日本ロボット学会誌
Online ISSN : 1884-7145
Print ISSN : 0289-1824
ISSN-L : 0289-1824
15 巻 , 5 号
選択された号の論文の26件中1~26を表示しています
  • 新井 史人
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 657
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 嘉数 侑昇
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 658-662
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 伊庭 斉志
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 663-666
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 福田 敏男, 久保田 直行
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 667-670
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 沼岡 千里
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 671-674
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 村田 智
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 675-679
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 多賀 厳太郎
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 680-683
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 石黒 章夫, 内川 嘉樹
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 684-688
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 松原 仁, 野田 五十樹
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 689-692
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 太田 順, 新井 民夫
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 693-697
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 金子 健二
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 698
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 第1報 マウスの動力学的走行シミュレーション
    遠山 茂樹, 村久木 康夫
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 703-709
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    近年, 産業界では工場の自動化に伴い定置式の産業用ロボットに代わる移動機能を備えた自律移動ロボットや無人搬送車などへの要望が強くなってきている. これらは, その移動機構により車輪式, クローラ式, 特殊機構などの3種類に分けられるが, なかでも車輪式のものが他の機構と比べてエネルギー効率が良く, 機構が簡単であることから最もよく利用されている. さらに車輪式自律移動ロボットには, 2駆動1キャスタ (2DWlC), 1駆動1操舵 (1DWlS), 全方向移動車などがある.
    このような車輪式自律移動車は, タイヤと路面との摩擦力で運動を行っている. このためタイヤと路面の間には必ず滑りが生じ, その運動を不確かなものにしている. 車輪式自律移動車に関する研究においては, 位置決め制御や軌道追従制御などの研究結果が数多く発表されてきたが [1]-[3], タイヤの滑りや移動機構を含めた動力学的なシミュレーションを行い, それら評価を行った研究結果はほとんど発表されていない. また, その移動機構の設計においては, 経験的に設計されたものがほとんどである.
    本研究の目的は, 移動車両の動力学的なシミュレーションを行うことによって, 移動機構の構造やタイヤの性質が, 車両の運動性能に及ぼす影響を明らかにするとともに, 軌道追従制御の評価を行い, その結果を最適設計に役立てることである. その一環として本研究では, 当研究室で開発を行ってきた汎用の機構の運動解析シミュレータA1 MOTIONに, タイヤの力学に基づいたタイヤの力要素およびタイヤを駆動するDCモータの力要素, 減速機をモデル化したものを組み込み, 車輪式自律移動車の走行シミュレーションを行うことができるシミュレータの開発を行った.
    そして, 本シミュレータの有用性を検証するために, 前輪キャスタ方式のマウス (小型自律移動車) の走行実験を行い, シミュレーションによる走行結果との比較を行った. その結果, このシミュレータはマウスの運動をうまく再現できるという結論を得ることができた. そして, 本シミュレータを用いて, タイヤの剛性, ホイールベース, 車軸幅, キャスタ半径などがその運動性能にどのような影響を与えるのかについて明らかにし, 軌道追従制御の評価を行った.
  • 方法論と機械モデルの実体化
    尾形 哲也, 菅野 重樹
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 710-721
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    The objective of this work is to develop a new robot intelligence for human-machine communication and environment-machine interaction based on the self-preservation function which should be involved in human mind. In this paper, the system chart expressing the human brain information processing, and the development of an autonomous mobile robot “WAMOEBA-1R” (Waseda Artificial Mind On Emotion BAse) are described. The concept of the WAMOEBA-1R design is that robots should have Self-Preservation Evaluation Function as an emotion function. Further more, the method to evaluate the whole system are described from the viewpoint of the animal psychology. As a result of the experiments, WAMOEBA-1R showed specific reactions with color emotion appearances to some simulations. WAMOEBA-1R had the sense of values about colors and sounds based on Self-Preservation, and achieved new type human-machine communications by expressing an emotion color.
  • かみしめを伴う開閉口運動制御
    中嶋 新一, 小林 祐司, 林 豊彦, 小林 博
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 722-727
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    Human mastication is performed by coordinated motions of several muscles attached to the jaws. To clarify the functions of these muscles, we have developed a jaw movement simulator (JSN/S1). The simulator consists of a 2DOF mechanism and four muscle actuators, capable of realizing jaw movements in a sagittal plane. The actuator is a cable-tendon driven by DC-servo motor, which is controlled under a compliance control scheme to obtain viscoelastic characteristics of the muscle. In order to simulate life-like clenching motion, we attempted to control the position and force at the incisal point, by incorporating position/force sensors to that point, and employing a neural-network based learning control scheme. Consequently, the trajectory and force at the incisal point were successfully converged into desired value through learning process.
