[Purpose] This study aimed to establish a scientific and clinical basis for the development of a method for the early diagnosis of cumulative trauma disorders experienced by mothers of disabled children. [Subjects and Methods] Ten volunteer mothers who came to a rehabilitation centre for the treatment of their children were included in this study. Surface electromyography measurements were taken during maximum isometric contraction through the extensor muscle motor point of the wrist of the mothers, and hand grip strength was measured. [Results] In the electromyography measurements, the mean electromyogram signal value obtained from the wrist extensor muscle motor point of the mothers of the healthy children was 0.3 ± 0.08 mV and the crude handgrip strength was 28.5 ± 2.08 kg. In mothers of rehabilitated children, the crude hand grip strength was 7.0 ± 1.1 kg, and the mean electromyogram signal value from the extender muscle motor point was 0.1 ± 0.02 mV. There was a significant difference between the mothers with healthy and disabled children with respect to handgrip strength and electromyography. [Conclusion] The result obtained may be important in the development of health protection programs. Further research may lead to the development of protective rehabilitation programs and the improvement of social rights for mothers with disabled children.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between age of onset and risk factors including family history and life style in Korean population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). [Subjects and Methods] Subjects with T2D patients who received outpatient care for blood sugar control were randomly sampled at 13 general hospitals and 969 subjects were included. Cox proportional hazard models were used to confirm associations between age of onset and risk factors including family history and life style in Korean population with T2D. [Results] Parent history of T2D was significantly associated with age of onset. Compared to none of family members with T2D, those whose both father and mother had a history showed the highest the risk of early-onset (HR=2.36; 95% CI=1.45–3.85). Mother and father’s history of T2D (HR=1.73; 95% CI=1.46–2.05; HR=1.83; 95% CI=1.40–2.37) were associated with the risk of early-onset. Moreover, exercise (HR=1.23, CI=1.08–1.40) smoking status (HR=1.62, CI=1.32–1.99), and drinking (HR=1.32, CI=1.13–1.54) were associated with a higher risk for the early-onset. [Conclusion] Family history as well as life style including exercise, smoking, and drinking are the risk factors for early-onset factor in Korean population with T2D.
[Purpose] Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) using Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL, CYBERDYNE) was previously reported beneficial for stroke and spinal cord injury patients. Here, we investigate the immediate effect of a single session of RAGT using HAL on gait function for cerebral palsy (CP) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve patients (average age: 16.2 ± 7.3 years) with CP received a single session of RAGT using HAL. Gait speed, step length, cadence, single-leg support per gait cycle, hip and knee joint angle in stance, and swing phase per gait cycle were assessed before, during, and immediately after HAL intervention. [Results] Compared to baseline values, single-leg support per gait cycle (64.5 ± 15.8% to 69.3 ± 12.1%), hip extension angle in mid-stance (149.2 ± 19.0° to 155.5 ± 20.1°), and knee extension angle in mid-stance (137.6 ± 20.2° to 143.1 ± 19.5°) were significantly increased immediately after intervention. Further, the knee flexion angle in mid-swing was significantly decreased immediately after treatment (112.0 ± 15.5° to 105.2 ± 17.1°). Hip flexion angle in mid-swing also decreased following intervention (137.2 ± 14.6° to 129.7 ± 16.6°), but not significantly. Conversely, gait speed, step length, and cadence were unchanged after intervention. [Conclusion] A single-time RAGT with HAL improved single-leg support per gait cycle and hip and knee joint angle during gait, therapeutically improving gait function in CP patients.
[Purpose] This study examines the effect on muscle strength of lower extremity muscle strength exercise while using a mirror on the non-paretic side in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to a non-mirror lower extremity exercise group (n=10), a mirror lower extremity exercise group (n=10), or a mirror lower extremity muscle strength exercise group (n=10). Subjects were asked to do the exercise assigned to their group (5 sets 30 times a day, 5 times weekly for 4 weeks) with general physical therapy in the hospital. Muscle strength in the knee extensor and flexor of paretic and non-paretic side were measured using electrical muscle testing device before and after the intervention. [Results] Muscle strength significantly increased within each group after intervention. No significant differences were found among the three groups. [Conclusion] This study showed that the lower extremity muscle strength exercise of the non-paretic side using a mirror has a positive effect on muscle strength in patient with chronic stroke.
