[Purpose] This study examines the effect of isometric contraction of the upper limb on the affected side in the supine position on the activity of body trunk muscles on the opposite side of normal adults. [Participants and Methods] The research participants included 10 normal adults. A handheld dynamometer device was used to measure the isometric contraction of the upper limb. The muscle activity of the body trunk was analyzed by electromyography. [Results] The muscle activities of rectus abdominis, internal oblique abdominis, erector spinae muscle, and multifidus muscle of the body trunk on the opposite side were significantly larger in the case of the adduction and flexion of the shoulder joint on the affected side than in the case of abduction and extension. [Conclusion] The isometric contraction induced by the adduction and flexion of the shoulder joint on the affected side altered the muscle activity of the body trunk on the opposite side.
[Purpose] Pulmonary rehabilitation is appropriate for most individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pulmonary rehabilitation consists of conditioning and exercise therapy. Conditioning includes relaxation, breathing exercises, and manual chest wall compression during expiration (CWC). CWC improves the symptoms in individuals with respiratory disease who have undergone mechanical ventilation. However, evidence supporting the effectiveness of CWC for COPD has been insufficient. This study aimed to determine physiological responses to CWC in participants with COPD. [Participants and Methods] Twenty-nine participants with COPD were included in the study. Manual CWC techniques were performed in a comfortable position chosen by the participants (sitting, forward-leaning (sitting), or semi-Fowler’s). Ventilatory parameters, occlusion airway pressure (P0.1), and dyspnea were assessed using a visual analog scale and were compared before and during CWC. [Results] During manual CWC, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration, and dyspnea were significantly decreased; however, P0.1 was not affected. [Conclusion] Manual CWC for COPD had an immediate physiological effect, including a decrease in dyspnea that may have been facilitated by a reduced workload of the respiratory muscles. Thus, manual CWC may be effective for dyspnea by reducing oxygen consumption in the respiratory muscles.
[Purpose] We aimed to investigate the effect of resistance training of the orbicularis oris muscles on lip muscle strength and closure function in patients with swallowing disorder with facial palsy after stroke. [Participants and Methods] This study recruited 10 patients with swallowing disorder and facial palsy after stroke. All the participants received orbicularis oris muscle training at an intensity of 70% of 1 repetition maximum by using an Iowa oral performance instrument. Muscle strength and lip closure function were evaluated after orbicularis oris muscle training. [Results] After the intervention, the orbicularis oris muscle strength showed a statistically significant increase from 20.5 ± 5.15 to 25.3 ± 4.2 kilopascal. Lip closure function showed a statistically significant improvement from 2.6 ± 1.5 to 1.2 ± 1.0. [Conclusion] This study recommends to train at an intensity of 70% of 1 repetition maximum for 4 weeks to increase theorbicularis oris muscle strength and improve lip closure function.
[Purpose] This study investigated the characteristics of oropharyngeal swallowing function in patients with presbyphagia. [Participants and Methods] Data for 25 patients with presbyphagia were retrospectively analyzed. The oropharyngeal swallowing function was evaluated using VDS based on videofluoroscopic swallowing study. [Results] Lip closure, mastication, laryngeal elevation, and aspiration showed a relative decrease in function. [Conclusion] This study showed a reduction in oropharyngeal swallowing in patients with presbyphagia. Our results may help in the diagnosis and treatment of presbyphagia.
[Purpose] The current study aimed to investigate the reliability of infrared thermography as a method of determining foot skin temperature, and to determine the relationship between foot skin temperature and blood flow in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. [Participants and Methods] Eighty-five patients were recruited and their foot skin temperature and the ankle brachial index (ABI) were measured using infrared thermography and an automated oscillometry, respectively. A correlation between foot skin temperature and blood flow was performed. The patients were screened and classified according to two groups; diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and non-DPN. Discriminant validity was determined by comparing the foot skin temperature between the two groups. [Results] The test-retest reliability of foot skin temperature was high. A positive correlation was found between foot skin temperature and ABI in both feet. The foot skin temperatures in the DPN group were found to be significant lower when compared with those in the non-DPN group. [Conclusion] Foot skin temperature is an indirect method of evaluating blood flow in the feet of diabetic patients and can be used as a clinical outcome measurement of treatments used to improve blood flow in type 2 DM patients.
[Purpose] To present the case of the dramatic relief of low back pain, leg pain and disability in an older female with osteoarthritis, lumbar spinal stenosis and hypolordosis of the cervical and lumbar spine. [Participant and Methods] A 66-year-old female presented with chronic low back pain, right leg pain, numbness and weakness. Despite being recommended for surgery, the patient sought alternative treatment. The patient was treated with Chiropractic BioPhysics® rehabilitation of the spine with the objective to increase the lumbar and cervical lordoses. Cervical and lumbar extension exercises and traction were performed as well as spinal manipulation. Treatment was performed approximately three times per week for 6.5 months. [Results] Re-assessment after treatment demonstrated significant reduction of low back pain, leg pain and other health improvements. X-rays showed structural improvements in the cervical and lumbar spine despite advanced osteoarthritis. [Conclusion] Lumbar and cervical hypolordosis subluxation may be increased in those with spinal deformity caused symptoms, despite the presence of osteoarthritis and degenerative stenosis of the spine. Spinal x-rays as used in the assessment and monitoring of patients being treated with contemporary spinal rehabilitation methods are not harmful and should be used for routine screening purposes.
