[Purpose] The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the diversity in infant crawling and examine the quantitative regularity in crawling variations necessary for the acquisition of walking in infants with typical development. [Participants and Methods] Infants with no neurological or orthopedic problems participated in this study. Using Internet Protocol (IP) cameras, crawling was simultaneously filmed from six different angles. Filming was continued until the acquisition of independent walking. The crawling movement in the video was coded. We considered the number of different completed codes as the number of variations and examined the cumulative number during the filming period in each participant. [Results] Nineteen infants completed the study. The pattern of change in the cumulative number of variations with increasing age (in days) varied between cases. Although the cumulative number of crawling variations at the time of acquisition of independent walking was inconsistent, it was negatively correlated with the crawling start age (in days). [Conclusion] Diversity exists in infant crawling. Infants who start crawling at a younger age tend to express more variation, whereas infants who start crawling when older tend to express less variation.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of flexi bar training model and moderate running exercise on health-related physical fitness in overweight adults. [Participants and Methods] Forty participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (20 participant performing flexi bar training model (FBT)) and control (20 participant performing moderate running exercise (MRE) group. The participant in both groups then underwent program training 50 min/day, 3 times a week, for 12 weeks. The main outcome measures were health related physical fitness (HRPF). [Results] The result showed significant differences between FBT and MRE group. After 12 weeks FBT showed improve HRPF variable. [Conclusion] flexi bar training model can improvement health related physical fitness in overweight adults.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to consider the correlation between ankle plantar flexor strength and leg extensor torque in order to investigate whether the leg extension torque can be expected to increase as the triceps surae muscle strength is increased. [Participants and Methods] Healthy adults of 30 males and 22 females were recruited. Hand Held Dynamometer was used to measure ankle plantar flexor strength. Strength Ergo 240 was used to measure leg extensor torque. After measurement, a correlation between these factors was investigated by gender. [Results] For both males and females, a significant positive correlation between the left and right ankle plantar flexor strength and leg extensor torque was observed. [Conclusion] Actively performing muscle strengthening exercises for ankle plantar flexor by physical therapists was found to be meaningful in increasing leg extensor torque.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of manual manipulation therapy on the pain and dysfunction of patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. [Participants and Methods] In this study, 30 patients with chronic back pain were evenly divided into an experimental group, who received manual traction therapy, and a control group, who received intermittent traction therapy. Both groups received therapy three times a week for eight weeks. A visual analogue scale was used to measure participants’ back pain, and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) was used to check the functional impediment they experienced as a result. [Results] The intragroup comparison showed that the visual analog scale and the ODI significantly decreased in the control group and the experimental group, respectively. The intergroup comparison after treatment showed that the visual analog scale and the ODI of the experimental group were significantly lower than in the control group. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that manual manipulation therapy is an effective intervention for treating pain and dysfunction in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis.
[Purpose] Arm swing is seldom considered while designing clinical rehabilitation protocols for hemiplegic patients with upper or lower extremity disabilities, likely due to the unclear role that arm swinging plays in the ability to walk. We, therefore, aimed to investigate the effect of arm swinging on walking abilities. [Participants and Methods] The study enrolled 20 healthy adults who performed a 10 m walking test with normal gait, single-arm restricted gait, both-arms restricted gait, and maximum arm-swing gait with one arm fixed in the Wernicke-Mann’s position. The walking time, number of steps taken, and pelvic fluctuation were measured for the four gaits. A fixed-trunk type arm sling was used for maintaining the Wernicke-Mann’s position. [Results] Velocity and stride length decreased significantly while walking with the single-arm restricted gait and both-arms restricted gait in comparison to normal gait. The maximum arm-swing gait showed no significant differences from normal gait in terms of cadence, velocity, and stride. Pelvic fluctuations also had no significant differences among all gaits. [Conclusion] Restricting movement of one or both arms limited the walking speed and stride; however, in Wernicke-Mann’s limb position, if the arm is intentionally swung, the walking speed and stride resembled that of normal gait.