[Purpose] To investigate physicians’ attitudes, opinions and experiences towards physiotherapy services as well as to identify the potential factors that may affect the extent of utilization of physiotherapy services (based on physicians’ beliefs) in Saudi Arabia (SA). [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional study was conducted. [Results] A total of 108 respondents met the inclusion criteria. The respondents’ attitude towards physiotherapy was slightly low (53.5%), while their opinions and experiences of physiotherapy indicated some important issues. For example, 50% of them believed that physiotherapists did not create a good awareness about physiotherapy services and 55.5% admitted that they did not have enough information about physiotherapy services. The most potential factor reported by physicians that may affect the extent of utilization of physiotherapy services was the lack of physiotherapist’s skills and knowledge to assess and treat patients (55.3%), followed by the limited knowledge of physicians regarding the types of physiotherapy services (44.5%) and the lack of cooperation between physicians and physiotherapists (40.7%). [Conclusion] There were some factors that limited the extent of utilization of physiotherapy services in SA. Physiotherapy academics and clinicians should attempt to change physicians’ negative attitudes, promoting awareness to provide them with a better understanding of physiotherapy services.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to provide information regarding the knowledge of mechanical principles related to the load applied to the shoulder and elbow during the pitching motion. [Subjects and Methods] The three-dimensional kinematics of body segments were measured in 19 amateur baseball players with a VICON motion capture system. The correlation between maximum shoulder internal torque, maximum elbow varus torque, and simultaneous kinematic parameters including joint angular acceleration and ball acceleration was investigated. [Results] Peak shoulder internal rotation torque and elbow varus torque averaged 31 Nm and 26 Nm, respectively. Ball acceleration had the strongest influence on shoulder internal rotational torque (standardized partial regression coefficient 0.69). During previous maximum external rotation (pre-MER), the main cause parameter of elbow varus torque was shoulder horizontal adduction velocity (r=0.672). On the other hand, after MER (post-MER), the main cause was ball acceleration (r=0.745). [Conclusion] Results of our study suggest that one of the main mechanical principles of joint load during the baseball pitching motion may be the ‘inertia’ yielded on the segment distal to the certain joint.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of aroma stimulation during isotonic exercise on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and the blood fatigue factors of athletes who have patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). [Subjects and Methods] The research subjects were seven athletes in their twenties who suffer from PFPS. They were divided into a control group and an aroma stimulation group and performed isotonic exercises repeatedly. After exercising, the RPE and blood fatigue factors, including creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ammonia, were measured through blood sampling. [Results] The aroma stimulus group showed significantly lower RPE than the control group immediately after exercising, which included leg presses, leg curls, bicep curls, and leg extensions. Among the blood fatigue factors, the change in LDH indicated the effect of aroma stimulation. [Conclusion] We confirmed that aroma stimulation during isotonic exercise has the positive effect of reducing the RPE and blood fatigue factors, such as blood LDH, of the athletes with PFPS.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to study the impact of knee extensor strength, which is an index of the degree of physical activity on lung capacity in older women. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-three older women who participated in the exercise program hosted by a senior citizen center and S University located in Busan. Force vital capacity (FVC) was measured with digital spirometry (Pony FX, COSMED Inc., Italy). Three rounds of measurements were taken for each participant, with one-minute rests between the tests. The means were computed for analysis. Knee extensor strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer (HHD, MicroFET2®, Hogan Health Industries, Inc., UT, USA). Three rounds of measurements were taken for each knee extensor muscle, after which the mean of the measurements was taken for each side. The higher knee extensor muscle strength value was used for the analysis. [Results] Knee extensor muscle strength had significant positive correlations with Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), Peak expiratory flow (PEF), and Forced expiratory flow (FEF 25–75%). Association between knee extensor muscle strength and pulmonary function suggested that weakening of the elderly’s knee extensor muscle strength has an adverse effect on pulmonary function, although the explanatory power was weak. [Conclusion] Knee extensor muscle weakness in elderly females restricts their physical activity and mobility, thereby serving as a key factor in decreasing their lung capacity.
