[Purpose] The associations between respiratory function, physical performance, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in older adults remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the associations of lung volume and respiratory muscle strength with physical performance, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in older adults. [Participants and Methods] In 62 ambulatory community-dwelling older adults, lung volumes (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1s), respiratory muscle strength (maximum inspiratory and expiratory muscle pressures), physical performance (Timed Up and Go test and 30 s chair stand test), physical activity (steps and locomotive and non-locomotive physical activity), and sedentary behavior (percent sedentary time) were assessed. [Results] The percent sedentary time, 30-s chair stand test performance, and non-locomotive moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were independently associated with forced vital capacity, maximum inspiratory pressure, and maximum expiratory pressure, respectively. [Conclusion] The preliminary findings suggest that lung volumes and respiratory muscle strength may be differently affected by physical performance, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in ambulatory older adults.
[Purpose] We aimed to evaluate the risk to clarify the seasonal variations in the circulatory dynamics of community-dwelling older people performing early morning outdoor exercises. [Participants and Methods] This study included 76 community-dwelling older adults (42 men, mean age: 76.9 ± 5.0 years; 34 women, mean age: 74.0 ± 4.2 years) who perform early morning exercises. The prevalence of hypertension among these adults was assessed, and their blood pressure and pulse rate were obtained before and after performing a 30-minute exercise using automatic and aneroid type sphygmomanometers while sitting on a chair. Further, we calculated the double product by multiplying systolic blood pressure and pulse rate. We analyzed the changes in the pre- and post-exercise systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, double product, diagnosis of hypertension, and seasonal factors (moderate-temperature season/low-temperature season). [Results] Thirty-five participants were assigned in the hypertension diagnosis group, while 40 participants were in the non-hypertension group. There was no significant difference in the mean age between the two groups. The main effects and interactions were not confirmed in relation to systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, and double product. [Conclusion] Essentially, blood pressure should be obtained before exercise, as individuals with hypertension are more likely to have an increase in baseline systolic blood pressure while exercising in the early morning during the low-temperature seasons.
[Purpose] In the present study, we investigated the effects of regular aerobic training with different intensities and durations on new indices of arterial stiffness measured via an upper-arm oscillometric device. [Participants and Methods] We gathered data from 41 middle-aged and older people (age 65.0 ± 11.7 years). Participants were randomly divided into five groups: (1) 15 minutes of low intensity aerobic training (n=10); (2) 30 minutes of low intensity training (n=7); (3) 15 minutes of moderate-intensity training (n=9); (4) 30 minutes of moderate-intensity training (n=8); and (5) a non-training group (n=7). Training was conducted for 8 weeks, three times per week. Arterial pulse wave index, arterial pressure-volume index, brachial-ankle and heart-brachial pulse wave velocity, cardio-ankle vascular index, brachial and ankle blood pressure, heart rate, and peak oxygen uptake were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] All indicators of arterial stiffness and brachial and ankle blood pressure in the exercise groups were significantly lower after versus before the intervention. Peak oxygen uptake did not differ before versus after the intervention. [Conclusion] The present findings indicate that regular aerobic exercise may be important in reducing arterial stiffness regardless of the intensity or duration of aerobic exercise.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to use Mirror Therapy to clarify the effect of the differences in image recall ability and the types of finger exercises on the excitability of spinal nerve function. This study will help establish the methodology for therapeutic intervention using Mirror Therapy. [Participants and Methods] We divided 30 healthy right-handed adults into two groups: one with high exercise image recall ability and the other with low exercise image recall ability. The participants were asked to put both hands in the Mirror Box such that the left hand was hidden behind the mirror. While looking at the mirror image of the right hand, they were instructed not to move the left hand voluntarily. We measured the F-wave from the finger abductor muscle using evoked electromyography. [Results] The comparison between the high and low image recall groups showed that the excitability of spinal nerve function increased in the low image recall group overall. [Conclusion] From the above results, we suggest that when performing mirror therapy, it is necessary to select a task that is not too simple and not difficult to move normally.