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the thermal skin responses (thermal buildup and retention rate) to instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) procedures applied on hamstrings at different angles. [Participants and Methods] Thirty university students (age: 20 ± 4 years, weight: 70.61 ± 9.11 kg, height: 168.5 ± 7.5 cm) received three sessions of 10-min Ergon® IASTM treatment on their dominant limbs’ hamstrings at 20°, 60°, and 90° application angles, respectively. The skin temperature was measured with a thermometer immediately before and after treatment, and every minute thereafter until it returned to the baseline value. [Results] IASTM resulted in a significant increase in skin temperature irrespective of the application angle. The thermal retention rate produced by the treatment at a 90° angle was significantly higher than that produced by the 20° application angle (78.9 vs. 64.53 min). No significant differences were observed between the 60° and 90° angle applications (72.5 vs. 78.9 min). [Conclusion] IASTM application at 60° and 90° angles can increase and retain the hamstring’s skin temperature for more than an hour, creating the conditions for potential positive adaptations to local metabolism and muscle tone.
[Purpose] This study evaluated subjective posture recognition by physiotherapists with expertise in posture, examined the quantification of posture using a three-dimensional (3D) motion capture, and described posture-based characteristics. [Participants and Methods] We photographed good, normal, and bad postures in 12 participants using an infrared camera, and the resultant data were analyzed. [Results] We observed the largest displacement from a good to a bad posture in the tenth thoracic vertebra on the X-axis in the anterior–posterior direction in comparison with other index points. Further, we observed considerable differences between good and bad postures compared with other index points. Moreover, we noted significant differences between the amount of displacement between good to a normal posture and from a good to a bad posture. The vertical displacement of the Z-axis was smaller than other index points. [Conclusion] Th10 captured features from the three postures. The X-axis was displaced most between good and bad postures. Further, the amount of displacement on the Z-axis was less between good and bad posture, rendering it difficult to capture features. Therefore, the findings reported herein can be used to compare the front and rear directions of the X-axis for capturing postural changes.
[Purpose] To investigate the interaction between locomotion and improvements in performing self-care. [Participants and Methods] We retrospectively analyzed 930 patients with stroke who were registered in the Japanese Rehabilitation Database. We performed a correlation analysis to evaluate the relationships among all the collected data. Then, hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed using the self-care motor score of the Functional Independent Measure (FIM) as the dependent variable. “Model 1” used two independent variables (National Institute of Health Stroke and Rankin Scale), “model 2” used two independent variables (locomotion gain and gain of an item with the closest coefficient correlation added to model 1), and “model 3” used a mean-centering value, which was added to model 2. R2 values were calculated using a simple slope analysis. [Results] Locomotion showed an interaction with three self-care activities. The R2 changes in models 1 and 2 (ΔR2) were significant for dressing upper body (ΔR2=0.001), bowel management (ΔR2=0.006), and toileting (ΔR2=0.006). The results of the simple slope analysis were significant. [Conclusion] Locomotion demonstrated an interaction with various activities for improving self-care. There were varying degrees of improvement in self-care despite a uniform improvement in the degree of locomotion. Therefore, locomotion interaction should be considered for each intervention that targets activities of daily living.
[Purpose] External focus (EF) instructions demonstrate a learning effect on motor performance enhancement. However, the effective EF distance during standing long jump performance of non-athletes has not been clarified. This study aimed to determine the effects of EF at different distances on jumping performance. [Participants and Methods] A total of 40 non-athlete participants were randomly divided among four groups. The no attention line group performed a standing long jump without the attention line on the floor; those in the −20-cm EF group, the ± 0-cm EF group, and +20-cm EF group performed the jump attention line with an attention line 20-cm posterior, at ± 0 cm, and 20-cm anterior as the reference jump distances, respectively. [Results] The mean rate of increase between the first to second jump distances in the +20-cm EF group was higher than that in the no attention line group. The rates at which the jumpers reached the attention line in the ± 0-cm EF group and the +20-cm EF group were lower than the rate in the −20-cm EF group. [Conclusion] Instructions are more effective when the distance to the attention line exceeds jumping performance.
