The results of the tests indicate the following characteristics: 1) We made a simple power rotating cutters for weeds and grass named E 53-I type. 2) We made and tested 7 types cutters; a straight knife, a convex knife, a concave knife, a circular knife with a vertical shaft, a circular knife with a horizontal shaft, a square knife with 4 sickles adn a new type curved knife with vertical surface. 3) These cutters have a merit and a defect respectively. But the last one looks to do the best work, this can cut the weeds and grass smoothly and make the windrow on one side of the machine.
Correct decision of diameter of conduit pipe of a waterwork is very important for full supply of water, but very troublesome. In many cases, the pipe line of the small scale water service such one as in farm village is simple, and it is rather easy to calculate the diameter. But, normal calculation of the diameter by means of dischage of water supplied per one person per day (q) results in very small on account of it's small population. This can'nt spply full water at peak time. Then, writer tried an another way and estimated the diameter with Cosmogrope's Equivalent Table of pipes in order to simplify the calculation and checked after that. The diameter of small branch pipe lead to each house from the conduit pipe was taken as the basis instead of mean quantity of water (q). The water service of T-mura, Mie-ken was taken as an example. The result of this estimation is as follows, 1. Fig. 1 is the pipe line of this case. 2. Table 3 is the result of each interval of two cases when 13m/m and 20m/m pipe was respectively used as a small branch pipe. 3. Loss of head due to pipe friction is neglesible for mean maximum quantity of water (q″).(Table 4) 4. Discharge at each point (the beginning of branch pipe) is satisfactorily large.(Table 5) Time to full a bathtub (180 lit.) is shown at bottom of the table. 5. when large discharge and high head can be taken, hydrants must be added in this plan. In this case, water for each house is neglesibly small for calculation. (600 lit, per min, is needed for a hydrant for Japanse house).
Usually, the reactive force of the wheel in rotation, is indicated of ωr=μr⋅G(kg) and the coefficient of resistance is μr=s/r=sin θ. Affecting point of the vertical reactive force in soil, is upon the wheel, crossed of parrallel line at 1/3S from the vertical line, that drawn from the center of the wheel to earth. But actually, the vector of reactive force of soil, is pass the center of the wheel always, therefore, we must be concerned about the affecting point of the compound vector, that is vertical and horizontal reactive force of soil resistance. Affecting point of the vector of horizontal reactive force of soil is upon the wheel, crossed of parallel line at 1/3d under from the earth line. Therefore, at the case of d=r, the affecting point is become the center point of arc A-B, and even if, at the out of case, the point is near the center of the arc, attaching to the soil. From this result, we know the formula of reaction of the wheel in rotation is indicated of next formula. ωr=G⋅sinθ/2(kg) μr=sin θ/2
In these studies, essential parts of typical forms of power tillers produced in our country, were to make clear in taking pictures. 1) Under the difficulty of giving the accurate names of curve for movement locus, we found trochoid curve which had deep loop in movement locus of tiller's edge by using Rotary type's and Screw type's and abnormal spiral curve by using Crank type's and trochoid curve which had the same loop. 2) In running equipments we found cycloid curve by using wheel type's, and flat parabola curve by using caterpillar type's. 3) In consequence of analysis for the construction of cultivated earth with power tiller we found much rough clod in the upper part with Rotary type's and Screw type's, but otherwise we found much fine clod in the lower part with these type's. Then we found less difference in phenomena with crank type's than with them. 4) In running equipments, the strong point was appeared to rubber wheel as soil was hard, but iron wheel was suited to opposite case. 5) Between wheel type and caterpillar type, the latter was generally found greater shock of vibration than the former, and seemed to make worse effect to the machine.
(1) Surveying 22 villages in 9 areas of Hiroshima prefecture, we analysed ecologically the famers' technique about the ridge hilling in muddy fields by Japanese plow (suki). (2) Such subjective intentions of farmers, as they determine the methods of ridge-hilling chiefly by the depth of soils, capacity of drawing animals, references to succeeding operations and areal customs, are carried out either directly or indirectly. (3) The efficiency of ridge-hilling is determined directly by the capacity of drawing animals and the utilizing method of implements, and indirectly by the conditions belonging to areas, farm management and fields.