[Purpose] It is unclear whether diaphragmatic breathing (DB) results in lower respiratory muscle oxygen consumption during dynamic exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare oxygen consumption in the respiratory muscles (VO2rm) with thoracic breathing (TB) and with DB, in healthy males during hyperventilation. [Subjects and Methods] Ten healthy men participated in this study. The subjects sat on a chair with the backrest reclined at an angle of 60 degrees. Respiratory parameters were measured breath by breath, using an expired gas analyzer. Oxygen consumption was measured for three minutes during quiet breathing. Measurements during TB and DB were performed for one minute each, after connecting a rebreather loading device. The breathing pattern was analyzed by inductance plethysmography, using transducer bands placed over the chest and abdomen that recorded thoracoabdominal movements. [Results] Both ΔVO2/body weight and VO2rm decreased significantly with DB when compared to that with TB, during hyperventilation. [Conclusion] DB results in less respiratory muscle oxygen consumption, even during dynamic exercise.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of arm and leg posture elements on symmetrical weight bearing during Sit to Stand tasks in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were diagnosed with stroke and 22 patients (15 males and 7 females) participated in this study. All participants performed Sit to Stand tasks on three foot postures and two arm postures. Two force plates were used to measure peak of vertical ground reaction force and symmetrical ratio to peak Fz. The data were analyzed using independent t-test and two-way repeated ANOVA. [Results] The results of this study are as follows: 1) Peak Fz placed more weight in non-paretic leg during Sit to Stand. 2) A symmetrical ratio to Peak Fz indicated significant difference between foot and arm posture, and had non-paretic limb supported on a step and paretic at ground level (STP) and grasped arm posture that lock fingers together with shoulder flexion by 90°(GA) (0.79 ± 0.09). [Conclusion] These results suggest that STP posture of the legs and GA posture of the arms should be able to increase the use of the paretic side during Sit to Stand behavior and induce normal Sit to Stand mechanism through the anterior tilt of the hip in clinical practices, by which loads onto the knee joint and the ankle joint can be reduced, and the trunk righting response can be promoted by making the back fully stretched. The outcome of this study is expected to be a reference for exercise or prognosis of Sit to Stand in stroke patients.
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of band exercise types on the physical ability and muscular topography for elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six females older than 65 years were divided into the dynamic band exercise (DBE; n=13) group and the Static band exercise (SBE; n=13) group. Each participant performed 12 weeks of elastic band exercises. Physical abilities were measured by leg extension power, sitting trunk flexion, closed eyes foot balance, and time to get up. Changes in muscle topography were evaluated with Moire measurement equipment for the chest, abdomen, and lumbar region. All results were compared before and after 12 weeks of exercise. [Results] Changes in physical ability were significantly increased in both groups. The scores for the muscular topography of the chest, abdomen, lumbar region, and all body parts was significantly improved in both groups for closed eyes foot balance. There were more improvements in the DBE group. [Conclusion] Two types of static and dynamic elastic band exercises effectively changed the physical fitness and muscle topography of elderly females. Therefore, to increase the effects of exercise, dynamic band exercises are considered useful. Because band exercises are simple, they can be used to maintain the health of elderly people.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to compare the postural sway of healthy adults standing on different types of balance pads. [Subjects and Methods] Nine healthy adults participated in this study. Postural body sway was measured while participants were standing on four different types of balance pads: Balance-pad Elite (BE), Aero-Step XL (AS), Dynair Ballkissen Senso (DBS), and Dynair Ballkissen XXL Meditation and Yoga (DBMY). A Wii Balance Board interfaced with Balancia software was used to measure postural body sway. [Results] In the sway velocity, sway path length, and sway area, no significant differences were found between baseline conditions (participants were standing on the floor with no balance pad) and the use of the BE or AS. However, significant increases in all parameters were found comparing baseline conditions to the use of either Dynair balance pad. Furthermore, the use of either Dynair balance pad significantly increased postural sway compared to both the BE and the AS. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that the DBS and DBMY balance pads may serve as superior tools for providing unstable condition for balance training than the BE and the AS balance pads.
