[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between leg muscle strength, measured by a very simple one-leg stand-up test, and the prevalence of diabetes among Japanese males to raise awareness of diabetes prevention. [Participants and Methods] This cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 1,800 Japanese males (median [interquartile range] age, 61 [56–67] years) who completed health examinations and a one-leg stand-up test. The prevalence of diabetes was defined if any of the following conditions applied: 1) fasting blood glucose level more than 126 mg/dl, 2) two-hour blood glucose level more than 200 mg/dl (75-g oral glucose tolerance test), 3) HbA1c more than 6.5%, 4) diagnosed with diabetes by a physician, and/or 5) treated for diabetes. [Results] There were 490 participants with diabetes, and 517 participants were unable to complete the sit-to-stand task. When males, who could stand up, were used as a reference, the odds ratio for the prevalence of diabetes was significantly higher among those who were unable to stand up on neither leg than those who successfully stood up on both right and left legs after adjustment for covariates. [Conclusion] Low leg muscle strength, as measured by the one-leg stand-up test, was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes among Japanese males. Because of its simplicity, this test could be useful detecting individuals who are at increased risk of developing diabetes.
[Purpose] As an alternative to manual stretching, the aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using neural/visceral manipulation as a safe and effective intervention to increase neck range of motion of infants with congenital muscular torticollis. [Participants and Methods] Ten 4-month old infants with congenital muscular torticollis received eight sessions of neural/visceral manipulation administered for 30–50 minutes without observed pain. Specific palpation techniques addressed restricted tissue areas of neck, head, trunk and extremities. Neck rotation and lateral flexion were assessed by still photography and a computer program calculating ROM angles before, immediately following, and 4 months post intervention. Motor development and social competence were monitored over time using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale and Bayley-III Social Emotional Scale. [Results] Results of analysis of variances revealed significant improvements in passive and active neck rotation and lateral flexion. Significant increases were also found on the Alberta Infant Motor Scale and Bayley-III Social-Emotional scale. [Conclusion] Neural/visceral manipulation can be used safely in infants with congenital muscular torticollis to improve neck range of motion.
[Purpose] We examined the incidence of cachexia at the beginning of rehabilitation in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer. [Participants and Methods] Patients with gastrointestinal cancer who were prescribed physical therapy and occupational therapy by their rehabilitation doctor and completed the survey item were targeted. We administered the cancer cachexia assessment and evaluated activities of daily living, and nutritional status in all participants. [Results] There were 15 patients in the normal group, 8 in the normal low-nutrition group, 16 in the pre-cachexia group, and 57 in the cachexia group. The cachexia group showed significantly lower nutritional status, and were less able to perform activities of daily living than the normal and pre-cachexia groups. [Conclusion] The incidence of cachexia among study participants was 17% in the pre-cachexia group and 59% in the cachexia group at the beginning of rehabilitation. Patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer may have a higher incidence of cachexia at the beginning of rehabilitation.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether functionally induced fatigue affects balance and vertical jump performance more severely in individuals with a history of unilateral lateral ligament injury to the ankle joint. [Participants and Methods] Twenty-three participants volunteered for the study with the experimental group (EG n=12) comprising injured participants with stability deficits and lack of physiotherapy treatment tested against healthy controls (CG n=11). Balance was assessed via a single leg balance test with open eyes on a force platform. The Center-of-Pressure (COP) excursion on the anteroposterior (Y-axis) and the mediolateral (X-axis) were recorded. Additionally, maximal single-leg vertical jump height (VJH) was assessed on a specific platform. Ankle fatigue was induced through performing the modified Square-hop test until exhaustion. [Results] Patients exhibited significant interaction for Time X Group for the COP on the X-axis. COP-X which did not differ between groups, pre-fatigue, while post-fatigue, it increased significantly in the EG. VJH demonstrated significant pre-fatigue differences between groups, suggesting that deficits in this variable were evident without the need to fatigue the muscles involved. [Conclusion] Fatigue can be useful when balance is tested, since post-fatigue deficits, otherwise obscured in the baseline measurement, can become significant.