The Electrical Moister Meter for grain of RC-relaxation oscillation circuit is constructed with a tubular condenser (Capacity 0.1μF) and a neon glow discharge tube, and need not use an ammeter and a voltmeter so that it is very simple, stable and handy. I took paddy and rough rice as a materials for study and calibrated in comparison with the absolute drying method (105°C 8 days). The results of the laboratory work is as fallows-This Electrical Moisture Meter, as a rule, has accuracy of ±0.5 percent. The possible range to use is 11-19 percent (WB) in moisture content grain. It is free to use for electric sourcer either DC or AC within 100-200V. DC, 60-125V. AC.
Re-scrutinized on the condition of the volcanic light sails for the purpose of learning the mechanism of the stickiness of soil on the plow bottom. Generaly think, the classification of the volcanic light soils is Clay Loam or Clay, but granting that we regard a unit particle of soil as the aggregate, volcanic light soils belong, not so much to the Clay Loam or Clay as to the Sand or Sandy Loam, for that is destroyed or croocked. Then this sort of soils shoud be estimate, as sandy properties. I had considered to the mechanism of the stickiness of soils on the plow bottom, by this properties.
We studied on the most efficiencial method of the pest control. On this test, we used an axial flow type power duster for trial, and tested on various items on the places 5-70m. away from the machine, those items are control effect for disease of sweet potato, amount of deposited dust, and appearances of dust particles, under various climatic conditions. Amount of deposited dust was calculated from copper content in it. Dust particles were measured sizes and numbers by using microscope. Then we calculated coverd area using them. The results are as follows: 1) We think the favorable wind velosity is about 1.0m. per sec. 2) Effect of the pest control on the places 30-70m. away was unifromly but unsatisfactory. 3) The control effect has same tendency to the coverd area, therefore the method of coverd area can be applied for a method in the pest control test. 4) One of the relations between the size of particle and its travelling distance is given below. By using this formula travelling distances of sprayedd and dusted particles, even if they are large or small sizes, can be calculated easily and immediately, Then x; travelling distance m; mass of particle
H; height of nozzle ρ1; density of particle
V0; velocity of Jet at nozzle r; radius of particle
Vx; velocity of flying particle η; coefficient of viscosity of air
On the vibration isolation of the agricultural engine, I studied the vibration isolating method with used the rubber absorber on the Foundation Frame within doors. The rubber absorber which used to this experiment, is the trapezoidal cylindrical type with 57kg/cm spring constant, and the circular plate type with 120-180kg/cm spring constant from the compression, test. The resonant limit was calculated with the theoretical formula of compressive and shearing direction of rubber. Stillmore, it was added the damping ability to this, requested the transmissibility and calculated the transmitting force through the rubber of “Katsura” engine vibration force. At this results, the resonant is 500 engine r. p. m. in compressive direct. and 200 r. p. m. in shearing direct. at the trapezoidal cylindrical type, 700-800 r. p. m in compressive direct. and 400-500 r. p. m. in shearing direct. at the circular plate type. When the damping ability was considered, the resonant point was fall down but I known that this is unnecessary under high speed driven. On the experiment, rubber was disposed in many ways and it was measured for engine and frame vibration amplitudes, then it was inspected for this result of each direction and compared the theoretical consideration with another.
1. One of the foundamental difference between European plow and Japanese plow exists in Continuity of Furrow Slice. The Furrow made by the former is continuous though that made by the latter is not continuous but is separated in some definite length. 2. This is a theoretical and experimental research about Furrow sliding upon the surface of plow body. For experiment writer used flat steel plate as the model of plow body. 3. Furrow will slide by shearing at the lower end when it ascend on the plate by some length. The sliding angle (β) of Furrow is calculated by next equation, β=π/4-α/2-γ/2 where, α is the inclination angle of steel plate and γ is angle of internal friction of the soil. 4. The ascending length (x) of Furrow at shearing time, is increasing function of α usually. But in experiment which is performed on special condition, there is minimum value of x at some definite value of α. 5. The value of x increase with the depth (h) of Furrow, angle of internal friction (γ) and cohesion. (c), but will decrease with friction angle (θ) and adhesion (e) between Furrow and steel plate. 6. By adding weight on the Furrow sliding upon the plate, the value of x decrease, but it increase by putting weight on the front ground near the plate.
