[Purpose] To clarify the motion-plane dependency of the range of dart throw motion and the effects of tendon action due to long finger flexors and extensors during the motion. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy subjects attended the experiment, and the active range of wrist motion in seven motion planes was measured with an originally designed apparatus. [Results] The reliability of the measurement was acceptable. The range of dart throw motion depended on the motion planes, with a maximum at around the motion plane of 45° from the sagittal plane (45° of pronation). The tendon action of long finger muscles was shown in dart throw motion except in 45° of pronation. [Conclusion] Motion-plane dependency of the range of dart throw motion exists in healthy subjects. The absence of tendon action due to finger extrinsic muscles in dart throw motion at 45° might be one of the causes of the advantage of dart throw motion.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on upper extremity muscle tone in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] For this study, 30 stroke patients participated in this study and they were divided into ESWT group and sham-ESWT group, each group consisted of 15 patients. ESWT and sham-ESWT was performed by the patients for two times a week, for eight weeks. MyotonPRO was used to measure muscle tone. [Results] According to the results of the comparisons between the groups, after intervention, upper extremity muscle tone were significantly higher in the ESWT group than in the sham-ESWT group. [Conclusion] This study showed that ESWT is effective for improving decrease of muscle tone in chronic stroke patients.
[Purpose] The study aimed to preliminarily investigate the effects of mechanical-bed massage on exercise-induced back fatigue in athletes. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve male college athletes, randomly allocated to experimental or control groups, were instructed to perform reverse sit-up for 8 sessions until they became fatigued. The experimental group received a 20-min mechanical-bed massage session, while the control group rested on a bed for the same period of time. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) on perceived back muscle fatigue, back muscle endurance, and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) parameters including stress index (SI), HRV index, SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50, LF, HF, and LF/HF were analyzed. [Results] Immediately and 24 hours after the intervention, the VAS significantly differed between the groups. Experimental group’s HF was significantly higher immediately after the intervention than control group. Experimental group’s LF and LF/HF were significantly lower immediately after the intervention than the control group. [Conclusion] Mechanical bed massage may help athletes overcome the subjective feelings of exercise-induced fatigue, modulate the automatic nervous system activity, especially for balancing sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. Therefore, mechanical bed massage may facilitate recovery from muscle and central fatigue after athlete training or competition.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of pectoralis minor stretching and shoulder strengthening with an elastic band on balance and maximal shoulder muscle strength in young adults with rounded shoulder posture. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen subjects with rounded shoulder posture were randomly divided into 2 groups: a shoulder stabilization exercise group and a stretching exercise group. The groups performed each exercise for 40 minutes, 3 times a week, for 4 weeks. Static balance (eyes open and closed), dynamic balance (the limits of stability in 4 directions) and shoulder muscle strength in 5 directions were measure before and after the exercises. [Results] The stretching exercise demonstrated a significant difference between the pre- and post-exercise in the static balance with eyes closed and extension and horizontal abduction strength while the stabilization exercise demonstrated significant difference in the left and right directions between the pre- and post-exercise of the dynamic balance and flexion strength. The stabilization exercise demonstrated significant differences shown in the flexion between the pre- and post-test. [Conclusion] The shoulder stabilization and stretching exercises improved the static balance, dynamic balance, and muscle strength.
[Purpose] Neuromuscular activity has been evaluated in patellofemoral pain syndrome but movement velocity has not been considered. The aim was to determine differences in onset latency of hip and knee muscles between individuals with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome during a single leg squat, and whether any differences are dependent on movement velocity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four females with patellofemoral pain syndrome and 24 healthy females participated. Onset latency of gluteus maximus, anterior and posterior gluteus medius, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris during a single leg squat at high and low velocity were evaluated. [Results] There was an interaction between velocity and diagnosis for posterior gluteus medius. Healthy subjects showed a later posterior gluteus medius onset latency at low velocity than high velocity; and also later than patellofemoral pain syndrome subjects at low velocity and high velocity. [Conclusion] Patellofemoral pain syndrome subjects presented an altered latency of posterior gluteus medius during a single leg squat and did not generate adaptations to velocity variation, while healthy subjects presented an earlier onset latency in response to velocity increase.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine limb-dominance and gender differences in the magnitude of the ground reaction force during single-leg lateral jump-landings. We hypothesized that the peak ground reaction force would be larger in the non-dominant leg compared to that in the dominant leg and would be larger in females compared to that in men. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen females and 15 males performed jump-landings sideways from a height of 20 cm, with a lateral distance of 60 cm. Vertical and medial ground reaction forces were measured, and the elapsed time from the initial contact to the peak ground reaction force was determined. The loading rate was calculated as the peak ground reaction force divided by the elapsed time from the initial contact to the peak ground reaction force. [Results] The vertical and medial peak ground reaction forces during single-leg lateral jump-landings were larger in females compared to that in males. In addition, the medial peak ground reaction force was larger for the non-dominant leg compared to that for the dominant leg. [Conclusion] The results suggest that in rehabilitation and conditioning settings, evaluations and instructions regarding attenuation are especially important for females and the non-dominant leg.