[Purpose] To investigate reliability and discriminant validity of a single question about total lying time for assessing physical inactivity in community-dwelling older people. [Participants and Methods] The participants were 54 healthy older individuals (mean age, 72.5 years), who were asked to recall retrospectively their mean total lying and sleep times per day in the previous week (7 days). The total lying and sleep times per day in the forthcoming week (7 days) were also investigated prospectively after confirming the mean total lying and sleep times per day in the previous week, and their mean values per day were calculated. [Results] Intraclass reliability of total lying and sleep times per day in the forthcoming week were acceptable [ICC (1, 1) for total lying time=0.835, ICC (1, 1) for sleep time=0.707]. No significant difference in average total lying time between the previous (8.4 ± 2.0 hours/day) and forthcoming (8.7 ± 1.7 hours/day) weeks was seen. In the forthcoming week, average total lying time was significantly higher than average sleep time (7.1 ± 1.3 hours/day). There was low significant correlation between total lying time and sleep time. [Conclusion] Total lying time can be measured with acceptable reliability and discriminant validity, and is a different outcome than sleep time in community-dwelling older adults.
[Purpose] In caregivers, low load posture is necessary to prevent lower back pain during patient handling activities such as sit-to-stand support. This study focused on the foot-position of caregivers as an adjustable and useful parameter. A wide stance decreases the stress on the lumbar vertebra. However, this foot-position increases loading of the spinae erector muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of anterior-posterior and lateral-medial distances between feet and activity of the spinae erector muscles to determine the optimal foot-position for reducing stress on the lumbar vertebra without increasing spinae erector muscle load. [Participants and Methods] Five young male participants were asked to provide sit-to-stand support 10 times using nine normalized foot-positions with different anterior-posterior and lateral-medial distances. Surface electromyograms of the erector spinae and lower limb muscles were measured during sit-to-stand support. [Results] The results showed that the optimal foot-position (anterior-posterior 55%, lateral-medial 20% of body height) increased muscle activity within the lower limb muscles compared with the lower back muscles and did not increase loads on the erector spinae muscle. [Conclusion] Optimizing foot-position can reduce stress on the lumbar vertebra without increasing load on the spinae erector muscles.
[Purpose] To further the understanding of dysfunctions to which a simulated experience method could be applied, we clarified whether a simulated experience method can promote caregivers to utilize the abilities of care recipients with pseudo-hemiplegia or pseudo-limited range of motion (ROM) in multiple joints. [Participants and Methods] We studied transfer assistance in 60 nursing assistants from nursing home settings: 30 were assigned to the pseudo-hemiplegia (26 females, 4 males) and limited ROM in multiple joints (27 females, 3 males) groups. One healthy person was fitted with orthotic braces to mimic hemiplegia or limited ROM in multiple joints, each making it difficult to stand-up. Participants were randomized to either a simulated experience group (involving interventional help from a physical therapist between the first and second measurements) or a control group. The load difference on the lower limbs of the care recipient between two rounds of transfer assistance was examined. [Results] The difference between the second and first measurements was −5.9 ± 74.5 N for the control group and 107.9 ± 123.6 N for the simulated experience method in the pseudo-hemiplegia study, and −14.7 ± 64.7 N and 149.1 ± 132.4 N, respectively, for the pseudo-limited ROM-in-multiple-joints study. [Conclusion] The simulated experience method promoted transfer assistance of a care recipient with pseudo-hemiplegia or pseudo-limited ROM in multiple joints. These results suggest that hemiplegia and limited ROM in multiple joints are added as dysfunctions that can be applied to a simulated experience method in transfer assistance.
[Purpose] To summarize the existing official guidelines issued by the World Confederation for Physical Therapy and Associations of Physical Therapy in various countries and to clarify the recommended methods of respiratory rehabilitation and physiotherapy for patients in different stages of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19). [Methods] An introductory literature search was conducted using the keywords “COVID-19”, “respiratory rehabilitation”, “physical therapy”, and others in the database of the Association of Physical Therapy. [Results] Using 12 coronavirus disease-2019 rehabilitation-related articles, we summarized data on physical therapy (PT) evaluation; treatment; indications; contraindications; and termination indicators for patients in acute, stable, and post-discharge stages. [Conclusion] PT for COVID-19 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 should be formulated according to the stage of the disease and condition of the patients.