[Purpose] This study examined characteristics of dynamic standing balance, with an without an insole, in patients with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy (CP). [Participants and Methods] This cross-sectional study used a crossover design. Eleven patients with spastic diplegia CP and gross motor levels between I and III with spastic diplegia CP (according to the Gross Motor Function Classiﬁcation System expanded and revised version) were randomly allocated to either the barefoot or insole groups. The Index of postural stability (IPS) was evaluated while each patient was barefoot and while wearing insoles. The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) was used to measure functional self-care and mobility domains. [Results] While wearing the insoles, the center movement distance between right and left positions was significantly higher. While barefoot, IPS and area of postural sway correlated with the PEDI subscales for mobility and self-care. [Conclusion] Insoles promote standing balance and dynamic balance to move the center of pressure within the base of support. Such improvements may enhance activities of daily living in patients with spastic diplegia CP.
[Purpose] To examine the validity of the predictive formulas based on the angle information of the segment center of mass and moments of inertia, and to propose a joint moment estimation method. [Participants and Methods] Twenty nine young healthy adults were divided into two groups: the Creation group (20 adults) was needed to create the prediction formulas, and the Verification group (9 adults) was needed to verify the formulas. By monitoring the Creation group, the angular information from inertial motion sensors and moments of inertia of each limb were used to estimate actual ankle joint moment and knee joint moment. Thereafter, the actual joint moments was derived from the Verification group and compared to the predicted values via Pearson correlations. [Results] Good to excellent correlations were obtained between the actual joint moments of the two groups for most of the motions. [Conclusion] It is suggested that the predictive formulas created from the angle information of the segment center of mass and moments of inertia can be used for an approximate estimation of the lower limb joint moments in the sagittal plane and more clinically useful tools need to be considered in the future.
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the relationship between chronic ankle sprain instability and ultrasonography of the peroneus muscles during a single-leg standing task. [Participants and Methods] We examined nine college-aged students with a history of lateral ankle joint sprain with chronic ankle sprain instability scores less than 24. Participants underwent ultrasonographic measurement of the pennation angle and muscle thickness of the peroneal and gastrocnemius muscle groups of both legs. In addition, participants were evaluated for fluctuation by the root mean square calculated from accelerations in the anteroposterior, lateral-horizontal, and vertical directions during the single-leg standing position by affixing the accelerometer to their waist. Measurement results were compared between sprain and non-sprain sides. [Results] Ultrasonography revealed a significant reduction in the feathered pennation angle of the long peroneal muscle on the side of the sprain, but no other significant differences. Also, significant extension was observed on the side of the sprain in the anteroposterior and vertical directions during single-leg standing; however, no significant differences were found in the lateral-horizontal direction. [Conclusion] Participants with chronic ankle sprain instability exhibited greater fluctuation in the anteroposterior and vertical directions. Such fluctuations are believed to be compensatory in nature because the feathered horn of the long peroneal muscle is decreased, and pronation of the forefoot is difficult during one-leg standing.
[Purpose] A goniometer is frequently used for static measurement of hindfoot alignment. However, although goniometer measurements require experience, their reliability and validity remain controversial. We developed a hindfoot alignment measurement method by laser as an alternative measure. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of laser-assisted hindfoot alignment evaluation. [Participants and Methods] Two non-expert examiners (without medical knowledge), briefly trained in the use of laser-assisted hindfoot alignment evaluation, evaluated hindfoot alignment in 12 healthy participants. [Results] The ICC of the intra-rater reliability was 0.74 for both examiners and the ICC for inter-rater reliability was 0.43. [Conclusion] The good intra-rater and moderate inter-rater reliability of laser-assisted hindfoot alignment evaluation, when used by non-professionals, suggest the laser-assisted hindfoot alignment evaluation may be appropriate for use in clinical practice settings.
