[Purpose] To evaluate the intra- and inter-session reliability of dynamic postural control in ACL reconstruction and matched control athletes. [Subjects and Methods] By using force plate, the postural controls of both groups (20 ACLR and 20 healthy matched controls) were assessed during the transitional task from DLS to SLS. The outcome variables included COP displacement and area and the mean velocity of COP. [Results] The balance measures had moderate to high correlation for area (ICC=0.64–0.73) and rang of fore-aft (Rfa) (ICC=0.66–0.80) in the ACLR group and Rfa (ICC=0.70–0.86) in the healthy group. High to very high reliability was seen for rang of sideway (Rsw) (ICC=0.76–0.96) and mean velocity (Mv) (ICC=0.81–0.98) in ACLR and area (ICC=0.70–0.98) and Rsw (ICC=0.84–0.98) and Mv (ICC=0.89–0.97) in the healthy group. [Conclusion] Force plate measures of postural control demonstrated moderate to very high reliability in athletes with and without ACLR during the transitional task. The results of the recent study showed that the assessment of transitional task postural control in athletes with ACLR may reliably be incorporated in the evaluation of the physical function.
[Purpose] To examine whether combining botulinum toxin type A with physiotherapy is better than botulinum toxin type A alone in reducing muscle tone and improving gross motor function in spastic diplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-six ambulatory children with spastic diplegia (age: 25–154 months) were recruited. Patients were assigned to Groups 1 (n=18) and 2 (n=28). After baseline assessment, all children received botulinum toxin type A injections (6 units/kg) into the lower limb muscles. A second botulinum toxin type A injection was given 6 months later. The ankles were placed in plaster casts for 2 weeks after the first injection and an orthosis was prescribed after cast removal. Group 2 received 2 weeks of intensive physiotherapy. The gross motor function scores for the 2 groups were recorded at baseline, 4, 6, and 52 weeks. [Results] The improvement in gross motor function scores was significant for Group 2 and non-significant for Group 1. After 4, 6, and 52 weeks, Groups 1 and 2 showed 2.6% and 6.3% improvement, 4.8% and 12% improvement, and 5.5% and 19.4% improvement, respectively. [Conclusion] The addition of a 2-week physiotherapy programme after the initial botulinum toxin type A injections produced significantly greater improvements in gross motor function scores.
[Purpose] The current study aimed to identify the effects of dynamic neural mobilization on cerebral cortical activity in patients with stroke, and to present efficient intervention methods for stroke management. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 20 hemiplegic patients diagnosed with stroke over the past 6 months were sampled, and randomly divided into groups I (n=10) and II (n=10). Groups I and II underwent neural mobilization and dynamic neural mobilization, respectively, on the paralyzed arm. Both interventions were administered for 30 min, once a day, for 4 days a week, over a course of 4 weeks. β-waves and μ-rhythms in the C3 and C4 areas of the cerebral cortex were measured using electroencephalography, both before and after the intervention. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significant changes in the β-waves and μ-rhythms in the C3 area alone. Further, significant inter-group differences in the β-waves and μ-rhythms were only present in the C3 area. [Conclusion] Dynamic neural mobilization is an efficient intervention because it increases β-waves and μ-rhythms in the cerebral cortex. Therefore, the effects of continuous intervention programs involving dynamic neural mobilization in patients with stroke should be investigated in the future.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of high heeled shoes on balance ability and walking on healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy female subjects, without orthopedic history of the lower extremity were selected for the present study. The 3 cm, 6 cm, and 9 cm shoes were worn according to the prescribed order to perform a balance and walking test. [Results] Significant difference was shown after the experiment, in comparison of the groups in all variance, and as the result of post hoc test. Time, anterior-posterior length and medial-lateral length of balance variables as well as velocity of walking variables showed a significant increase between 3 cm and 6 cm, 6 cm and 9 cm, 3 cm and 9 cm. In addition, the balance index of the balance variables as well as the step length and single support ratio of the walking variables showed a significant decrease between 3 cm and 6 cm, 6 cm and 9 cm, 3 cm and 9 cm. [Conclusion] It was found that the higher the shoe heel height, the lower the balance and the less the efficiency of walking.