[Purpose] Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disease; individuals typically have no verbal skills or purposeful hand movements. In clinical settings, knowledge of their interests would be helpful for therapy. Therefore, we investigated the interests of Rett syndrome patients. [Subjects and Methods] In 2016, we sent a questionnaire regarding the interests of individuals with Rett syndrome to 1,016 directors of schools for special needs education and 204 directors of rehabilitation departments (130 facilities for persons with severe motor and intellectual disabilities, 73 wards for patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities, and the National Hospital Organization and National Center Hospital, and the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry) in Japan. We used descriptive statistics and content analysis to examine the answers to the questionnaires. [Results] Information was acquired from 216 individuals (3–53 years old) with Rett syndrome. 92.9% of the individuals were reported to have some interests (e.g., in people, music, things to see, animation, or books). [Conclusion] Individuals with Rett syndrome were observed to be interested in various things despite their having severe motor and intellectual disabilities. These findings suggest that family members and care staff might facilitate various changes or developments of these individuals and discover their hidden strengths by focusing on their interests.
[Purpose] To verify the immediate effects of exercise therapy on cancer-related fatigue (CRF) in cancer patients. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen cancer patients who performed exercise therapy targeting a rating of 4 (somewhat strong) on the Borg category-ratio scale (CR-10) were enrolled. CRF was evaluated using the Cancer Fatigue Scale (CFS). CFS was evaluated in clinical practice immediately before and after exercise therapy on the 1st or 2nd day of physiotherapy for CRF management. CFS scores before and after exercise were compared to determine how CRF changed due to exercise therapy. [Results] CFS physical, CFS affective, CFS cognitive, and CFS total all decreased following exercise therapy, and the changes in CFS physical and CFS total were statistically significant. The effect sizes for CFS physical and CFS total were “medium”, and for CFS affective and CFS cognitive “small.” [Conclusion] These findings suggest that exercise therapy targeting a rating of 4 (somewhat strong) on the CR-10 can immediately reduce CRF in cancer patients.
[Purpose] To present the case of the non-surgical restoration of cervical lordosis in a patient suffering from chronic whiplash syndrome including chronic neck pain and daily headaches resulting from previous whiplash. [Subject and Methods] A 31 year old female presented with a chief complaint of chronic neck pain and headaches for 12 years, correlating temporally with a sustained whiplash. These symptoms were not significantly relieved by previous chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy. The patient had cervical hypolordosis and was treated with Chiropractic BioPhysics® protocol including extension exercises, manual adjustments and cervical extension traction designed to increase the cervical lordosis. [Results] The patient received 30 treatments over approximately 5-months. Upon re-assessment, there was a significant increase in global C2–C7 lordosis, corresponding with the reduction in neck pain and headaches. [Conclusion] This case adds to the accumulating evidence that restoring lordosis may be key in treating chronic whiplash syndrome. We suggest that patients presenting with neck pain and/or headaches with cervical hypolordosis be treated with a program of care that involves cervical extension traction methods to restore the normal cervical lordosis.
[Purpose] To present the case of the dramatic reduction in pain, disability, and neurologic symptoms following the reduction of forward head translation and increased cervical curvature in a patient suffering from post-surgical radiculopathy. [Subject and Methods] A 52-year-old male mechanic presented with chronic neck pain, unilateral paresthesia along the C5 and C6 dermatome distributions and diminished unilateral grip strength for 12 years following a C5–C6 cervical discectomy and fusion. Outcome measures included the neck disability index, the numerical pain rating scale, and the Zebris cervical range of motion system. Radiographs and computerized posture analysis revealed excessive forward head posture. Initial traditional ‘symptom-relief’ chiropractic rehabilitation was provided, followed by CBP® structural rehabilitation of head and neck posture with a 2.5 year follow-up. [Results] The initial traditional chiropractic rehabilitation did not improve posture or disability scores. CBP methods resulted in radiograph-verified postural alignment improvements corresponding with clinically significant improvements in the patient’s neurologic condition, pain and disability scores. These results were maintained at a 2.5 year follow-up with minimal treatment. [Conclusion] Patients with post-surgical axial symptoms and/or radicular complaints should be screened for altered cervical alignment and anterior head translation. Future studies should attempt to duplicate these positive results in a trial with long-term follow-up.