[Purpose] This study aimed to compare pain and shoulder elevation strength when scapular reposition test is applied to subclinical individuals with a short or long pectoralis minor. [Participants and Methods] Subclinical participants (n=34) with a positive impingement result on at least one of three tests were assigned to short (n=18) or long (n=16) pectoralis minor groups. Impingement tests were repeated with and without scapular reposition test. Visual analog scale was used to measure pain intensities under both conditions. Isometric shoulder elevation strength was measured by dynamometry. Two-way analyzes of variance and paired t-test were used to evaluate the effects of scapular reposition test in the two groups. [Results] The effects of pectoralis minor length on the frequencies of meaningful strength, pain reduction, and positive scapular reposition test result were evaluated. Repositioning reduced pain in both groups. In the short pectoralis minor group, shoulder elevation strength was significantly improved by scapular reposition test. A meaningful strength improvement and positive scapular reposition test result were reported more frequently in the short pectoralis minor group. [Conclusion] Consideration of pectoralis minor length and scapular reposition test results could aid the identification of factors contributing to scapular dyskinesis and related shoulder injuries, thereby enabling the selection of appropriate interventions.
[Purpose] This study investigated spine kinematics during normal sitting and flexion sitting with lateral reaching using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. [Participants and Methods] Nineteen healthy young adult males participated in this study. While seated, each participant was asked to reach toward the right using his right hand. Spine angles were defined as T1, T4, T8, L1, and L5 segments. Kinematic data were calculated using the Euler angle and compared to normal sitting and flexion sitting. During flexion sitting, each participant wore a trunk flexion brace. [Results] In the frontal plane, the angle of the T8 segment during flexion sitting was significantly less than during normal sitting. In the axial plane, there were significant differences among the T4, L1, and L5 segments. [Conclusion] Changes in spinal alignment decrease spinal movement and change the movement strategy during lateral reaching while seated.
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of resistance exercise using the elastic band on the pain and function of patients with degenerative knee arthritis. [Participants and Methods] Thirty patients with degenerative knee arthritis were classified into an experimental group of 15 patients on whom resistance exercise using the elastic band was applied and a control group of 15 patients on whom conservative physical therapy was applied. Both groups received treatments three times a week for four weeks. Pain was measured by the visual analogue scale and function was evaluated by the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (K-WOMAC). [Results] The intragroup comparison showed significant decreases in the visual analogue scale and the K-WOMAC in both the experimental and control groups. In the intergroup comparison after treatment, the experimental group showed significantly lower visual analogue scale and K-WOMAC values than the control group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that resistance exercise using the elastic band is an effective intervention for the pain and function of patients with degenerative knee arthritis.
[Purpose] Light-touch support (consisting of a load <100 g) is useful for reducing postural sway while standing and walking. However, it is unclear which types of touch and somatosensory inputs are more effective for improving postural control. This study aimed to clarify the effects of active and passive light-touch support, with and without visual information, on postural stability during tandem standing. [Participants and Methods] Eleven young healthy adults maintained tandem standing for 30 s under six conditions. The independent variables were light-touch condition (no, active or passive) and visual condition (eyes open or closed). Postural sway, as measured using a force plate, was considered to indicate postural stability. [Results] There was significantly less postural sway with active light touch compared with passive and no touch. Passive light touch resulted in significantly less sway than no touch. In addition, there was less postural sway with active light compared to passive light touch, especially with the eyes closed. The light-touch support force did not differ between conditions. [Conclusion] Both active and passive light-touch improved postural stability in comparison to no-touch. Active light-touch support significantly improved postural stability. These results could be used to inform therapeutic interventions within clinical settings.
[Purpose] Low muscle mass and sleep disturbance are common among geriatric patients with cancer. In patients with gastrointestinal cancer, low muscle mass is considered an indicator of poor prognosis. In the recent years, sleep disturbance has attracted much attention as a factor for low muscle mass among community-dwelling elderly individuals; however, such associations are unclear in patients with cancer. The present study investigated the relationship between preoperative sleep disturbance and low muscle mass in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. [Participants and Methods] This cross-sectional survey enrolled 86 elderly patients (aged more than 60 years) with gastrointestinal cancer who were scheduled for curative surgery. Low preoperative muscle mass was defined according to Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Sleep disturbance was assessed using the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, including the subscales. [Results] Twenty-seven patients (31%) were classified as having low muscle mass. After adjusting for confounding factors, bad sleep quality, determined by the subscales, was significantly associated with low muscle mass. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that the evaluation of sleep quality is imperative for addressing low preoperative muscle mass in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.