[Purpose] This study was designed to investigate the effect of scrambler therapy on the pain and depression of patients with chronic low back pain. [Subject and Methods] Applied scrambler therapy to a 52 year-old man who was diagnosed with chronic low back pain, for 40 minutes once a day during the 10-day execution. Pain and depression were measured using the visual analogue scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. [Results] According to the measurement results, pain and depression decreased after ten sessions of scramble therapy. [Conclusion] Scrambler therapy shows positive effects on pain and depression of patients with chronic low back pain.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of lengthwise postural taping on a patient having lumbar spine rotation with flexion syndrome during prolonged periods of sitting. [Subject and Methods] The subject was a 22-year-old woman who had developed transient low back pain in the lumbo-pelvic region. The subject was asked to sit in a chair during 30 minutes of computer work under three conditions: no taping, extensive lumbo-pelvic region taping, and lengthwise lumbo-pelvic region taping. The center of force and mean peak gluteal pressure were measured using a TekScan system. [Results] With extensive taping, the AP center of force progressively decreased after 10, 20, and 30 min, while the ML center of force differed only slightly by time point. With lengthwise taping, the ML and AP center of force decreased after 20 min. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that lengthwise taping is a useful method for patients having lumbar rotation with flexion syndrome to prevent slumped sitting posture and excessive pressure on the gluteal muscles.
[Purpose] Patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) are known to experience sensory disturbances in their feet secondary to diabetic neuropathy (DN). The sole of the foot tactile pressure sensitivity threshold in patients with DM was evaluated in addition to examining age-related effects based on the sites studied. Whether the tactile pressure sensitivity threshold in the sole of the foot in elderly patients with DM was associated with the duration of DM or aging was evaluated. [Participants and Methods] Our study included 204 patients with DM (136males and 68 females). Patients were divided into the following age groups: 20–39 (20 patients), 40–49 (26 patients), 50–59 (34 patients), 60–69 (60 patients), 70–79 (45 patients), and 80–89 years (19 patients). Using Semmes-Weinstein monofilament testing, the tactile pressure sensitivity threshold at the sole of the foot was evaluated in the bilateral halluces, first metatarsal head, fifth toe metatarsal head, and the heels, and age-related effects were examined. [Results] At all the sites that were examined, we observed an age-related increase in the tactile pressure sensitivity threshold value, and this finding demonstrated a positive partial correlation with the duration of DM. [Conclusion] Aging influences DN-induced degeneration of peripheral nerves.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of continuous bridge exercises accompanied by an abdominal drawing-in maneuver on the thickness of abdominal muscles of normal adults. [Participants and Methods] The number of participants were 32, of which 16 people were assigned to the experimental group and 16 to the control group, respectively. Continuous bridge exercises were performed by the experimental group in 15 sets of 25 minutes each, 3 times a week for 6 weeks. The thickness of the abdominal muscles was measured using real-time ultrasonography. [Results] When the thicknesses of the abdominal muscles in the experimental and control groups before and after the experiment were compared, it could be seen that the internal obliques abdominis (IO) and transversus abdominis (TrA) of the experimental group had been increased. [Conclusion] This study confirmed that continuous bridge exercises effected a change in the thickness of deep abdominal muscles.
[Purpose] To examine if length of stay was reduced following an early mobilisation programme in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, and secondary, if such a program influenced short-term rehospitalisation and mortality rates. [Participants and Methods] Ninety seven consecutive patients (51% men; over all mean ± SD age 71.9 ± 16.5 years) with community-acquired pneumonia were included in the intervention group, and compared with a historical control group of 97 patients, matching at case level. Early mobilisation was defined as more than 20 minutes out of bed within 24 hours of hospitalisation. [Results] Eighty out of 97 patients in the intervention group were mobilised within 24 hours and length of stay for all patients was reduced with an average of 1.5 (95%CI: −0.2; 3.2) days compared to the control group. There was no significant difference between the two groups according to 30-day rehospitalisation and mortality. [Conclusion] An early mobilisation program seem to reduce the length of stay for patients with community-acquired pneumonia, and without an increase in short-term mortality and re-hospitalisation rates.
[Purpose] This study examined how incremental cardiorespiratory exercise may affect the speech rate and Counting Talk Test (CTT)-estimated exercise intensity. [Participants and Methods] Twenty-four healthy adults performed the CTT while exercising on a treadmill at 6 stages of incremental exercise ranging from 40% to 85% of heart rate reserve (HRR). Each participant started walking on the treadmill at 3 to 4 km/h and 0% elevation to warm up. The increments of treadmill grades were adjusted until targeted heart rates corresponding to the percentages of HRR were reached. Then, the participants were asked to rate their perceived exertion while the treadmill grades were maintained for 2-minutes bouts of each exercise stage. At the last minute of the exercise stage, the CTT was performed within a single breath. [Results] The speech rates in the CTT appeared to vary significantly during exercise. Moreover, the CTT-estimated exercise intensity showed significant reductions at several exercise stages. [Conclusion] The CTT estimates exercise intensity semi-quantitatively throughout incremental exercise. However, moderate and vigorous intensities could not be significantly delineated by the current CTT method. This could be due to the variability in speech rates that were indicated as the exercise progressed.
