjects were older and could have been easily exposed to diseases because of their age. To improve job efficiency among care workers, continuing education related to the job should take precedence. In addition, social support is required that can alleviate the heavy workload related to physical activity support, which is among the responsibilities of care workers. Moreover, application standards and coverage of industrial insurance for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders of care workers should be extended further to relieve the burden of medical costs. A series of such measures will have a positive effect on improving the job satisfaction of care workers.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of circuit exercise on obesity index, appetite regulating hormones and insulin resistance in middle-aged obese women. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 26 obese middle-aged women who were selected among participants in exercise class at K Region Health Promotion Center in South Korea and were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=13; age 50.15 ± 3.82, % body fat 38.79 ± 3.28) and the control group (n=13; age 49.84 ± 2.96, % body fat 37.46 ± 2.51). Circuit exercise consisted of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise for 5 weeks and 50 minutes for 12 weeks. Before and after exercise we measured obesity index, leptin, ghrelin, fasting blood glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance in all subjects. A repeated-measured two-way of variance was performed for comparison of the treatment effects between the exercise and control groups. [Results] Body weight, BMI, and body fat percentage of obese index decreased significantly. Leptin of dietary regulation hormone was significantly decreased and ghrelin was significantly increased. Insulin and insulin resistance was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Circuit exercise can be viewed as an effective exercise program to induce changes in appetite regulating hormones and to improve insulin resistance by mechanisms of energy homeostasis by weight loss.
[Purpose] Research related to dementia has gained momentum in South Korea and studies have found that the auditory sense affects dementia. This study aims to examine the relationship between the decline in hearing function and the overall cognitive function among the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-two older adults aged 65–90 years (mean age: 79.3, SD: 5.2) participated. The Korean Mini-Mental State Examination was used to assess cognitive function. Further, to assess the hearing function, pure-tone audiometry was performed prior to the cognitive function test. We used a paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation test for the analysis. [Results] Generally, the higher the frequency band, the more hearing loss was identified among the elderly. In addition, the difference in hearing between both ears was significant; particularly, hearing loss in the right ear was significantly higher than that in the left. Cognitive function was not related to age, however, the correlation between cognitive function and hearing loss in the right ear was statistically significant. [Conclusion] Hearing loss influences cognitive function among the elderly.
[Purpose] This study aimed to cross-cultural adapt and validate the Korean version of an physical activity measure (K-PAM) for community-dwelling elderly. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred and thirty eight community-dwelling elderlies, 32 males and 106 female, participated in the study. All participants were asked to fill out a fifty-one item questionnaire measuring perceived difficulty in the activities of daily living (ADL) for the elderly. One-parameter model of item response theory (Rasch analysis) was applied to determine the construct validity and to inspect item-level psychometric properties of 51 ADL items of the K-PAM. [Results] Person separation reliability (analogous to Cronbach’s alpha) for internal consistency was ranging 0.93 to 0.94. A total of 16 items was misfit to the Rasch model. After misfit item deletion, 35 ADL items of the K-PAM were placed in an empirically meaningful hierarchy from easy to hard. The item-person map analysis delineated that the item difficulty was well matched for the elderlies with moderate and low ability except for high ceilings. [Conclusion] Cross-cultural adapted K-PAM was shown to be sufficient for establishing construct validity and stable psychometric properties confirmed by person separation reliability and fit statistics.
[Purpose] The present study investigates the acute effects of accumulated aerobic exercise on aortic and peripheral pulse wave velocity (PWV) in healthy young males. [Subjects and Methods] We gathered data from 9 healthy young males (age, 23.4 ± 0.6 years) performed aerobic exercise group (AE, 65% peak oxygen uptake; two 15 min bouts of cycling performed with 20 min rest) and control group (CON, seated and resting in a quiet room) on separate days in a randomized, controlled crossover fashion. Carotid-femoral (aortic) and femoral-ankle (peripheral) PWV, carotid augmentation index, carotid, brachial and ankle blood pressure and heart rate were measured before (baseline) and 20 min for both groups. [Results] Aortic and peripheral PWV decreased from baseline at 20 min for the AE group, but not in the CON group. [Conclusion] The present findings indicate that acute accumulated aerobic exercise decreases aortic and peripheral PWV in healthy young males.
[Purpose] To present the clinically significant improvement of straight back syndrome (SBS) in a patient with spinal pain and exertional dyspnea. [Subject and Methods] A 19 year old presented with excessive thoracic hypokyphosis and other postural deviations. A multimodal CBP® mirror image® protocol of corrective exercises, traction procedures and spine/posture adjusting were given over an initial 12-week course of intensive treatment followed by a 2.75 year follow-up with minimal supportive treatment. [Results] The patient had significant postural improvements in all postural measures and specifically a 14° increase in the thoracic kyphosis that was maintained at long-term follow-up. The postural improvements were consistent with relief of exertional dyspnea and pain, as well as increases in both antero-posterior thoracic diameter and the ratio of antero-posterior to transthoracic diameter, measurements critical to the wellbeing of patients with SBS. [Conclusion] Long-term follow-up confirmed stable improvement in physiologic thoracic kyphosis in this patient. Nonsurgical correction in thoracic hypokyphosis/SBS can be achieved by mirror image traction procedures configured to flex the thoracic spine into hyperkyphosis as well as corrective exercise and manipulation as a part of CBP technique protocols.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of scapular stabilizing exercise in a stroke patient with winging and elevated scapula. [Subject and Methods] The subject was a 46-year-old female with a history of stroke. She had right side hemiplegia with winging and elevated scapula on the right side, and had compensatory motions of the neck and shoulder when using the paretic upper extremity. The subject participated in scapular stabilizing exercises for four days. This exercise program consisted of scapular protraction-retraction in an upright seated position. Scapular position was measured as distance between scapular medial border and thoracic vertebrae 3, 4. Upper extremity function was measured as time required for lifting and lowering a cup with the affected arm. [Results] After intervention, distance between scapular medial border and spinouse process of T3, 4 decreased. Time required for lifting and lowering a cup with the affected arm decreased. Compensatory motions of the neck and shoulder joint decreased. [Conclusion] Despite the short period, scapular stabilizing exercises had a positive effect on scapular position and upper extremity function.
[Purpose] This study developed an effective self-relaxation exercise for acute scapular medial pain and investigated its pain relief effects. [Subject and Methods] The subject was a 41-year-old male with scapular medial pain. During session 1, the subject performed a retraction exercise. During session 2, the subject performed a passive scapular lifting exercise. [Results] After session 2, the frequency of the pain decreased to about once a month, and the patient’s VAS score for acute scapular medial pain was 2/10. After session 1, there was no change compared to the initial values. [Conclusion] Therefore, the results of this study suggest that the passive scapular lifting exercise offers effective control of acute scapular medial pain.