In spite of the fact that radiotherapy is a common and effective tool for cancer treatment; the radio sensitivity of normal tissues adjacent to the tumor which are unavoidably exposed to radiation limits therapeutic gain. For the sake of improvement in radiation therapy, radiobiology- the study of the action of ionizing radiation on living things- plays a crucial role through explaining observed phenomena, and suggesting improvements to existing therapies. Due to the damaging effects of ionizing radiation, radiobiologists have long been interested in identifying novel, nontoxic, effective, and convenient compounds to protect humans against radiation induced normal tissue injuries. In hundreds of investigations, melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the chief secretory product of the pineal gland in the brain, has been documented to ameliorate the oxidative injuries due to ionizing radiation. This article reviews different features that make melatonin a potentially useful radioprotector. Moreover, based on radiobiological models we can hypothesize that melatonin may postpone the saturation of repair enzymes which leads to repairing more induced damage by repair system and more importantly allows the use of higher doses of radiation during radiotherapy to get a better therapeutic ratio. The implications of the accumulated observations suggest by virtue of melatonin's radioprotective and anticancer effects; it is time to use it as a radioprotector both for radiation workers and patients suffering from cancer either alone for cancer inhibition or in combination with traditional radiotherapy for getting a favorable efficacy/toxicity ratio during the treatment. Although compelling evidence suggests that melatonin may be effective for a variety of disorders, the optimum dose of melatonin for human radioprotection is yet to be determined. We propose that, in the future, melatonin improve the therapeutic ratio in radiation oncology.
We examined effects of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance and differentiation of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars. Wistar rats weighting 100 g were divided into three groups: non-irradiation group, local irradiation group, and whole body irradiation group. In the local irradiation group, a field made with lead blocks was placed over the maxillary left first molar tooth. In the whole body irradiation group, the animals were irradiated in cages. Both groups were irradiated at 8 Gy. The number of osteoclasts around the interradicular alveolar bone showed chronological changes common to non-irradiated and irradiated animals. Several osteoclasts appeared one day after tooth extraction, and the maximal peak was observed 3 days after extraction. Local irradiation had no difference from non-irradiated controls. In animals receiving whole body irradiation, tooth extraction one day after irradiation caused smaller number of osteoclasts than that 7 day after irradiation during the experimental period. Whole body-irradiated rats had small osteoclasts with only a few nuclei and narrow resorption lacunae, indicating deficiency of redioresistant osteoclast precursor cells. Injection of intact bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction recovered to some content the number of osteoclasts. These findings suggest that bone resorption in the wound healing of alveolar socket requires radioresistant, postmitotic osteoclast precursor cells from hematopoietic organs, but not from local sources around the alveolar socket, at the initial phase of wound healing.
We examined whether low dose radiation (LDR) exposure (75 mGy) could increase the therapeutic efficacy of cyclophosphamide (CTX) by comparing the effects of tumor suppression, tumor cell apoptosis, cell cycle and proliferation of bone marrow in vivo. Kunming mice implanted with S180 sarcoma cells were given 75 mGy whole body γ-ray radiation exposure and CTX (300 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection 36 hours after LDR. Proliferation of bone marrow and tumor cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytochrome c leakage from the tumor was measured by Western-blot. We discovered that tumor growth was significantly reduced in the group exposed to CTX add to LDR. The apoptosis of tumor cells increased significantly after LDR. The tumor cells were arrested in G1 phase in the groups treated with CTX and CTX + LDR, but cell cycle was more significantly arrested in mice exposed to LDR followed by CTX than in mice exposed only to LDR or CTX chemotherapy. Concentration of bone marrow cells and proliferation index in CTX + LDR mice were higher than those in the untreated mice. LDR or CTX + LDR could induce greater cytochrome c levels and caspase-3 activity in tumors. These results suggest that low dose radiation can enhance the anti-tumor effect of the chemotherapy agent CTX markedly. Furthermore, LDR significantly protects hematopoetic function of the bone marrow, which is of practical significance on adjuvant chemotherapy.
It has been long stated that cellular inactivation through neutron irradiation is mainly caused by energy deposition in DNA molecules from recoiled secondary charged particles. Complexities associated with neutrons, such as the generally broad energy spectrum and the inherently wide energy spectrum of the induced charged particles, not to mention that the dependence of cellular inactivation by charged particles on radiation quality is yet to be fully understood, make it difficult to check this statement. Recently a molecular model has been proposed that improves the quantitative explanation of the dependence of cellular inactivation by charged particles on radiation quality. An attempt was made to apply this model for analysis of neutron cellular inactivation. As a preliminary result it is suggested that neutron cellular inactivation is caused not only by secondary charged particles but also by an "atomic deletion" effect, generated by a stripped atom recoiling from a DNA molecule. This effect seems to be of significant importance, the inactivation cross section of this effect for fission neutrons is as much as 15% (aerobic conditions) or 55% (hypoxic) of the total, and the severity of one occurrence of atomic deletion by a single neutron is estimated as much as 3.1 ± 1.1 times (aerobic) or 6.8 ± 1.2 times (hypoxic) higher than the severity of one event by a single track of a charged particle interacting with DNA.