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of scrambler therapy on upper extremity pain in patient who had undergone breast cancer related lymphedema. [Participant and Methods] The patient was a 39-year-old woman who developed pain and lymphedema in the right upper extremity after mastectomy. Scrambler therapy was administered once a day every 45 minutes for 10 days to patient. [Results] After 10 sessions of scrambler therapy, pain was reduced 6 points. Bioimpedence and circumference was not increased after 10 treatment sessions. [Conclusion] Thus, scrambler therapy reduced pain without increased lymphedema.
[Purpose] Evaluate the association of primary headache and Temporomandibular Dysfunction in healthy adolescents from the Santos, SP, Brazil. [Participants and Methods] A total of 208 adolescents, aged 11 to 16 years old were randomly selected at the dentistry clinic at Universidade Metropolitana de Santos. For that, the Fonseca Anamnestic Index was applied, including information such as: limitation when opening the mouth and moving the jaw, headaches, pain in the temporomandibular joint, noises in the temporomandibular joint, and the habit of tightening or grinding the teeth. The data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis and the χ2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used to evaluate the association of categorical variables. [Results] The results were 63% of male participants, and 61% of female participants had Temporomandibular Dysfunction. In both genders headache was associated with the presence of Temporomandibular Dysfunction, with 93 participants with light headache and 39 with moderate headache. [Conclusion] There was an association between headache and the presence of Temporomandibular Dysfunction, and the percentage of affected males was slightly higher among this association. In the sample of adolescents who presented Temporomandibular Dysfunction, moderate headache was the main reported symptom of both genders.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of baseline muscle tendon unit stiffness on static stretching. [Participants and Methods] Eighteen healthy males were divided into two groups according to their muscle tendon unit stiffness as follows: High (n=9) and Low (n=9). Flexibility assessment was performed before and after 10 minutes of static stretching. Alterations in range of motion, passive torque at the terminal range of motion, muscle tendon unit stiffness, muscle tendon junction displacement, and tendon length were examined. [Results] No significant interactions were found in all the measurements. After static stretching, the range of motion, passive torque, muscle tendon junction displacement, and tendon length increased, while muscle tendon unit stiffness decreased. There were significant differences in range of motion, muscle tendon unit stiffness, and muscle tendon junction displacement between the groups. [Conclusion] Ten minutes of static stretching increased the range of motion through a decrease in muscle tendon unit stiffness and an increase in tolerance in both groups. Differences in muscle tendon unit stiffness and muscle tendon junction displacement caused the differences in range of motion. Baseline muscle tendon unit stiffness had no effects on static stretching.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the optimal timing for increasing muscle activity in the paralyzed lower limb of stroke survivors by evaluating the relationship between gait muscle activity patterns and gait parameters. [Participants and Methods] Electromyography of the tibialis anterior, soleus, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris on the paralyzed side and spatiotemporal gait parameters were evaluated in 40 chronic post-stroke patients as they walked at a comfortable speed. The normalized average amplitude and asymmetry indexes of each gait phase were calculated. The correlations between gait velocity or asymmetry indexes and the activity amplitudes of various muscles during each gait phase were analyzed. Multiple regression analysis was performed with gait velocity or asymmetry indexes as the response variable and the muscle activity amplitudes in the various gait phases as explanatory variables. [Results] The major determinants of gait velocity were the tibialis anterior activity (β=−0.35) and biceps femoris activity (β=0.45) during the swing phase. In addition, the biceps femoris activity during the swing phase was the major determinant of the asymmetry index for the swing phase duration (β=−0.41). [Conclusion] For patients with hemiparesis, increasing the biceps femoris activity during the swing phase is considered optimal, which may lead to improvement in walking performance.
[Purpose] The present study aimed to investigate the association between body awareness with postural control and independence in performing activities of daily living in patients with hemispheric stroke. Eighty-one patients who were diagnosed with stroke participated in this study. [Participants and Methods] The participants were divided into three groups according to their risk for falls. Furthermore, these participants were classified into four groups according to their degree of independence in performing activities of daily living. This study used three measuring tools, namely the body awareness questionnaire, Berg balance scale, and modified Barthel index. [Results] Body awareness was significantly correlated with balance function in the group with low risk for falls compared with that in the group with high risk for falls. Body awareness was significantly correlated with the degree of independence in performing activities of daily living in the group that needed minimal assistance compared with the groups that needed moderate and severe assistance. Results showed that body awareness was associated with postural control and the degree of independence in performing activities of daily living in individuals with hemiparetic stroke. [Conclusion] Body awareness is among the primary factors that affect the motor function of patients with stroke in rehabilitation settings.
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effect of core stabilization exercise (CSE) on joint position sense, pain intensity, and functional disability in patients with subacute non-specific low back pain (NSLBP). [Participants and Methods] Thirty-eight participants with subacute nonspecific low back pain of 6–12 weeks duration, aged 18–60 years, were included in this study. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: a core stabilization exercise group (n=19) or a control group (n=19). Outcomes measures included lumbar joint repositioning error (LJRE), numeric pain rating scale (11-NRS), and the Roland-Morris disability questionnaires (RMDQ). Measures were taken at baseline, 4 weeks, 7 weeks of intervention, and at 4 weeks after the last intervention. [Results] All outcomes measures were significantly improved in the core stabilization exercise group, compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Core stabilization exercise can improve acuity of joint position sense, reduce pain, and functional disability compared with thermal therapy. The finding demonstrated that core stabilization exercises are more suitable for patients with subacute NSLBP than thermal therapy and this should be useful to clinicians.