[Purpose] To evaluate the effect of bilateral lower limb strengthening designed to improve balance and walking in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty hemiparetic stroke patients were divided into two groups: a unilateral therapy group (UTG) (n=10) and a bilateral therapy group (BTG) (n=10). The UTG completed strength training only in the paretic lower limb. The BTG completed strength training in the paretic and non-paretic lower limbs. Assessment tools included the functional reach test (FRT), the Berg balance scale (BBS), the timed up and go (TUG) test, and a 10-meter walk test (10MWT). [Results] In both groups, the lower limb strengthening exercise for balance and walking significantly improved the FRT, BBS, TUG, and 10MWT scores. Compared with UTG, the BTG attained significantly improved FRT and BBS scores. [Conclusion] Bilateral therapy using this lower limb strengthening exercise effectively promotes balance in hemiparetic stroke patients.
[Purpose] To understand the effect of increased functional residual capacity (FRC) on the active range of thoracic axial rotation (AROTAR) in healthy young men. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-nine right-handed healthy male volunteers (age=20.1 ± 1.6 years) participated in this study. A standard plastic goniometer was used to measure the AROTAR in the supine position with both glenohumeral joints fully flexed. AROTAR was recorded at the resting expiration level (REL) and for 4 different FRC levels: 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 ml air inhaled at REL. FRC volumes and laterality were analyzed using a two-way repeated measure of ANOVA and post-hoc analysis. Relationships between the relative value (AROTAR for each increased FRC level / REL AROTAR × 100) and AROTAR for each increased FRC level were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. [Results] A significant main effect was found for only FRC factor. AROTAR had a positive moderate correlation with relative value. The correlation coefficient was higher than 0.5 for in 1,500 and 2,000 ml. [Conclusion] An increase in FRC might decrease AROTAR and if the REL AROTAR is high, the decrease in AROTAR due to increased FRC is lesser. It is suggested that maintaining the thoracic mobility could minimize a COPD patient’s AROTAR limitation and maintain physical ability.
[Purpose] The present study examined the effects of expiratory muscle training on elderly day care service users, who had been classified into Care Grades 1 and 2 based on Japan’s long-term care insurance system. [Subjects and Methods] Intervention was provided for 29 Care Grade 1 or 2 day care service users. During intervention, expiratory muscle training was performed by slowly expiring using the abdominal muscles and a device after maximal inspiration. Each intervention session lasted for approximately 10 minutes, and 2 sessions were held weekly for 3 months to compare respiratory function test values before and after intervention. [Results] The results were favorable. The vital capacity (VC) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) significantly varied between before and after intervention. [Conclusion] Expiratory muscle training generally improved their respiratory function, particularly their VC and PEF that significantly varied between before and after intervention. As both of these items influence the cough capacity, they may be key to the prevention of aspiration pneumonia. Expiratory muscle training may also contribute to activities of daily living (ADL) and the quality of life, and it is expected to play an important role in rehabilitation as a field of preventive medicine.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to compare the rectus abdominis and multifidus muscle activity and rectus abdominis/multifidus ratio ratios during various leg-raising exercises. [Subject and Methods] This study was conducted on 10 healthy males. Leg-raising exercises were performed in four different positions. [Results] The activity of the rectus abdominis was greatest for raising the legs while flexing the trunk. The rectus abdominis/multifidus ratio value of co-contraction of the rectus abdominis and multifidus was lowest for raising the legs while flexing the knees. [Conclusion] Raising the legs while flexing the knees, which provides the significant co-contraction of the rectus abdominis and multifidus, is recommended for treating vertebral instability in patients with back pain.
[Purpose] Academic performance of college students can be impacted by the efficacy of students’ ability and teaching methods. It is important to assess the progression of college students’ cognitive abilities among different college majors and as they move from junior to senior levels. However, dearth of studies have been examined the role of cognitive ability tests as a tool to determine the aptitude of the perspective students. Therefore, this study assessed cognitive abilities of computer science and ART students. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were 130 college students (70 computer and 60 art students) in their first and final years of study at King Saud University. Cognitive ability was assessed using the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, Third Edition. [Results] The cognitive ability of computer science students were statistically better than that of art students and were shown improvement from junior to senior levels, while the cognitive ability of art students did not. [Conclusion] The cognitive ability of computer science college students was superior compared to those in art, indicating the importance of cognitive ability assessment for high school graduates prior to choosing a college major. Cognitive scales should be included as an aptitude assessment tool for decision-makers and prospective students to determine an appropriate career, which might reduce the rate of university drop out.