[Purpose] The glenohumeral, scapular, and thoracic angles at maximum shoulder external rotation during shadow pitching were evaluated and compared with those observed during normal pitching. [Participants and Methods] Our study included 13 healthy males with experience in pitcher activity. All participants performed both, shadow pitching using a towel and normal pitching using a ball. The external rotation of the glenohumeral joint, scapular posterior tilting, and thoracic extension angles in the cocking phase were measured using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. The ratios of the glenohumeral external rotation angle to the scapular posterior tilting and/or thoracic extension angle were calculated to evaluate the contribution of the scapulothoracic joint at maximum external rotation during throwing/pitching activity. [Results] The glenohumeral external rotation angle at maximum shoulder external rotation was significantly smaller during shadow pitching than during normal pitching. The ratio of the glenohumeral external rotation angle to the scapular posterior tilting and/or thoracic extension angle showed no statistically significant difference. [Conclusion] We conclude that shadow pitching can reduce the external rotation motion of the glenohumeral joint compared to that during normal pitching and might be a useful pre-throwing program beneficial in the rehabilitation of those presenting with throwing injuries.
[Purpose] The purposes of this study were to strengthen gluteus maximus and trunk muscles depending upon the hip joint direction by bridging exercise on an unstable and stable surface, and to suggest an intervention method for efficient and selective exercise. [Participants and Methods] The test measured the muscle activities with the external rotation and internal rotation of 25 degrees and hip joint neutral position of 0 degree on a stable and unstable surface each exercise 3 times for 9 seconds. [Results] External oblique abdominis showed a higher muscle activity on the unstable surface and internal rotation. Erector spinae showed no significant difference on the surfaces and demonstrated the highest muscle activity at the internal rotation. Gluteus maximus showed a higher muscle activity on the stable surface and external rotation and the interaction effect between the surface and the angle indicated a statistical significance as well. [Conclusion] Muscle activities appear different depending upon the change of surface and joint angle, and it can be said that the correct mobilization of muscle fiber relying on the muscle arrangement direction and muscle contraction direction is the most important factor for gluteus maximus.
[Purpose] The contributions of male wheelchair basketball players with different capability classifications to the team score at the Rio 2016 Paralympics were evaluated. The roles required for team members belonging to each such classification were determined. [Participants and Methods] Statistics obtained from the official box scores of all 42 games included at the Rio 2016 Paralympics were used in this study. Players who participated for >20 minutes in each game were included in the analysis. Players were divided into 3 groups (low, middle, and high) based on their capability classification. The mean statistical data related to each group were compared, and the covariance structure was analyzed to determine the role of each player group. [Results] Many statistical values were higher in players belonging to the high group. In the high group, the relevant variables were field goals scored, field goals attempted, assists, and turnovers. In the low group, the relevant variables were field goals scored, steals, and turnovers. [Conclusion] Many plays related to the ball depended on the high group. High-group players are required to demonstrate strong scoring ability and to reduce turnovers. Conversely, low-group players should increase the numbers of field goals made, increase steals, and reduce turnovers.
[Purpose] This case describes the long-term successful outcome in a chronic neck pain patient given Chiropractic Biophysics® treatment 14 years previously, and following surgical fusion of C4–C7 as performed 6.5 years prior to initial presentation. [Participant and Methods] The 56-year-old female had a severe right head translation (side shift) posture and surgical fusion of C4–7 with concomitant head and neck symptoms, high pain and neck disability scores, and low health-related quality of life scores. The patient was treated by Chiropractic BioPhysics methods in an attempt to restore the head and neck posture back towards vertical alignment by mirror image® (opposite posture positioning) exercises, adjustments and traction. [Results] The patient received 25 treatments over the course of 11 days due to special circumstances. Initial treatment resulted in a 50% improvement of posture, a marked improvement in health status and a near complete resolution of pain. Follow-up examinations at 7.5 years, 11.5 years, and 14 years, revealed the patient had lived a virtual pain-free life since those initial treatments. [Conclusion] This case illustrates what has previously been suggested in the literature, that lateral head translation postures can be overlooked and undiagnosed and these postures may play a significant role in the production of neck pain, headaches, and related disability.