[Purpose] Although it is widely recognized that feedback is important for skill acquisition or improvement, feedback is not completely utilized in physical therapy education. Therefore, we aimed to verify the effect of extrinsic feedback from a feedback device on proficiency in range of motion measurements by a universal goniometer. [Participants and Methods] The participants included 22 physical therapy students who were randomly assigned to feedback (n=11) and non-feedback groups (n=11). The passive right knee flexion range of motion was set as the measurement task. The experiment consisted of a pretest phase, practice trials, and a posttest phase. In the pretest phase, all participants conducted three measurements without extrinsic feedback. Extrinsic feedback related to measurement error from a device was given only to the feedback group. The posttest was conducted 24 hours after the practice trials with the same content as that in the pretest. [Results] The improvement rate from pretest to posttest was greater in the feedback group than in the non-feedback group. The results indicated that the measurement error decreases with extrinsic measurement error-related feedback during practice. [Conclusion] The utilization of extrinsic feedback from a feedback device is effective for enhancing range of motion measurement skills.
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurements using a belt-stabilized hand-held dynamometer compared to that using an isokinetic dynamometer with the participant in a sitting posture. [Participants and Methods] Forty-two university students participated. The isometric knee extension muscle strength was measured using a hand-held dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer. For both measurements, the participants were in the similar sitting posture. The sitting posture maintained trunk stability, with the hands on the bed, and the non-measurement-side toe touching the floor or table. The intra-class correlation coefficient and the relevance were verified. [Results] Intra-rater correlation coefficient (1, 1) of the two measurements was ≥0.75. A significant difference was found in the measurement value between males and females. No significant difference was found between the measurements value of the two devices. A significant positive correlation was found in the measurement value of two devices in the male participants. [Conclusion] When compared to the standard method of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurements using an isokinetic dynamometer with the participant in the sitting posture, measurements using the belt-stabilized hand-held dynamometer were considered valid and highly reliable in the male participants.
[Purpose] To compare flexion and extension peak torque of patients with nonspecific-chronic low back pain who were classified as directional preference subgroups, and their matched healthy controls. [Participants and Methods] Fifty male volunteers (25 with non-specific chronic low back pain and 25 healthy-matched controls) consented to participate. The investigator collected all demographic data, hips, knees and spinal mobility in addition to the peak torque using the Biodex isokinetic dynamometer. The measurement protocol consisted of 2 sets of 10 consecutive flexion-extension efforts performed at 120°/sec and 60°/sec angular velocity. A two minutes rest period was given between sets. The preset 50° range of motion included 20°(+20°) of trunk extension and 30°(−30°) of trunk flexion. [Results] A 2 × 2 mixed-design ANOVA showed a significant group X isokinetic velocity interaction. The main effect of isokinetic velocity was also significant. In reference to the peak torque of the flexors of the trunk, the main effect of group was significant. [Conclusion] The extension peak torque significantly depends on the velocity of the isokinetic dynamometer; however the flexion peak torque significantly depends on the participants’ group attribution.
[Purpose] The purposes of this study were: 1) to validate a commercial software program using an optical-flow algorithm to measure the velocity of muscle movement; and 2) to determine optimal image quality and the size and location of regions of interest. [Materials and Methods] First, a block of pork thigh muscle was pulled at 33 different constant velocities. Subsequently, an accelerometer, a high-velocity camera, and ultrasonography were used to obtain measurements, and an Echolizer software was used to determine ultrasound-based velocities. Finally, the impact of the location and size of the regions of interest and the brightness and contrast of the images was analyzed. [Results] The regression equation was expressed as y=1.150 × −0.071 with a determination coefficient of 0.996. The average absolute error of the software was 0.02 mm/s, and the average relative error was 0.20% of the actual velocity between 2.5 and 16.5 mm/s after the regression equation was applied to the measured data. The accuracy of measurement was reduced owing to the increased size of the regions of interest, which included poor image quality or a deeper zone. [Conclusion] Our method of measuring muscle velocity using a custom program showed high validity and reliability. It is necessary to use the regression equation in the program to improve accuracy. However, the validity of the method could be reduced if the regions of interest involve deep tissues or areas with poor visualization of the muscle bundles, or if the brightness and contrast of the image are set inaccurately.