Authors made a wire strain gauge by themselves and practised measurements on the stress of a plow and a cultivator with it, gaining the following results. 1. Calculating formula of curved beam is more reasonable than that of usual beam for application to the tested cultivator-shank. 2. The total draft of cultivator acts through the hitch-point. 3. A group of principal stress lines on moldboard runs along the trace of movement of furrow-slice. It seems to be certain that the further investigation. should be claimed for these tests, due to a defect of the meter, but anthers could measured rather easily and could have the hope to use it for many researches on the farm machinery.
Authers researched distribution of threshed materials under the concave-sieve of a power threshing machines in order to study the function of the threshing cylinder. As a result, they obtained the following: 1. The type of distribution of grains is almost determined by the operating conditions and threshing method. For instance, W-figure type of distribution is shown at one-man operating, and V-figure type at two-men operating. 2. The process of distribution consists of the lower effect and the higher. The former is influenced by r. p. m. of cylinder, and the latter by arrangement of cylinder teeth, etc.
We tested the main characters of the straw-rope and the roper, and results obtained in test are as follows. When the lower twist pitch equaled to upper twist, the deformation of the shape of the rope is a litte and such ropes are most safe. When the lower twist brying on 0.4 to 0.6 pitch per 1 pitch of upper twist with 7 to 9 pitches per 30cm in length at 10φ rope, the tensile strength. attain to about maximum, The turning slip between the rolling disk and the friction roller increased according as increasing the diameter or the turning speed of the rolling drum, and such relations are showed by curved line at the former, and straight line the later.
Three different types of driving mechanism of the cutter bar-knife, with which a small-sized reaping machine is to be reasonably equipped, have been studied with cutting graphs. The results obtained are as follows: 1) Skew-crank mechanism may be suitablle for knife drive, as far as the skew ratio e/L is small, being capable of driving a bar-knife without a hitch. As the ratio is getting larger, however, the movement of the knife becomes unsmoothy, changing it into a quick return motion. A′ type shown in Fig. 1 may be best for the knife drive. 2) Oscillating slider-crank mechanism is mostly unsuitable for driveing the knife, it brings forth a wide variation of knife speed at reciprocation. B′ type, nearly equal to A′ one, may to some extent. be recommended. 3) Lever-crank mechanism is thought fit only when the extension line connecting between the both. ends of a lever passes the center of a crank wheel.
As the first trial of fundamental experimental analysis of winnower, the author measured the velocity and its distribution at exit, changing the fixed angle of fan plate (θ) at seven kinds and revolution (n) at five kinds. Outer diameter of fan is constantly 380mm. The study reported in this paper has led to the following general conclusions; 1. Relation between velocity distribution of wind and fixed angle of plate is shown in Fig. 2, (a) to (g). At large angles of plate and high revolutions, velocity distribution shows very turblent state, air flow becomes unsteady. 2. At backward angles, lateral veolcity distribution curves show concave, but conversely, they show convex upward at forward angles. Under v=6m/sec at θ=0° and backward 20°, velocity distribution is, averaged and ideal for actual work. 3. Speaking about vertical distribution, lower velocities are larger than upper ones at backward, but they are opposit at forward. 4. Mean velocity of whole section (vm) don't change so plainly against angle of plate as shown in Fig. 3 (A), but proportional to revolution. Fig. 3 (B) shows the proportional constant (a) which defined by equation (3). In this experiment, mean value of vm of seven fixed angles is nearly equal to 0.01 namely vm is about one hundredth of revolution. (n) under error of 7 to 8 per cent. 5. From 2 to 4 discribed above, we can say that (i) fixed angle of plate has influence upon velocity distributions, but (ii) doesn't influence mean velocity of whole section. Quantity of air discharged is not changed by angle of plate. 6. Power consumed by air resistance of plates doesn't change so widely by angle, but as shown in Fig. 3 (C), it increases rapidly against revolution.