In the field characteristics of load resistances about some kind of chisel are measured by the previously mentioned trial type of the oscillating subsoiler and following results are obtained. 1. Required power for driving traction wheels is saved about 20-40 per cent by giving oscillation to chisel point. However, total engine horse power required for the work is almost same as the trial type which is not given any oscillation to the chisel point. 2. In practice, it would be better to operate the oscillating subsoiler under the frequeney of oscillation is more than 20cps and the amplitude is about 15mm. 3. The most suitable cutting angle of chisel in vertical plane is about 20 degrees in view of power consumption 4. Required power for driving traction wheel and oscillating chisel point increase in proportion to the cutting width of chisel point.
This paper reports results of the investigations which were carried out in 1959 at the experiment farm of Hokkaido University to study on the lasting effects of pan-breaking for the first year after the treatment. In these plots, the pan-breaking was practised in last fall, and results for the first period of the study, concearning to the physical properties of soil before and after the pan-breaking, were reported in Journal of the society of Agricultural machinery, Japan, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1959. the results in 1959 are as follows, ; 1) The lasting effects of pan-breaking upon the physical properties of soil may be discriminated by both sounding porosity rate of soil and soil resistance of penetration which is measured with penetrometer. 2) It was found that the soil which was loosened by the pan-breaker should be settled down during eight months after the treatment, and porosity rate became intermediate value between before and after the pan-breaking. Moreover, this value was maintained at least for three months running. 3) The soil resistance of penetration just above the bottom of the loosened soil was less than 10kg for the eighth and eleventh month after the treatment. 4) Soil compaction caused by tractor traffic has evidently reduced the lasting effects of the pan-breaking.
The purpose of this paper is to describe how to express the tilling faculties in case of the soil tilled by the tillage machines. On the expression of tilling faculties, the authors cannot find the fixed rules, but many considerations have to be taken in to account, such as; the tillage depth, the condition of tillage-pan, the hardness of tilled soil, the mixing ratio of soil, the scattering ratio of soil, the inverting ratio of soil, and the burying ratio of surface soil. The authors have introduced the following equations to indicate the soil displacement by the tillage machines. (1) Let the mixing ratio or the scattering ratio of the soil displacement measuring pieces be M. Then M=100-α√S Where, α is the coefficient which is determined by the number or chalk-pieces and divided by the number of stratums of soil, S is the sum of squares. (2) The burying ratio of surface soil=1/m∑mi=1100di/H Where, m is the number of chalk-pieces, d is the burying depth of chalk-pieces, H is the depth of tilled soil. (3) The exposed ratio=the number of exposed pieces/the number of total pieces×100 We calculated the values of these equations from the inverted furrow at 135° with a plow. These values. indicate the characteristic of soil displacement fairly well, but these values differ in the number of divided stratums.
The writer made experiments on the lug angles, working depth, peripheral velocity, slippage ratio and other conditions, constituting the factors of load characteristics, in order that he might clarify the crumbling characteristics of soil handled with rotors. They disclosed: (1) That the increase in slippage required greater lug angles, and that this increase resulted in an increased electricity consumption and puddling resistance per unit working width and cross sectional area, in exponential proportion. (2) That, in the range of six to twelve centimeters the load increase was in exponential proportion to the working depth of rotors. (3) That, in the case of heavier puddling machines (i. e. over 1.0kg/cm of working width), the lug angles of rotors should advisably be over 45°, in order to give more supportiong power to the machine, and that, in the opposite case, the lug angles should be smaller so as to raise, the working effect on soils.
The purpose of this experiment is to prove the mentioned statical theorems which considerably differ from the traditional and to get more analytical materials about fundamental traction mechanics of farm tractors. In this report 3, the outline and calculations of design of apparatus for this experiment are mentioned.