[Purpose] This study aimed to compare changes in the center of pressure between healthy subjects and patients with spinal cord injury and to provide basic information to these patients for improving their sitting balance. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 12 healthy subjects without histories of neurological or psychiatric disorders and 12 patients with spinal cord injuries were recruited. In all subjects, a change in the center of pressure during the performance of the modified functional reach test was measured using a Force Sensing Array system while the subjects were seated in a wheelchair. In the spinal cord injury group, the change in the center of pressure was highest when subjects reached forward while holding a gym ball. [Results] In the spinal cord injury group, the change in the center of pressure was highest when subjects reached forward while holding a gym ball. A significant correlation between forward reaching of the upper limbs with shoulders at 90° flexion and a change in the center of pressure was found. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that the combination of functional reaching and the change in the center of pressure assessment is novel enough to be attempted to achieve sitting balance control in patients with spinal cord injury. The findings can provide clinical interventions that contribute to the improvement in the balance ability of wheelchair-dependent individuals.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of interferential current therapy on the shoulder muscles of subjects with forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty volunteers (15 forward head posture, 15 control) participated in this study. Interferential current therapy treatment was conducted for 10 min, three times per week, for 3 weeks on both the upper trapezius and levator scapulae. Subjects were measured anterior both acromion distance and posterior both acromial distance using a ruler, and the forward head posture angle using an electronic application. [Results] Both groups showed significant increases in anterior acromial distance, and decreases in posterior acromial distance and forward head posture angle. [Conclusion] Subjects were concluded that electrical therapy could improve structural alignment; therefore, the implementation of interferential current therapy is expected to be effective for the treatment of forward head posture.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of lumbar stabilization exercises using flexi-bar (FB) on pain, functional disability, transverse abdominis muscle (TrA) activation capacity and thickness in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven patients were randomly assigned to an experimental (14 patients performing stabilization exercises with flexi-bar (FB)) or control (13 patients performing stabilization exercises) group. The patients in both groups then underwent stabilization exercises with or without FB 30 min/day, 3 times a week, for 6 weeks. The main outcome measures were perceived disability based on the pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI), TrA activation capacity and thickness. [Results] Both groups showed improved ODI, VAS, and TrA activation capacity performed for 6 weeks in patients with CLBP, but all outcomes, except for TrA thickness, showed greater improvements in patients following stabilization exercises with FB than following stabilization exercises. [Conclusion] Based on the above results, lumbar stabilization exercises with FB could restoring pain, functional disability and improving TrA activation capacity in CLBP patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate postural stability in such group of taekwondo athletes by measuring the center-of-pressure variables in both the injured limb and uninjured limb during a single-leg stance with eyes closed. [Subjects and Methods] The study includes eleven taekwondo athletes with repetitive ankle sprains (RASs) and eleven healthy taekwondo athletes (the controls) at the college level participating in taekwondo training sessions. For the controls, the “injured” limb was taken to be the left limb. [Results] The postural stability measured in both the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions using center-of-pressure variables was lower in the uninjured limb of the RAS group than in the control group during a single-leg stance with eyes closed. However, for the injured limb, there were no significant differences between the two groups. Furthermore, compared to the RAS group, the control group had higher stability in the injured limb than in the uninjured limb. [Conclusion] Individuals with RASs should ensure improvements in their proprioceptive and neuromuscular functions, as well as muscle strength, through an adequate period of rehabilitation to reduce the risk of re-injury.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of thoracic extension exercise on scapular alignment and thoracic kyphosis angle. [Subjects and Methods] Ten subjects with a kyphosis angle ≥40° and aged between 20 and 26 years participated in this study. This study investigated the scapular forward distance and thoracic kyphosis angle before and after the thoracic extension exercise. [Results] The kyphosis angle after exercise was significantly decreased compared with that before exercise. Scapular forward distance after exercise significantly decreased compared to that before exercise. [Conclusion] The results of the present study suggest that correction of thoracic kyphosis should be included among exercises designed to achieve normal scapular alignment.
[Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between advanced glycation end-product accumulation and pulmonary function in a general population with normal spirometry results. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 201 subjects (mean age, 56 ± 11 years; males, 58%) enrolled in this study. Subjects were classified into two groups (younger group [<65 years old] and elderly group [≥65 years old]). Skin autofluorescence was assessed as an estimate of advanced glycation end-product. Forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second were measured using a spirometer, and the forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC) was calculated. [Results] Skin autofluorescence was not an independent factor associated with FEV1/FVC in the younger group, but both skin autofluorescence and pack-years of smoking were significant independent factors associated with FEV1/FVC in the elderly group. [Conclusion] Advanced glycation end-product accumulation, assessed by skin autofluorescence, is an independent factor negatively associated with FEV1/FVC in elderly people with normal spirometry results.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the change of allocation of attention caused by a difference in gait phase and gait speed. We also determined the relationship between attentional demand and gait automaticity change caused by the gait speed alteration. [Subjects and Methods] Ten male participated. Participants were instructed to perform the probe reaction time (RT) task during treadmill walking in four different gait speed conditions (60%, 80%, 100%, and 120% of preferred speed). Walking ratio in each gait speed conditions were calculated, and RTs and walking ratios were compared in each gait speed condition and in the single-support and double-support gait phase. [Results] RTs were significantly delayed with decline of gait speed. Walking ratio was significantly decreased in proportion of decrement of gait speed. There was no difference of gait phase between single-support and double-support phase. [Conclusion] This study showed that relationship between attentional load and deficit of gait automaticity. While gait phase didn’t influence attentional demand, and this result showed the characteristics of treadmill gait.
[Purpose] This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Inspiratory Muscle Trainer (IMT) on respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary functions. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen sedentary unemployed patients were recruited from both genders who received regular hemodialysis sessions from at least three months. Those patients received Threshold IMT program for 12 weeks. Pulmonary functions and respiratory muscle strength in form of (PImax) and (PEmax) were measured by electronic spirometry and digital pressure vacuum meter respectively. Additionally oxygen saturation was measured by Finger pulse oximeter. All measurements were performed before and at the end of the treatment program after 12 weeks. [Results] The results of this study revealed significant improvement in FVC%, FEV1%, PEF%, PImax and PEmax after three months of treatment by using inspiratory muscle trainer while no significant difference was recorded regarding to FEV1/FVC% ratio and SpO2. [Conclusion] Inspiratory muscle trainer is an effective therapeutic technique to improve respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary functions in patients undergoing hemodialysis.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical activity program on cognitive function and ADLs in elderly people with mild dementia. [Subjects and Methods] Both groups (n=60) participated in a cognition program three times a week for 30 minutes each time over an eight-week period. In addition, the experimental group (n=30) underwent a physical activity program for 30 minutes three times a week over an eight-week period. The LOTCA-G and the FIM were recorded in both groups before and after the experiment to evaluate changes in their cognition and ADLs. [Results] The experimental group showed significant results in 18 subtests and total LOTCA-G, while the control group exhibited significant results in 8 subtests and total LOTCA-G. The comparison results between groups before and after the intervention are as follows. The experimental group showed significant results in 15 subtests and FIM total, while the control group exhibited significant results in 7 subtests and FIM total. The comparison results between groups before and after the intervention are as follows: significant results were revealed in 10 subtests and FIM total. [Conclusion] The physical activity program improves cognitive function and ADLs in patients with mild dementia.