  • 中村 仁彦, 来島 正一郎
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 728-735
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper describes an efficient computation algorithm of the marginal external force space of the power grasp. A general computational algorithm of the space is provided for the 3-dimensional grasp with multiple contacts including defective contacts by a multi-fingered robot hand. Evaluation of the marginal external force space requires the computation of convex hull in a 6-dimensional space, which is known to have O(n⌊(d+1)/2⌋) computational complexity. For more realistic evaluation, we propse to compute the 3-dimensional section of the marginal external force space, and establish its computational scheme. Numerical examples, for 3-dimensional grasp by a 3-fingered robot hand, illustrate the efficiency and usefulness of the proposed algorithms.
  • 前田 貴信, 中村 政俊, 久良 修郭
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 736-743
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    A method for synchronous position control of mechatronic servo system of multiple axes was required to attain a high accuracy performance of contour control in sealing process, laser cutting and so on. Accurate contour control method for multi link robot arm was proposed by using synchronous position of mutual axes. The proposed method was evaluated by experiment of actual multi link robot arm and its simulation study under disturbed torque circumstance, and then showed satisfactory performance.
  • 武藤 伸洋, 下倉 健一朗
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 744-751
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    New methods for teaching and controlling contour-tracking tasks based on contact sensing are developed to improve robotic machining. Accurate contact point detection is introduced to estimating a work contour path with high reliability. The framework is described that control references for a robotic manipulator are calculated from the estimated work contour path and task specifications. Then, teaching methods are developed assuming that the contact sensing method is applied to obtain the work contour path in teaching process and to obtain the path during task execution. These teaching methods reduce the effort for task teaching and improve adaptability to handle changes in task specifications without re-teaching. Real-time contour tracking control using this contact sensing to suppress work uncertainties in process is presented. Experimental results for practical grinding tasks using a 6 DOF manipulator validate our methods.
  • ORANGES Systemの開発
    木下 源一郎, 蒔田 憲和, 出澤 正徳
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 752-758
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper describes the prototype of an optical range sensor with circular scanning of a beam spot and its fundamental characteristics. The prototype sensor: ORANGES system whose name is an abbreviation of an Optical RANGE Sensor system provides with a function of an optical range sensing at each point sequentially along a circular path, which is a locus on the surface of an object generating by the circular scanning of a beam spot.
    ORANGES system is made up by both mechanisms of generating the circular scanning of a laser beam spot and measuring distance to it. The former mechanism is provided for the projection of a laser beam spot onto the surface of object along the circular path. The latter mechanism is constructed by four devices with a collecting cylindrical lens mounted on the PSD sensors at perpendicular intersection each other. Each device is capable of detecting the x or y axis components of a distance from the displacement of the image of a light spot on each PSD sensor by triangulation. The range data are taken from the two devices which are selected by the combination of the x and y axis components in the four devices. Moreover, ORANGES system is capable to do the range sensing from four different directions to the same laser beam spot.
    The experimental results confirm the accuracy of range as less than ±0.2 [mm] (±3σ, σ: standard deviation, in a dark room) in the range of 30-60 [mm] and also ±2.0 [mm] (±3σ) in the range of 60-100 [mm].
  • 三河 正彦, 吉田 耕一, 久保 田学, 森光 武則
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 759-765
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper describes a new observation system for monitoring the operation of a micro machine, and a controller based on the visual servoing method for controlling a micro machine. The proposed observation system has only one CCD camera. However, it can be converted into a stereo vision system by using two mirrors. By using the new controller, systems can be controlled based on visual information on image planes rather than in three dimensional space. Our two proposed methods result in a system that is highly accurate, simple and inexpensive. Experimental results on a prototype system reveal the validity and effectiveness of the observation system and the controller based on the visual servoing method.
  • 江口 郁子, 佐藤 知正, 森 武俊
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 766-772
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper deals with computerized description of medical care, a new way to support medical information processing, and also shows its feasibility by experimenting visual understanding of medical care by a doctor. Computerized description of medical care supports collecting medical information by sensing and inputting the doctor's behavior automatically into a computer during medical care. The computer senses the doctor's behavior using visual, aural and force sensors, and uses these sensor outputs to understand what care is being performed. The visual understanding of medical care is a core function of the computerized description of medical care. Taking application of medicine to the ear, nose and throat in otolaryngology clinics as a typical example, visual understanding of medical care is successfully performed. The experiment showed that visual behavior understanding is more easily realized by monitoring objects used for behavior than by conventional method of monitoring the persons. Computerized description of medical care in this paper will contribute to improve the quality of medical service by reducing the burden of medical information inputting and recording on doctors.
