There are clam Ruditapes Philippinarum fishing with active clam fry-released methods in Tokyo bay, Mikawa bay and Hiroshima bay because there are large demand of the clam in the hinterland of the three bays. There were a lot of natural seedy places near clam fishing grounds until 1960s, but natural seedy places have destroyed by reclamation in the three bays since 1970s. So fishermen had bought clam fry from other prefectures. Then, it became difficult to buy clam fry sufficiently since 1990 because clam fry supply from other prefectures has reduced.
But, fishermen have succeeded to collect and release local clam fry in 2000s by using cover net in Hiroshima bay and by reservation of natural seedy places in Mikawa bay, and clam production have increased in the two bays.
On the other hand, clam production has reduced by no release of local clam fry in Tokyo bay in 2000s because fishermen could not succeed to collect local clam fry. So fishermen must promote to collect local clam fry in order to recover the clam fishing in Tokyo bay. It is necessary to increase local clam fry that fishermen fix intensive clam fishing grounds for natural seedy places and improve inhabitable environment of natural seedy places like the case of Mikawa bay.
The purpose of this study is to clear up the conditions for keeping the number of young and middle aged fishermen connected with the structure of fishery in the islands. Generally, many fishing grounds around the islands are abundant in marine resources. But many people have left from the islands because there are few industries and employment chances. So the islands have faced very difficult conditions.
Kamishima Island is very small and a lot of young people left from this island in period of Japanese high economic growth rate. The aged fishermen have increased more and more in this island. But, we can look at many young and middle aged fishermen in Kamishima Island, comparatively.
Because communal control has become loosely, young and middle aged fishermen (returning from the city) can choice various kinds of fisheries under the common fishery rights. But, “IE System” which is most foundational unit in the community has been exists as before. Young and middle fishermen succeed to their self-employed fisheries under “IE System”, that is to say, they could have secured their employment chances by such conditions. Additionally, the fishery grounds around Kamishima Island have abundant in many kinds of marine resources. Marine resources have been conserved by communal management system for a long time. Accordingly, it is for this reason that many young and middle aged fishermen are had been kept comparatively in Kamishima Island.
Recently, the trend of “easy food” has become stronger. Then, highly processed food has become popular in our dayly life. On the other hand, the consumption of the traditional food as dried bonito must be shrinking. In this study, we tried to clarify the influence of the new “easy food” trend to the dried bonito industries that is very old and traditional.
In this industries, the big food processing companies have strong initiatives now. They make fuge number of “easy food” like instant soup with dried bonito bouillon in highly indutrialized way. Each of them has strong and persistent connection with the dried bonito factories. They purchased lots of dried bonito as materiel for their products. They prefer cheaper and stable materieals to high quality but expensive ones.
We have found the emergence of the new business category as manufacturers about instant bouillon. They try to gather materials from dried bonito factories from all over Japan. Then, they process them into intermediate materials for “easy food” like fish extract or powdered bouillon, and sell them to the big companies. This new business category plays very important role in very new dried bonito indutries. It has very specialized technology about fish extract. It connects dried bonito factories to big food processing companies.
In China, the production, consumption and distribution systems of cultured crabs have made a dramatic progress during the past decade. As the principal sector of a wholesale market, those wholesalers’ role which they played and market strategies designed to tackle above influences emerged as a academically-valued subject along with a rise of domestic market. In this paper, was chosen to conduct a field study aiming at investigating its distribution mechanism of cultured crabs within this market.
Firstly, its distribution pattern has been transferred from traditional consignment to buy-out dealership. Secondly, a tendency towards market segmentation is looming large today; meanwhile, its marketing network has been expanded larger.
The evolvement is a mirror of customers’ diversified needs across Chinese domestic aquatic market as well. In addition, the roles which wholesalers played and their identifications in the distribution network have been branched out, from traditional dealers to crabs culturists, even commercial carriers. Furthermore, professional purchase agent as a new sector emerged within aquatic wholesale market.
This study also found, those changes in distribution systems are weakening the intrinsic function and efficiency of traditional aquatic market silently.
Many inhabitants of coastal communities in Indonesia are heavily dependent on the sea for their life. The objectives of this study were (1) to describe the typical household income, (2) to determine the factors influencing in income generating activities, and (3) to identify participation level among respondents. Structured and semi-structured questionnaires were prepared to obtain qualitative data. Interviews were conducted with ex-SNRM participants. Findings show that household income of respondents was improved after having joining the SNRM. The respondents who had not gained enough income switched into more lucrative income-generating activities. Increased income could be attributed to seaweed culture and fish peddling. Finally, the business profitability encouraged respondents to diversify and participate in the SNRM activities.