Tinospora cordifolia (RTc) has already been reported to protect whole-body lethally irradiated mice. This study has focussed on certain aspects of immuno-competence, which are adversely affected by irradiation. This study included estimation of spleen size, cell count, DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in splenocytes. The adherence, spreading and phagocytic activities of macrophages were also assessed. Cytokines in serum and anti-oxidants in plasma were also estimated. Administration of RTc (200 mg/kg.b.wt.) one hour before irradiation showed recovery of spleen weight from 49% of control in irradiated group to 93%; apoptosis from 19% to 2.8%; DNA fragmentation from 43% to 20.4%; macrophage adherence form 75% of control to 120% and macrophage spread size from 8 μm to 15 μm. RTc also stimulated proliferation in splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner. RTc administration before irradiation also increased levels of IL-1β and GM-CSF levels, from 56 pg/ml and 53 pg/ml respectively in irradiated group to 59 pg/ml and 63 pg/ml. Similarly, radiation-induced decrease of anti-oxidant potential of plasma (32 Fe2+ equiv.) as compared to control (132 Fe2+ equiv.) was countered by administration of RTc before irradiation (74.2 Fe2+ equiv.) RTc treatment thus reveals several radio-protective mechanisms.
This study was conducted in order to evaluate the cytotoxicity of high linear-energy-transfer (LET) ionizing radiation (IR) on glioblastoma cells and fibroblasts using different modes of cell inactivation assays. Two human glioblastoma cell lines with or without p53-mutation, and fibroblasts were used as materials. Gamma rays and 290 MeV/u carbon beams with LET values of 20, 40, 80 keV/μm were used. To evaluate cell inactivation, we used colony formation assay, morphological detection of apoptosis, and flow-cytometry. Serial expressions of p53 and p21 were analyzed by immunoblotting. High-LET IR reduced the reproductive potency of these cells to identical levels in spite of differences in gamma-sensitivity, and yield of cell death correlated to LET values. A p53-wild-type glioblastoma cell line demonstrated a higher yield of apoptosis than other cell lines, whereas fibroblasts hardly displayed any cell death indicating senescence-like growth arrest even after high LET IR. A p53-mutant tumor cell line demonstrated very low yield of cell death with prominent G2/M arrest. Results of radiosensitivity differ according to what mode of cell inactivation is selected. While fibroblasts depend on G1 block after IR, G2/M blocks may play crucial roles in the radioresistance of p53-mutant glioblastoma cells.
Evidence is accumulating that irradiated cells produce some signals which interact with non-exposed cells in the same population via a bystander effect. Here, we examined whether DMSO is effective in suppressing radiation induced bystander effects in CHO and repair deficient xrs5 cells. When 1 Gy-irradiated CHO cells were treated with 0.5% DMSO for 1 hr before irradiation, the induction of micronuclei in irradiated cells was suppressed to 80% of that in non-treated irradiated cells. The suppressive effect of DMSO on the formation of bystander signals was examined and the results demonstrated that 0.5% DMSO treatment of irradiated cells completely suppressed the induction of micronuclei by the bystander effect in non-irradiated cells. It is suggested that irradiated cells ceased signal formation for bystander effects by the action of DMSO. To determine the involvement of reactive oxygen species on the formation of bystander signals, we examined oxidative stress levels using the DCFH staining method in irradiated populations. The results showed that the treatment of irradiated cells with 0.5% DMSO did not suppress oxidative stress levels. These results suggest that the prevention of oxidative stress is independent of the suppressive effect of DMSO on the formation of the bystander signal in irradiated cells. It is suggested that increased ROS in irradiated cells is not a substantial trigger of a bystander signal.
Use of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) in combination with radiotherapy to radio-sensitize the tumor tissue is undergoing clinical trials. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of 2-DG on radiation induced radioresistance (RIR) in normal cells. The sub-lethal radiation dose to the normal cells at the periphery of target tumor tissue is likely to induce radioresistance and protect the cells from lethal radiation dose. 2-DG, since, enters both normal and tumor cells, this study have clinical relevance. A diploid respiratory proficient strain D7 of S. cerevisiae was chosen as the model system. In comparison to non-pre-irradiated cultures, the cultures that were pre-exposed to low doses of UVC (254 nm) or 60Co-gamma-radiation, then maintained in phosphate buffer (pH 6.0, 67 mM), containing 10 mM glucose (PBG), for 2-5 h, showed 18-35% higher survivors (CFUs) after subsequent exposure to corresponding radiation at lethal doses suggesting the radiation induced radioresistance (RIR). The RIR, in the absence of 2-DG, was associated with reduced mutagenesis, decreased DNA damage, and enhanced recombinogenesis. Presence of 2-DG in PBG countered the low dose induced increase in survivors and protection to DNA damage. It also increased mutagenesis, altered the recombinogenesis and the expression of rad50 gene. The changes differed quantitatively with the type of radiation and the absorbed dose. These results, since, imply the side effects of 2-DG, it is suggested that new approaches are needed to minimize the retention of 2-DG in normal cells at the time of radiation exposure.
The prevention and management of bacterial infection are the mainstays of therapies for irradiation victims. However, worries about adverse effects arise from gut commensal flora depletion owing to the broad-spectrum antibiotics treatment. In the present study, we investigated the effects of gut bacteria depletion on the mice receiving total-body irradiation (TBI) at a single dose of 12 Gy. One group of mice was merely exposed to TBI but was free of antibiotic treatment throughout the experiment, while the other two groups of mice were additionally given broad-spectrum antibiotics, either from 2 weeks before or immediately after irradiation. The survival time of each animal in each group was recorded for analysis. Results showed that the mean survival time of mice was longest in the group without antibiotic treatment and shortest in the group treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics from 2 weeks before TBI. In conclusion, our data suggested that depletion of gut commensal bacteria with broad-spectrum antibiotics seemed deleterious for mammals receiving lethal TBI.