  • CPS-II型システムの最適化移動形態
    倉爪 亮, 広瀬 茂男, 岩崎 倫三, 長田 茂美, 指田 直毅
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 773-780
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    Several position identification methods have been used for mobile robots. Dead reckoning is a popular method, but is not reliable for the measurement in long distances especially on uneven surfaces because due to the accumulation error of wheel diameter and slippage. The landmark method, which estimates current position relative to landmarks, cannot be used in an uncharted environment. We have proposed a new method called “Cooperative Positioning System (CPS).” For CPS, we divide the robots into two groups, A and B. One group, A, remains stationary and acts as a landmark while group B moves. Group B then stops and acts as a landmark for group A. This “dance” is repeated until the target position is reached. CPS has a far lower accumulation of positioning error than dead reckoning, and can work in three-dimensions which is not possible with dead reckoning. Also, CPS has inherent landmarks and therefore works in uncharted environments. In previous papers, we introduced the second prototype CPS machine model named CPS-II and its experimental result. In this paper, we show the relationship between the configuration of moving robots in CPS-II and its' positioning accuracy using analytical technique and propose optimum moving strategy to minimize positioning error even after robots move long distances.
  • 中垣 博文, 高橋 裕信, 末廣 尚士, 小笠原 司
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 781-788
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    Calibration is most important to manipulate an object correctly by hand-eye system. In this paper, we propose a method of hand-eye system calibration by using conic pattern, when the cameras are fixed at environment. Hand-eye calibration is implemented by measuring a center of gravity of the conic pattern on a hand of a manipulator by using calibrated stereo vision. Finally, we analyze the error of the calibration.
  • 松野 文俊, 神澤 貴雄
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 789-794
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this paper, stability analysis and robust control of a force-controlled arm having a rigid tip body, of which the mass centerr lies on the central axis of the arm. We consider link flexibility as uncertainty and derive dynamic equations of the force-controlled arm. As the obtained boundary condition is nonhomogeneous, we introduce a change of variables to derive homogeneous boundary conditions. On the basis of a finite-dimensional modal model of distributed-parameter systems, stability of the force feedback is analyzed by using the root locus technique, and an optimal controller with low-pass property as a robust controller is constructed. Simulations have been carried out.
  • 石井 抱, 石川 正俊
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 795-801
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    To realize a haptic function in engineering system, how to decide the motion of a tactile sensor for the sensing purpose is important, as well as the development of tactile sensors. We define such a “motion of tactile sensor for sensing” as a haptic motion in engineering, and argue its necessity in this paper. In particular, we note that a tactile sensor cannot get any information without contact between the sensor and the object, and argue that haptic motions are necessary not only in the case that the object is much bigger than the sensor but in the case that the sensor has the same or much bigger size of the object. As one form of such haptic motions, we propose a haptic motion of distributed tactile sensor for obtaining tactile pattern and analyze our proposed motion mathematically.
  • 橋本 稔, ゴドレール ・イヴァン
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 802-806
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the case of harmonic drive gears the load torque can be sensed from a flexible part of the gear. A method by using strain gages was proposed, but is not widely utilized due to insufficient accuracy and residual ripple. We analyze the errors and propose arrangement of the strain gages which improves both the accuracy and the ripple of the torque sensing to 1% level of the gear torque capacity.
  • 森実 克, 山田 誠二, 豊田 順一
    1997 年 15 巻 5 号 p. 807-810
    発行日: 1997/07/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this research, our goal is that a mobile robot learns to move between subgoals without human interactions. The robot does not have knowledge on the environment: positions of subgoals and obstacles. Unfortunately, the robot learning is unavoidably influenced by the errors in a real world. We suggest how to learn to move efficiently between subgoals by resetting errors. In our system, we define the distinctive place on which the movement control of a robot changes from sensor-based to coordinates-based. The distinctive place is identified only with local information, and the cumulative errors through the movement between two subgoals are reset on distinctive places. First, the robot moves to search for subgoals. Next, it moves between subgoals repeatedly, and learns to move efficiently. We made some experiments in a real environment. In the experiments, we found out that the robot's movement was gradually improved by learning.
feedback
Top