[Purpose] To examine the effect of physiotherapy rehabilitation program on moderate knee osteoarthritis in patients with different pain intensities. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty subjects (37 men and 23 women) with moderate knee osteoarthritis participated in the current study. Randomization software was used to select the participating subjects’ numbers from the clinic records. They were classified into three groups according to pain intensity: mild, moderate, and severe pain groups. All groups underwent a standard set of pulsed electromagnetic field, ultrasound, stretching exercises, and strengthening exercises. Pain intensity, knee range of motion, knee function, and isometric quadriceps strength were evaluated using the visual analogue scale, universal goniometer, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index, and Jamar hydraulic dynamometer, respectively. The evaluation was performed before and after a 4-week rehabilitation program. [Results] All groups showed significant differences in pain intensity, knee range of motion, isometric quadriceps strength, and knee function. The score change in moderate pain group was significantly greater than those in mild and severe pain groups. [Conclusion] Pain intensity is one of the prominent factors that are responsible for the improvement of knee osteoarthritis. Consequently, pain intensity should be considered during rehabilitation of knee osteoarthritis.
[Purpose] To assess the influence of moderate physical exercise on pelvic floor muscle electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback signal in female non-athletes. [Subjects and Methods] A prospective, non-randomized study of 90 adult females (age ≥18 years) divided into three groups: Intervention (I), which began physical exercise upon study enrollment; Moderate Exercise (ME), comprising those who already engaged in physical activity; and Sedentary (S), comprising those who had a sedentary lifestyle. All participants underwent EMG biofeedback of the pelvic floor muscles upon study enrollment (T1) and at the end of the third subsequent month (T2). [Results] Mean age was 35.7 (SD: 7.5) years, with no significant difference between groups. T1 values in groups I and S were significantly lower than in group ME. There was no statistically significant difference between groups S and I. On comparison between groups at T2, values were highest in group I (18.5 µV vs. 15.3 µV in group S, vs. 16.1 µV in group ME). There was no significant difference between groups S and ME. On age-adjusted analysis, group I exhibited the greatest change between T1 and T2 (I, 4.7 µV; ME, 2.1 µV; S, 1.5 µV). [Conclusion] Females who exercise exhibit better pelvic floor muscle function than those who do not engage in physical activity.
[Purpose] Targeting university badminton players, this study investigated the relationship between agility, which is associated with performance in badminton, and lower limb muscle strength, and examined which muscles influence agility. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 23 male university badminton players were evaluated for side-shuffle test scores and lower limb strength. The relationships between agility, lower limb strength, and duration of experience playing badminton were evaluated using a correlation analysis. Moreover, the relationship between agility and lower limb strength was evaluated by partial correlation analysis, adjusting for the effects of experience of each badminton player. [Results] The agility score correlated with hip extension and ankle plantar flexion strength, with adjustment for badminton experience. [Conclusion] This study suggests that hip extension training and improvement in ankle plantar flexion strength may improve agility.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that fine motor skills have on handwriting legibility in children of preschool age. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 52 children of normal growth and development. In order to ascertain handwriting legibility, a Korean alphabet writing assessment was used; to measure fine motor skills, fine motor precision and manual dexterity, sub-items of BOT-2 were measured. Furthermore, in order to measure in-hand manipulation skills, a Functional Dexterity Test was conducted. [Results] The results of the study showed a high level of correlation between fine motor skills and handwriting legibility. The study revealed that the accuracy of hand and in-hand manipulation skills is factors that have an effect on handwriting legibility. [Conclusion] Through the current research, occupational therapists can provide activities that aid the development of fine motor precision and in-hand manipulation skills for children during the instruction and treatment of handwriting to preschool age children, which helps to conduct better legibility in their handwriting.