[Purpose] To compare the lumbar lordosis angle and electromyographic activities of the trunk and lower-limb muscles in the hip neutral position and external rotation during back squats. [Subjects and Methods] Ten healthy males without severe low back pain or lower-limb injury participated in this study. The lumbar lordosis angle and electromyographic activities were measured using three-dimensional motion-capture systems and surface electrodes during four back squats: parallel back squats in the hip neutral position and external rotation and full back squats in the hip neutral position and external rotation. A paired t-test was used to compare parallel and full back squats measurements in the hip neutral position and external rotation, respectively. [Results] During parallel back squats, the average lumbar lordosis angle was significantly larger in hip external rotation than in the hip neutral position. During full back squats, lumbar erector spinae and multifidus activities were significantly lower in hip external rotation than in the hip neutral position, whereas gluteus maximus activity was significantly higher in hip external rotation than in the hip neutral position. [Conclusion] The back squat in hip external rotation induced improvement of lumbar kyphosis, an increasing of the gluteus maximus activity and a decrease of both lumbar erector spinae and multifidus activities.
[Purpose] To introduce a new systematic physical therapy evaluation aiming to facilitate the process of examining complicated musculoskeletal cases. [Subject and Methods] The patient was a 20 years old male college student who had major motor vehicle accident one year ago. The patient was poorly responding to physical therapy and he felt that his case was worsening. The complexity of the case dictated a new evaluation with a different approach to resolve the barriers hindering the patient from showing functional improvements. [Results] The new evaluation approach explained many undetermined and stubborn symptoms experienced by the patient. The expert confirmed that the traditional evaluations methods utilized were insufficient to address patient’s complaints. [Conclusion] Total Assessment-Reassessment & Evaluation using bioKinesiologic (TAREK) approach is comprehensive evaluation strategy using systematic pathway that guides clinicians to pinpoint the contribution of pathoanatomical structures in producing pathomechanical mobility and poor functional outcomes.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of task-specific plantar flexor training on walking ability indices in a patient with a paretic ankle. [Subject and Methods] The subject was a 65-year-old male patient with right hemiplegia due to a left medullary ventral infarction. An ABA’ single-subject design was adopted. The independent variable was a task-specific plantar flexor training exercise, similar to that during walking, targeting the paretic ankle. The dependent variables were the isometric ankle plantar flexor strength, maximum walking speed, step length, and trailing limb angle in the paretic terminal stance phase. The B study phase was divided into B1 and B2 phases. A two standard-deviation-band method was used to evaluate improvement. [Results] Improvements in the paretic plantar flexor strength, maximum walking speed, step length, and trailing limb angle in the B2 phase were observed. The improvements in the maximum walking speed, step length, and trailing limb angle were sustained in the A’ study phase. [Conclusion] These results suggest that task-specific plantar flexor training exercise is efficacious in improving the walking ability index of a paretic ankle.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to compare effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT), ultrasound (US) and sham ESWT in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). [Subjects and Methods] Sixty MPS patients aged 18–60 years were included in the study. The patients were randomized equally into 3 groups. Group 1 received ESWT for 4 session with 3 day-intervals. Group 2 received 4 sessions of sham ESWT. US was applied to Group 3 for 10 sessions. All patients were recommended an exercise program. The patients were evaluated before-post and 6 weeks after treatment. Measurements were made using pressure pain threshold (PPT), pain score (PS) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Patients were evaluated by using SF-36 and HADS (hospital anxiety and depression scale). [Results] A significant posttreatment difference was found in VAS, PPT and SF-36 subparameters in group 1. In group 2, a significant difference was not found in any parameter. In group 3, a significant difference was detected in parameters of VAS and PPT. A significant difference was found between groups 1 and 2 as for subtitles of PPT, VAS, SF-36. [Conclusion] These results suggest that ESWT is as effective as US. ESWT and US are significantly more effective than sham ESWT.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of chin tuck exercise (CTE) using a neckline slimmer device on suprahyoid (SH) and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle activation in healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] We measured activation of the SH and SCM muscles using surface electromyography in 20 healthy adults during head lift exercise (HLE) and CTE using a neckline slimmer device. The order of exercises was randomized and the mean and peak values of each muscle’s activation were assessed. [Results] During the CTE using a neckline slimmer device, SH activation was significantly greater and SCM activation was significantly lower than during the HLE. [Conclusion] This study suggest that chin-tuck exercise using a neckline slimmer device may be more helpful than HLE for swallowing training.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lumbar lordosis assistive support (LLAS) on craniovertebral angle (CVA) and mechanical properties of the upper trapezius (UT) muscle in subjects with forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] This study recruited 20 subjects with FHP. CVA and muscle tone, viscoelasticity, and stiffness of the UT were measured using Myoton in all subjects in a sitting position with LLAS and in a neutral sitting position. The order of measurements was randomized and the mean values were calculated twice. [Results] The sitting position with LLAS showed a significantly greater improvement than the neutral sitting position with regard to CVA and muscle tone, viscoelasticity, and stiffness of the UT. [Conclusion] We suggest that the sitting position using LLAS induces the maintenance of normal neck posture and a reduction in the muscle tone of the UT in the subjects with FHP.
