[Purpose] Dysphagia is a neurological symptom that is observed in more than half of patients with Wilson’s disease. It is often associated with aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, and malnutrition, resulting in drastic reduction of the quality of life. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation could be an adjunct therapy for dysphagia treatment. However, there is limited data about the application of NMES for dysphagia in Wilson’s disease. Thus, we explored the potential application of NMES for dysphagia treatment in Wilson’s disease. [Participants and Methods] Sixty Wilson’s disease patients who suffered from dysphagia were randomized into two groups. Swallowing function training was taught to the control group (n=30) while Neuromuscular electrical stimulation therapy was given to treatment group (n=30). Eight weeks post treatment, using the water swallow test and the Standardized Swallowing Assessment, the swallowing function was determined. [Results] None of the patients experienced discomfort before, during or after the intervention. After 8 weeks of therapy, when compared to the control, an increased improvement in swallowing function was noted for the treatment group. [Conclusion] Neuromuscular electrical stimulation treatment can improve swallowing function in Wilson’s disease patients afflicted with dysphagia. Therefore, it has the potential to be a form of therapy in clinical practice.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate simple and efficient transversus abdominis exercises performed in the supine position using ultrasonography. [Participants and Methods] Sixteen healthy males performed six motor tasks including left shoulder flexion, draw-in, left straight leg raise, and the vocalization of vowel sounds (55–60 dB, 65–70 dB, and 75–80 dB), in a random order while in the supine position. The thicknesses of the transversus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique were measured using ultrasonography. [Results] There was a significant increase in the transversus abdominis thickness during the draw-in and vocalization tasks than during other tasks. With respect to draw-in and the three vowel sound volumes, there was a significant difference between draw-in and the 65–70 dB sound. However, there was no significant difference in the transversus abdominis thickness between draw-in and the three vocalization tasks. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the vocalization of vowel sounds is an effective and easy way to exercise the transversus abdominis for patients experiencing difficulty in performing draw-in exercises.
[Purpose] The present study investigated changes in the balance function of stroke patients after neuromuscular joint facilitation treatment. [Participants and Methods] Fourteen stroke patients were randomly subjected to neuromuscular joint facilitation intervention (neuromuscular joint facilitation intervention group) and no intervention (control group), with a 1-day interval between treatments. The interventions were performed consecutively. The order of interventions was completely randomized. Before and after one neuromuscular joint facilitation and control intervention, the functional reach test, and body sway were measured. [Results] Functional reach test values were significantly increased and peripheral area was significantly reduced in the neuromuscular joint facilitation intervention group than in the control group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that neuromuscular joint facilitation of the trunk has an immediate effect on balance and function in stroke patients.
[Purpose] Specific exercises and brace treatment are the two evidence-based modes of treatment for patients with scoliosis. The purpose of this paper is to present the first end-results from a prospective cohort that commenced treatment in 2011 with a CAD based Chêneau derivate and is then compared to the published results achieved with the Boston Brace. [Participants and Methods] Inclusion criteria for the study, refers to the SRS inclusion criteria on bracing, except the range of Cobb angles which was extended to curvatures of up to 45°. Twenty-eight patients were weaned from their CAD Chêneau style brace. The results of this cohort have been compared with the BRAIST study by Weinstein et al. with the help of the Z-test. [Results] A success rate of 92.9% has been achieved. This was compared to the success rate of 72% in the BRAIST study. The differences were highly significant in the Z-test. [Conclusion] The results achieved with the GBW are significantly and better than the results achieved with the Boston brace. Therefore, the standards for bracing should be reviewed with the results that symmetric compression with Boston bracing is not as successful, when compared to asymmetric high correction bracing results, which allow a standardized classification-based corrective approach.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify whether the motor imagery of walking and physical function are related in mild hemiplegic stroke patients. [Participants and Methods] Sixteen mild hemiplegic stroke patients were included in this study. We evaluated motor imagery with a 10-m walking, the estimation error and the kinesthetic and visual imagery questionnaire. Physical function was evaluated with the actual 10-m walk test time, Brunnstrom recovery stage, stroke impairment assessment set, and functional independent measure. The correlation coefficient was calculated using Spearman’s correlation coefficient for all evaluation methods. [Results] The 10-m walking motor imagery took an average of 23.36 ± 22.14 s. The actual 10-m walk test averaged 24.87 ± 21.41 s. The 10-m walking motor imagery and the 10-m walking speed were significantly correlated. There was a significant correlation between the 10-m walking motor imagery and the Brunnstrom recovery stage, stroke impairment assessment set, and functional independent measure. There were no significant correlations between the estimation error and all the assessments. [Conclusion] These results show that the motor imagery of walking is related to physical function in mild hemiplegic stroke patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional area (CSA) and longitudinal sliding length (LSL) of the median nerve bilaterally in patients with ambulant chronic hemiplegia and to compare these measurements with those in healthy controls using ultrasound. [Participants and Methods] Forty patients with hemiplegia who developed a non-functional hand on the paretic side after one year or more of stroke and 25 asymptomatic controls were included. To obtain the CSA of the median nerve at the wrist in the neutral position and the LSL of the median nerve during wrist extension, the participants underwent bilateral ultrasound examination. [Results] The non-paretic side of stroke patients had the largest median nerve CSA, followed by the paretic side and then the controls; the median nerve CSA in the non-paretic side and the controls differed significantly. The CSA of the median nerve was significantly larger in the non-paretic sides of patients, evaluated at more than 5.5 years post-stroke relative to those evaluated at less than 5.5 years. The LSL of the paretic side was significantly shorter than the non-paretic side and the controls. [Conclusion] Compared to the controls, the CSA of the median nerve was enlarged in the non-paretic hand of ambulant chronic stroke patients and the LSL were identical. As such, entrapment neuropathy of the median nerve may follow long-term chronic stroke due to overuse. This study indicates the usefulness of ultrasound in the potential identification of such cases.
[Purpose] The purposes of this case study are to: (1) report the immediate effects of knee flexion range of motion following manual therapy (MT) and self-stretching/AROM following a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). (2) contribute empirical evidence to the literature through reports within this case study. [Participant and Methods] For 6 days, the authors utilized a different MT technique and 1 day of self-stretching and active range of motion for an 85-year-old male who was 3 days status post right TKA. [Results] The greatest gains for AROM/PROM for knee flexion were achieved while performing typical arthrokinematic motion joint mobilizations, for AROM and PROM, resulting in a gain of 10 degrees and 10 degrees, respectfully. [Conclusion] We theorize that performing typical arthrokinematic motion joint mobilizations stimulates a greater response from the mechanoreceptors and therefore a greater stimulation response to the central and peripheral nervous systems. This greater stimulation may explain the greatest immediate gain in knee flexion range of motion being performed by typical arthrokinematic motion joint mobilizations. The outcomes of this study demonstrate the start of some empirical evidence while exploring the immediate effects of knee flexion range of motion following manual therapy and self-stretching/AROM following a TKA.