[Purpose] The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between range of motion/muscle strength of the spine and lower limbs with 1) radiographic sagittal alignment and 2) quality of life of participants with spinal deformities to adequately target the appropriate factors for effective treatment. [Participants and Methods] This study used an observational cross-sectional correlational design. Participants with spinal deformities and low back pain were recruited for the study. The dependent variables were range of motion/muscle strength of the spine and lower limbs, sagittal alignment, and quality of life. [Results] Regarding alignment, significant correlations were found between hip extension range of motion and sagittal vertebral axis; between occiput-to-wall distance and thoracolumbar kyphosis; and between back extensor endurance and pelvic tilt and pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch, also known as the calculated (pelvic incidence) minus (lumbar lordosis) value. With regards to quality of life, significant correlations were found between pain-related disorders and lumbar spine range of motion, and between gait disturbance and knee and hip extension ranges of motion. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that these factors should be targeted for assessment and treatment of adults with spinal deformities.
[Purpose] We developed a prototype version of the Self-Assessment Burden Scale-Motor as a screening questionnaire for the need of care based on the evaluation of patients’ activities of daily living. The questionnaire is comprised of seven items, each of which is scored on a 7-point Likert scale. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the questionnaire using Rasch analysis. [Participants and Methods] A total of 200 individuals completed the questionnaire. Rasch analysis to investigate the rating scale structure and examine the structural validity and reliability of the scale. The unidimensionality of the items was examined using the mean square infit values and principal component analysis of residuals. The separation reliability of the scale was also examined. [Results] The rating scale structure can be improved by collapsing several categories (from seven categories to four categories). Unidimensionality was found for seven items. The separation reliability was acceptable for item calibrations and persons. [Conclusion] Inclusion of seven items with a 4-category rating scale was appropriate for the Self-Assessment Burden Scale-Motor questionnaire. Future studies should examine the intra-rater reliability and the criterion-related validity in more depth and develop a new scale to evaluate cognitive function.
[Purpose] The present study examined the effects of a 12-week intervention combined with behavior modification techniques to improve the lifestyle and biochemical indicators, of high-risk metabolic syndrome patients. [Participants and Methods] The 21 participants (10 participants in the intervention group and 11 participants in the control group) were provided with information about metabolic syndrome. Participants in the intervention group were asked to set goals to improve their lifestyle (dietary and exercise) and their self-efficacy. The participants completed and submitted a weekly, self-monitoring sheet and were provided with feedback on their lifestyle. [Results] Following intervention, the values of body mass index and abdominal circumference were significantly lower for the intervention group as compared to the control group. There were no differences in the total physical activity level, total energy intake, or blood levels of lipids between the two groups. [Conclusion] According to Motivational Interviewing, to modify and continue behaviors, it is important for people to recognize “their significance” and have “confidence”. In the present study, information about metabolic syndrome was provided to enable the recognition of the importance of behaviors. Moreover, participants in the intervention group were required to set goals to increase their self-efficacy. We attribute the participants’ weight loss and decrease in abdominal circumference to this.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate sports-related injuries among judokas in Mongolia which is classified in the lower-middle income country. This study may help prevent future sports-related injuries. [Participants and Methods] We studied 75 judokas affiliated to the judo club in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. The questionnaire survey included questions regarding current and past judo-related injuries. [Results] Out of 75 judokas, 39% judokas had current judo-related injuries, and 25% judokas had past injuries. The injuries were most commonly located in the shoulder/clavicular, followed by that in the ankle and knee. The most frequent injury was a sprain/ligament injury, followed by a fracture and a dislocation. Seventy-three percent of current injuries and 88% of the past injuries received medical attention. Self-management was carried out for 35% of the injuries. The time lost from judo matches and training was 0–1,095 days for current injuries and 0–545 days for past injuries. [Conclusion] In this study, the injury rate for judokas was higher than that reported in previous studies. In addition, numerous severe injuries were noted. It is observed that, despite medical attention and self-management, the recovery periods are prolonged. Additionally, we believe that the judokas are unable to return to competition without problems.