The authors trially made the horizontal seed-plate feed type device adaptable for sawing of several crops and experimented its running performance at various revolving speed. Results obtained may be summarized as follows. 1. The device trially made discharges seeds of barley and wheat almost three times as accurately as the horizontal-rotor feed type, which is common at present in Japan. 2. In proportion as the running speed of cells in creases, the variation of numbers of discharged seeds per a unit distance reduces gradually in barley and wheat, and the variation of discharge distances increases a little in rape. In case of corn and soybean, the variation of discharge distances is minimized when cells run at about 0.04m/sec. 3. The cells of this device are ought to be run at the adequate speed shown below: barley and wheat over 0.09m/sec rape under 0.07m/sec corn and soybean about 0.04m/sec
An investigation on the durability of a roller pump, particularly the wearing of the pump body and the expansibility of the nylon roller, was conducted. The following are the findings on this study: (1) The amount of wearing of the outer part of the rotor (HS22) is larger than that of the side wall (Hs34), though both becomes higher with the increase of delivery pressure. (2) A long run test, using Bordeaux mixture (6-6), at a delivery pressure of 5kg/cm2 and 1200 r. p. m., results in a gradual decrease of efficiency for the first 100 hours running time. It has been observed that the decrease in efficiency is more rapid for the next 50 hours running. The fall of efficiency is remarkable in higher pressure. (3) The influence of the clearance between rotor and side-wall becomes less when the revolution velocity and the delivery pressure is increased. In a clearance test from 0.1 to 0.3mm, the efficiency is reduced by 10 per cent at least, as the clearance is increased by 0.1mm. (4) In a comparative test of different roller sizes, one with 17.57mm and another 16.41mm in diameter, both having the same width of rotor ditch at 17.8±0.1mm, total efficiency showed that the larger roller has higher value than the other, especially in higher delivery pressure. (5) The trouble in operation of the roller pump is often caused by the expansion of the nylon roller. The roller expands in accordance with the running time, water temperature and the increase of delivery pressure. The shrinkage of the nylon roller occurs when it is picked out of the water, though it requires longer time than that of expansion under water for the same length of change.
1. We investigated the cause of imprecision of Mie-Univ.-type integrating flow meter when it was used in shallow stream and found the reason that it is resulted from the moment of friction at rope pully of the flow meter. 2. Friction moment was measured as 200-870g·cm in case of the float No. 37, and 910-2500g·cm in No. 42. 3. In order to revolve the pully, the buoyancy-moment, which in turn due to the depth of the water level, is necessary to overcome the friction moment. 4. Necessary increment of water level is given by eq. (1), table 2. 5. Error of flow meter due to friction moment is given by eq. (2) and fig. 1. Error of float No. 37 is less than 5% at water depth 40cm and over 8% at 30cm. Float No. 37 may practically be used for flow meter but No. 45 is not useful. Since the error of float No. 45 is sometimes 13% at 30cm deep stream.
Authors carried out an experiment on the distribution of threshed materials under the concave-sieve of a double cylinder type threshing machine, and discussed the influence of the secondary cylinder on the resultant distribution of threshed materials. The secondary cyinder scatters centrifugally the threshed material fed from the primary cylinder, which shows W figured distribution at one man operating, so that the center peak of distribution seen in the case of single cylinder type machines (Fig. 2, (c)) disappears as in Fig. 2, (a) and (b). By this scattering action of the secondary cylinder, the threshed materials of this machine form U figured distribution both at one man operating and at two men operation (Fig. 2) (d) (e), and show rougher distribution than those of single cylinder type machines. As mentioned above, the mass of distributed materials on each section of the concave-sieve may decrease or increase as its location differs. In addition to that, authors showed that the mass destributed per a second may vary and that the composition of distributed materials also may vary as the time passes. It was found out that the heavier of materials such as paddy fell at first, and that the quantities of lighter materials such as straw containd in distributed materials increased as the time passed. As a threshing machine can do threshing and winnowing at the same time, it is important to pay big attention to the matching between the distribution of wind velocity from the winnower and that of threshed materials fallen down through concave-sieve, in order to make separation of grains from foreign materials such as chaff completely and effectively.
The author studied experimentally on the threshing function of the automatic over-feed system power thresher. This thresher was reconstructed from the lower-feed system power thresher being most commonly used at the present time in Japan, and it has special covers by which the bundles of paddy will be threshed from the head of ears to the part near the root gradually. The main aims of this thresher are, first to thresh only the ears as single grains, next to decrease the products of the broken pieces of ears and foreign material (rubbish), and as results of that to reduce the power required. Some principal results which pointed out the special features of the over-feed system were obtained from this investigation. They are as follows: The power required, the products of the broken pieces of ears and foreign material (rubbish) decreased considerably as compared with the lower-feed system. When the tests were done with the adjusted bundles excepting sheaths, the power decreased about 34%, the products of the broken pieces of ears and foreign material (rubbish) about 30% and 35% respectively, and with the unadjusted bundles the foreign material (rubbish) decreased about 64%. Then, at the case of the unbunbled threshing, the power decreased about 58%. If the construction of this thresher is more complete, it is expected that these results will be more improved.
We have made a theoretical analysis of the power consumed by the thrower and got nearly satisfactory results. Based on the data, the following calculations have been infered from our experiments on the pressure to grains got in between the blade and the drum of the thrower. 1. The power consumed by the thrower is about 0.03-0.12ps. 2. Power loss increases as the lift becomes higher or the efficiency is increased, but the loss rate decreases. 3. The average pressure on grains got in between the blade and the drum of the thrower is 3-9kg. 4. Degree of the fluctuation in the power consumed by the blade with a nylon wire brush is about a third of that of the blade with on brush.