[Purpose] This study evaluated gait parameters and foot pressure in two regions of the feet among older females with different personal care support needs to analyze factors that contribute to higher support requirements. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two older females were divided into support-need and care-need level groups. Gait parameters (speed, cadence, step length, step width, gait angle, toe angle, double support phase, swing phase, and stance phase) and foot pressure during a 5-m walk were measured and analyzed in the two groups. [Results] The percentage of the double support phase on both feet and the right stance phase were significantly higher in the care-need level group, while that of the right swing phase was significantly lower than that of the support-need level group. Additionally, the phase showing peak pressure on the left rear foot was significantly delayed and the left forefoot pressure in the terminal stance was significantly lower in the care-need level group than in the support-need level group. [Conclusion] These findings show that the temporal duration parameters and foot pressure on a particular side were significantly different between the two groups and suggest that these differences were associated with a higher care level.
[Purpose] The associations between changes in respiratory function, exercise tolerance, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with lung cancer who undergo lobectomy using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between exercise tolerance and QOL in patients who underwent VATS. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-six patients with lung cancer were followed for 3 months after VATS. Patients were evaluated before and 1, 4, and 12 weeks after surgery. Respiratory function, grip strength, and knee extension strength, as well as the results of timed up and go, 6-minute walk, and cardiopulmonary exercise tests, were evaluated using the 36-item short-form health survey. Longitudinal changes in physical performance and QOL were analyzed, as was the relationship between the change in physical function and QOL. [Results] The physical and social aspects of QOL significantly decreased at week 4 post-surgery, but recovered to pre-surgical levels by week 12. In contrast, physical (non-respiratory) function recovered to pre-surgical levels by week 4. There was no correlation between the percentages of change in QOL and those related to physical function. [Conclusion] Our preliminary study highlights the fact that early recovery of physical function is possible after VATS, but does not necessarily correlate with early QOL recovery. It is therefore necessary to perform perioperative interventions to promptly restore QOL after surgery.
[Purpose] It is clinically important to accurately evaluate the alignment of hindfoot alignment from the body surface in weight-bearing position. In general, measurement is carried out using a goniometer, but the measurement with goniometer requires experience, and the reliability in this measurement is also in question. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a clinical measurement method to replace the goniometer. As a solution, we devised a hindfoot alignment measurement method with laser beam (HAML), which measures hindfoot alignment along the body surface using a laser beam. This study aimed to study the correlation between the measurement result along the body surface with laser or goniometer and that of radiography with regard to hindfoot alignment. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 23 individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Their hindfoot alignment using radiography and goniometry were measured. The correlation between the measurement result along the body surface with or without laser and radiography was investigated. [Results] The correlation between HAML and radiography was better than that between HAML and goniometry. [Conclusion] The correlation between radiography and HAML for measuring hindfoot alignment was good. This finding implies that HAML can be used as a screening test or epidemiological survey in regional medicine.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of pain scrambler therapy on the pain and quality of life of degenerative gonarthritis patients. [Subject and Methods] This study is a single case study. Pain scrambler therapy was applied for 40 minutes per session once a day for 15 days to a 62-year-old female patient diagnosed with degenerative gonarthritis. Pain was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale and quality of life was measured using the short form-36 item after therapy. [Results] Decrease in pain and improved quality of life were evident after pain scrambler therapy. [Conclusion] Pain scrambler therapy had a potential to decrease pain and improve the quality of life in degenerative gonarthritis patients.