[Purpose] Sarcopenia increases the risk of falls and fractures. However, its relationship with walking, which is the generation mechanism of falls, has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to clarify the trunk muscle strength and the characteristics of walking, in elderly people with sarcopenia. [Participants and Methods] The participants were 40 elderly people aged 65 years and over. The participants were able to walk without assistance and were attending outpatient rehabilitation or community day-care centers. The assessment and measurement items included: the presence or absence of sarcopenia (using the diagnostic criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia), lower limb and trunk muscle strength, and characteristics of walking. The participants were divided into two groups depending on the presence or absence of sarcopenia, and a comparison was made between the two groups. [Results] The participants in the sarcopenia group had significantly lower trunk extension muscle strength as compared to the participants in the non-sarcopenia group. In addition, the hip joint maximum flexion moment, ankle joint maximum plantar flexion moment, and walking velocity of participants in the sarcopenia group were significantly lower than those in the non-sarcopenia group. [Conclusion] This study revealed that weakness of the trunk muscle strength causes a decrease in walking velocity in elderly people with sarcopenia.
[Purpose] Gluteus medius syndrome is one of the major causes of back pain or leg pain and is similar to greater trochanteric pain syndrome, which also presents with back pain or leg pain. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is associated with lumbar degenerative disease and hip osteoarthritis. The objective of this review was to demonstrate gluteus medius syndrome as a disease entity by reviewing relevant articles to elucidate the condition. [Methods] Gluteus medius syndrome was defined as myofascial pain syndrome arising from the gluteus medius. We performed a search of the literature using the following keywords: “back pain”, “leg pain”, “greater trochanteric pain syndrome”, “degenerative lumbar disease”, “hip osteoarthritis”, and “gluteus medius”. We reviewed articles related to gluteus medius syndrome and described the findings in terms of diagnosis and treatment based on the underlying pathology. [Results] A total of 135 articles were included in this review. Gluteus medius syndrome is similar as a disease entity to greater trochanteric pain syndrome, which presents with symptoms of low back pain and leg pain. Gluteus medius syndrome is also related to lumbar degenerative disease, hip osteoarthritis, knee osteoarthritis, and failed back surgery syndrome. [Conclusion] Accurate diagnosis of gluteus medius syndrome and appropriate treatment could possibly improve lumbar degenerative disease and osteoarthritis of the hip and knee, as well as hip-spine syndrome and failed back surgery syndrome.
[Purpose] Recent studies have reported the effectiveness of robotic rehabilitation of paralyzed upper limbs in stroke patients. For example, the Single-Joint Hybrid Assistive Limb has been shown to improve upper limb impairments. However, limited data are available on the effectiveness of robotic rehabilitation of the upper limb with regards to daily living. In this case study, an accelerometer was adopted to examine whether rehabilitation using the Single-Joint Hybrid Assistive Limb improved upper limb activity during daily living in a stroke patient. [Participant and Methods] The participant was a 69-year-old male diagnosed with stroke and left hemiparesis. The Single-Joint Hybrid Assistive Limb was applied to the participant’s elbow on the paralyzed side. The participant wore an accelerometer on each wrist to measure the activities of the upper limbs. Clinical tests of the paralyzed upper limb were also performed. [Results] The activity of the paralytic limb was significantly higher after Single-Joint Hybrid Assistive Limb intervention than before the intervention. On the other hand, none of the results of the clinical tests changed beyond a clinically important difference. [Conclusion] The Single-Joint Hybrid Assistive Limb could be useful for promoting active use of a paralyzed upper limb in daily living. In addition, an accelerometer could be especially useful for evaluating the effects of robotic rehabilitation.
[Purpose] The purpose of this report is to describe the PT evaluation, prehab interventions, and outcomes of a patient pursuing reverse total shoulder replacement (rTSR) for pain reduction and functional gains. [Participant and Methods] A 62-year-old male self-referred to PT two months before his right rTSR. His chief complaints were right shoulder pain, stiffness, and functional impairment due to rotator cuff tendon tears and shoulder arthritis. He demonstrated poor posture, limited ROM, decreased strength, and diminished function. The PT prehab program consisted of an initial encounter followed by six treatment sessions across approximately one month. [Results] On the last visit, the patient’s pain had meaningfully decreased along with improved posture, AROM, and muscle strength producing a clinically significant improvement in function resulting in the postponing of his rTSR. On a three months follow-up, the patient had maintained or improved in his test and measures and functional outcomes. He expressed satisfaction with the prehab outcomes and that he had indefinitely postponed his rTSR. [Conclusion] PT prehab program improved pre-operative measures on pain, posture, joint mobility, muscle strength, and function on a patient who had been scheduled for rTSR surgery. PT prehab program may delay the need for rTSR surgery.