[Purpose] This study investigated the interaction effects between the levels of smartphone use and hand dominance on handgrip, pinch strengths, and functional hand performance in children. [Participants and Methods] A total of 60 children aged between 9 and 15 were assigned into two groups: Group A (high-frequency smartphone users) and Group B (low-frequency smartphone users). Use levels were determined according to the smartphone addiction scale-short version. A hand dynamometer and pinch gauge were used to measure handgrip and pinch strength respectively. Functions of the upper extremity and hand were scored using the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire. [Results] Group A participants had reduced measurements in hand grip and pinch strength, especially in the dominant hand. However, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores indicated that hand function was decreased in the dominant hand whether the child was a high- or low-frequency smartphone user. [Conclusion] Results indicated that high levels of smartphone use diminished hand and pinch-grip strengths as well as and hand function. That is, hand and pinch-grip strengths were reduced in the dominant hands of high-frequency smartphone users. However, hand functions were affected in the dominant hands among both high and low-level smartphone users.
[Purpose] Individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience postural dysfunction, which can contribute to pain and an increased risk for falls. One method with limited research for addressing postural dysfunction is bracing. The objective of this pilot study was to establish the immediate impact of a novel thoracolumbar brace on postural alignment in individuals with PD. [Participants and Methods] This study utilized a single-participant randomized A-B design. Participants were included if they had a diagnosis of PD were 50–80 years of age, reported difficulty with posture, but were able to ambulate within their home and the community. Ten kinematic assessments of posture were completed in each phase. The primary outcome measure was postural alignment at the neck, trunk, and hip/knee. An analysis of postural stability and experience wearing the brace was also completed. [Results] Nine out of ten participants demonstrated at least one statistically significant change in a posture variable, but postural stability was variable across participants. [Conclusion] This pilot study demonstrated that the brace functioned as expected bringing postural alignment into a more neutral or extended position at the trunk and hip/knee. Further research on the long-term effect of the brace needs to be completed to determine its clinical value.
[Purpose] The obesity rate in both males and females has been lower in Japan than in other countries. However, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome-related risk factors is not low when compared with that in Western countries. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the health state of young, non-obese adults in Japan. [Participants and Methods] We recruited 20 young, non-obese Japanese male university students and examined the maximum oxygen consumption, physical activity, and components of metabolic syndrome. We evaluated the physical activity level and dietary habits of the participants through a questionnaire survey. [Results] The questionnaire survey revealed that 70% participants had non-standard dietary habits, 55% did not engage in any regular exercise, and 25% were inactive. On examination, 20% participants had at least one positive risk factor for metabolic syndrome. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and triglyceride values did not correlate with the body mass index of the participants; however, the values were inversely related to the maximum oxygen consumption levels. [Conclusion] Even participants with normal body mass index had poor dietary habits and a lack of exercise. Our results confirmed that even non-obese Japanese individuals have certain health risks and that having higher maximum oxygen consumption has beneficial effects in preventing the risk factors of severe and life-threatening diseases.
[Purpose] Hippotherapy is an unusual type of treatment and has been found to be effective for diseases of the musculoskeletal system and rehabilitation. Horseback riding simulator is used as a beneficial alternative to the real horse with utilizing an optical motion capture system and EEG. [Participants and Methods] The idea is to monitor body and brain behaviour of the professional rider and non-professional rider utilizing a horse simulator, using optical motion capture system to identify differences in pelvic region activity between professional and non-professional riders and EEG to investigate the brain effect of professional rider utilizing horseback riding simulator. [Results] For the monitoring body and brain behaviour of the professional rider and non-professional rider, two types of experiment were handled, the first experiment represents body behaviour and the second experiment represents brain behaviour. [Conclusion] The study shows, that inexperienced rider may make mistakes of pelvis movements that leads to the asymmetry in hip external rotation and back region. Also, the study of EEG provides that while horseback riding mostly frontal lobe is active, that refers to concentration, body movements and intelligence. Moreover, temporal and parietal lobes are highlighted that relates to sensor-motor cortex and moving which are needed during riding.