[Purpose] To compare the effect of aerobic exercises versus laser acupuncture in treatment of postmenopausal hot flushes. [Subjects and Methods] This study was designed as single blind randomized controlled trial. A total of 48 postmenopausal women complained of hot flushes. Their ages ranged between 45 to 55 years and were randomly assigned into 2 equal groups: group (A), which received an aerobic exercises, and group (B), which received laser acupuncture. Both groups recieved 3 sessions per week for two months. The level of follicular stimulating hormone, lutelizing hormone, and hot flushes dairy card were assessed the severity of hot flahes before and after treatment program. [Results] There were Significant reduction in FSH, LH, and menopausal daily hot flush scale in group A compared with group B at the post treatment. [Conclusion] Eight week program of an aerobic exercises yields improvement in FSH, LH, and decrease in severity of hot flushes assessed by hot flush dairy card than laser acupuncture in the treatment of postmenopausal hot flashes.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of an occupation-centered cognitive rehabilitation program on the cognitive function, electroencephalogram amplitude, and daily activity performance of patients with mild cognitive impairment living in a local community. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 6 patients (all female; age: 72.5 ± 6.6 years) with mild cognitive impairment. The patients took part in 10 60-minute sessions, over 10 weeks. [Results] The cognitive function scale scores increased, but the increase was not statistically significant. Daily activity performance improved significantly as evidenced by the Instrumental activities of daily living score in Korean Activity Card Sort. Additionally, electroencephalogram SensoriMotorRhythm wave amplitude increased significantly. [Conclusion] The effects of the occupation-centered cognitive rehabilitation program helped increase concentration and daily activity performance.
[Purpose] In this study, we investigated the effects of combining exercise with a cognitive-enhancement group program on cognition and depression in a group of community-dwelling elderly people. [Subjects and Methods] The study’s subjects consisted of 30 community-dwelling elderly people of both genders, whose average age was 78 years. They participated in a program of physical exercise combined with a cognitive-enhancement group training program. This consisted of sessions lasting 60 minutes that took place once a week over 3 months. To assess the participants’ levels of cognition and depression, we conducted batteries of tests using, respectively, the Korean versions of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease assessment packet (CERAD-K) and the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (GDS-SF). [Results] The Verbal Fluency test, Word List Memory test, Modified Boston Naming test, Mini Mental Status Examination (Korean Version) (MMSE-KC), Constructional Praxis task and Constructional Recall task showed significant improvement, but improvement in the Word List Recall and Word List Recognition tests did not achieve significant levels. Meanwhile, the symptoms of depression were shown to decrease significantly. [Conclusion] Physical exercise combined with a cognitive-enhancement group training program was effective in improving, some of the components of cognition, as well as alleviating depression. This program should be used for the prevention of dementia in community-dwelling elderly, through the intervention should be complemented in order to improve more of the components of cognition.
[Purpose] This study investigates the effects of group occupational therapy using a cueing system on the executive function of preschool-aged children with brain lesions. [Subjects and Methods] Six preschool-aged children with brain lesions participated in this study. A 24-session occupational therapy program (1 session/week, 50 minutes/session) designed based on a cueing system was administered to examine the changes in the participants’ executive function. The behavior rating inventory of executive function-preschool (BRIEF-P) was used to check the magnitude of improvement of executive functions after therapy. [Results] A Wilcoxon signed rank test revealed that occupational therapy significantly improved all domains, indices, and the global executive composite in the BRIEF-P. [Conclusion] The occupational therapy intervention incorporating a type of cognitive behavioral approach known as the cueing system may assist improving executive functions in preschool-aged children with brain lesions
[Purpose] This study set out to substantiate the importance of the right sitting posture by measuring the sitting pressure. It also described the influence of an imbalanced sitting posture on the body. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included 30 healthy adults. A pressure mapping system was used to measure the sitting pressure in the right, one side prone, chin propped, and slumped sitting positions. [Results] The WDI (XAP) showed a statistically significant difference between the 3 incorrect postures (one side prone, chin propped, and slumped sitting) and the right sitting posture. With regard to the WDI (XLR), there was a statistically significant difference between the right sitting posture and the one side prone sitting posture only. [Conclusion] One side prone sitting was found to affect the body balance most adversely. This imbalanced posture may have an indirect effect on chronic diseases. The results prove that it is important to assume a proper posture to maintain body balance.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using a visual feedback-equipped reacher when performing reach-to-grasp tasks. [Subjects and Methods] Seventeen healthy participants with no illnesses or physical disabilities were selected for this study. Activation of the flexor digitorum superficialis and extensor digitorum muscles was assessed using electromyography. Wrist and shoulder momentums were calculated using a three-axis acceleration sensor. Participants were instructed to move 10 ears of plastic corn from right to left using a reacher with and without visual feedback. [Results] Comparison of muscle activity under the two conditions revealed a statistically significant reduction in the activity of the FDS and ED with feedback compared to without. The three-axis accelerometer values showed that wrist momentum decreased significantly with visual feedback compared to without feedback. [Conclusion] The results showed that using the vision-assisted reacher affected upper limb muscle activation and momentum. It is important that assistive devices be developed for effective energy use. Here, providing visual feedback during reacher use was shown to reduce users’ physical fatigue.
[Purpose] This study was performed to analyze the influence of smartphone multitasking on gait and dynamic balance. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 19 male and 20 female university students. There were 4 types of gait tasks: General Gait (walking without a task), Task Gait 1 (walking while writing a message), Task Gait 2 (walking while writing a message and listening to music), Task Gait 3 (walking while writing a message and having a conversation). To exclude the learning effect, the order of tasks was randomized. The Zebris FDM-T treadmill system (Zebris Medical GmbH, Germany) was used to measure left and right step length and width, and a 10 m walking test (10MWT) was conducted for gait velocity. In addition, a Timed Up and Go test (TUG) was used to measure dynamic balance. All the tasks were performed 3 times, and the mean of the measured values was analyzed. [Results] There were no statistically significant differences in step length and width. There were statistically significant differences in the 10MWT and TUG tests. [Conclusion] Using a smartphone while walking decreases a person’s dynamic balance and walking ability. It is considered that accident rates are higher when using a smartphone.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of differing insole height on the electromyographic (EMG) activity and muscle fatigue in tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius a lot of repeat college students from the desk during a sit to stand activity. [Subjects and Methods] For the 30 subjects males, let them wear insole in order. Using EMG equipment measured the difference in muscle vitality and muscle fatigue degree. All subjects were measured for 3 seconds in standing up from the chair. It has been measured total 3 times. [Results] The results stated above is as follows: It’s sitting to standing activity when there were no significant differences between the muscles. But sitting activity in muscle fatigue−calf muscle during standing activity correlated only. [Conclusion] The results of this study show that the change of the muscle fatigue may cause an in gastrocnemius muscle, so not recommended for the health of a case of running shoes.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of computerized postural control training using whole body vibration on lower limb muscle activity and cerebral cortical activation in acute stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients participated and were divided into groups of 10, a group of the computerized postural control training using whole body vibration (Group I), the computerized postural control training combined with aero step (Group II) and computerized postural control training (Group III). MP100 was used to measure lower limb muscle activity, and QEEG-8 was used to measure cerebral cortical activation. [Results] Comparison of muscle activity and cerebral cortical activation before and after intervention between groups showed that Group I had significant differences in lower limb muscle activity and cerebral cortical activation compared to Groups II and III. [Conclusion] This study showed that whole body vibration combined computerized postural control training is effective for improving muscle activity and cerebral cortex activity in stroke patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this research is to take a look at the influences of client-centered therapy on the level of everyday life performance, the level of satisfaction, and the quality of life of the chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] This research used client-centered therapy with two chronic stroke and hemiplegia patients as subjects. The therapy was carried out once a day, five times a week, for thirty minutes at a time for four weeks. Also, five kinds of training were included in the medical treatment programs which were organized after the initial Canadian occupational performance measure (COPM) evaluations. Evaluations were carried out before and after the mediation. Changes in the level of everyday life performance level of satisfaction were measured using the COPM, and changes in quality of life were measured using the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS-QOL). [Results] After the application of medical treatment, both subjects showed positive changes in terms of the level of everyday life performance, level of satisfaction, and quality of life. [Conclusion] Both subjects demonstrated improvements in all aspects of both outcome measurements which implied that a short client-centered therapy program could help chronic stroke patients improve some aspects of their life.
[Purpose] The present study aimed to analyze and compare the activity profile and physiological responses of amateur football referees during competitive matches of high school and college students. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty referees (high school, 15; college, 15) were included in this study. The total distance covered, movement speed, and heart rate were measured using a global positioning system-enabled wireless heart rate monitor. The blood lactate concentration was measured immediately after the first and second half. [Results] College football referees covered a higher total distance than did their high school counterparts (7,547 m vs. 6,719 m). The maximal heart rate of college football referees was low in the first half alone, and the percentage of the heart rate within the “maximum” range was low throughout the game. [Conclusions] Refereeing imposes a significantly high physical load on the body while tracking player and ball movement. The present study suggests the need for developing and distributing physical training programs tailored for refereeing.