The drafting force of the 4 Wheel tractor with the differential gear running along the contour line becomes less under the larger inclination of the field. Then we studied on the increasing performance of the drafting force on the case of the differential locking. Theoreticalily, the expecting value by the differential locking is expressed in ΔP=(Nc-ND)μmax cosα where, ΔP; increasing drafting force by the differntial locking, Nc and ND; the loads on the lower and the upper part wheels, respectively, μ; the driving coefficient between the wheel and the land surface, α; the deflection angle of the tractor body for the contour line. From the test results, on the larger inclination of the field, ΔP becomes larger by the differential locking because Nc becomes larger and ND becomes less. But because the driving force is not deviled into equal values on the both driving shaft, the decreasing drafting forces is less under the no differential locking, and the increasing drafting force is also less under the differential locking, compared with the theoretical values, respectively. The effects of the drafting force under the differential locking were like as the next table on the maximum coefficient of the driving force; The ratio of the load on the wheels (%) (Nc-ND/Nc+ND×100) Increasing ratio on the maximum coefficient of the driving force (%) 2 0 6 0 17 10 23 12 28 10
This research was undertaken to obtain a formula of predicting the pressure drop along a straight pipe when the cereal grains were conveyed in the horizontal pipe. An experimental plant has been constructed for conveying of the grains through a horizontal pipe, 2″ in diameter and 5.5m in length. From the investigation, the caluclation equations (14-1), (15-1) and (11) were obtained. The experimental results were in close accordance with the above equations. The above ones were limited in the case of straight and horizontal pipe and the air velocities at inlet and outlet of the pipe were nearly equal.
(1) The equilibrium moisture content curves for soybean were obtained, having been substituted in T of Henderson's equation, (273+20), (273+40)°C. (2) In the certain period, the observed equilibrium moisture contents as the intermediate of the several samples of soybean of which initial moisture contents differed individually, were obtained. It was found that in order of larger values of them, the rank was just Closed, Half, and Open. (3) The mutual distances between the polygonal lines that depend on the storage methods of the samples, were comparatively similar. (4) There was not so larse difference between two preliminary estimate values of equilibrium moisture content calculated from the initial moisture contents and the final moisture contents of the samples. (5) The migrated water actually into the head spaces of the desiccators and the air was in the ratio, Open:Half:Closed=5:2:1. (6) Further study on the determining of the moisture contents of soybean appears advisable because of some inconsistencies between calculated and observed valeus of the transferred water.
A knowledge of thermal characteristics of agricultural products is important in applications where the product is subjected heating, drying, cooling and freezing. Cooling may greatly reduce deterioration of fruits and vegetables between harvest and consumption. Cooling rates as related to hydrocooling and aircooling for a number of products were measured. This paper presents the experimental results and a review of some of the basic researeh previously or presently accomplished. The specific conclusions regarding the cooling rates of products used for this investigation are; 1) Cooling curves of the agricultural products approximately give the forms of exponential functions. 2) Proper cooling times of the above kind products may be appropriate to be inferred from the data which are treated with halfcooling method. 3) When the flow rates in the cooling units' chamber or tank are about natural convection currnt, hydrocooling method is twice or more effective than air cooling method. 4) From the only standpoint of the cooling rate, hydrocooling method may be suitable to precooling of fruit kind products.
The auther compared a Japanese scythe blade with an Austrian one on the following articles; the shape, the metallurgical structure, the chemical components, the distribution of hardness, the breakage by impact, and so on. The results are as follows. (1) The carbon content of the Austrian one was 0.75%. That of the Japanese was 1.2-1.4% in the high carbon layer and was 0.15% in the low carbon layer. (2) The overall length of the Austrian blade was 60cm and that of the Japanese was 45cm. However the weight of the Austrian blade (400g) was lighter than that of the Japanese (430g), for the reason that the thickness of the former (0.7-0.8mm) was less than that of the latter (1.0-1.2mm). (3) The shape of the Austrian scythe edge was formed from the two curved surfaces because of “hammering” and its wedge angle was about 10 degrees. While that of the Japanese was formed from two planes and its wedge angle was about 15 degrees. (4) According to the microscopic examination, the metallurgical structure of the Austrian scythe blade consisted chiefly of troostite and granular ferrite and at the part of the edge point the flow of the structure by “hammering” was observed. The structure of the Japanese one was divided into two parts; the one (a high carrion layer) consisted of granular cementite, troostie and martensite, and the other a low carbon layer consisted of ferrite and fine pearlite. (5) By the micro Vickars hardness tester, the hardness of the Austrian blade was about Hv550 and that of the edge point was about Hv690. The hardness of the Japanese was about Hv850 at the high carbon layer and was about Hv190 at the low carbon layer. (6) By the impact, the edge of the Austrian scythe blade was not broken but deformed, while the edge of the. Japanese was broken off because of too hard. As a result, it can be said that there is the wide difference between the Japanese scythe blade and the Austrian one. The Austrian scythe blade is made of a homogeneous layer of steel, while the Japanese one is consisted of two welded layers (a two carbon steel and a high carbon steel). In the case of edge-giving, the former is hammered and whetted; the latter is whetted only.
Authors investigated the compressiblity of grass (fresh, wilted and semi-dried) and corn, both in the cylindrical bin with the uniaxial compressive load and in the air-tight plastic-film bag, from the inside of which air was extruded by a vacuum pump. Results obtained are as follows: 1. Under vertical loading of 24 hours, the larger the vertical loads are, the higher the rates of compression are and the smaller the final voidratios are. But, except fresh grass, the decreases of void-ratios become slowly under the vertical loads of 0.05kg/cm2or more. The compressibility of grass are raised in proportion to the decrease of moisture content. 2. Even when the initial void-ratios of filled materials are different, the final void-ratios after compression become to almost a certain value, according to kinds of materials. So that, after compression the difference of density may seldom occur due to the difference of initial density, provided that compressive operations are repeated whenever the depth of filled materials reaches to 50cm or less. 3. Under vertical loading of 3 minutes, the permeability of compressive force into grass is raised in proportion to the increase of moisture content and the shorteninig of cutting length. However, the difference of moisture content affects on the permeability stronger than that of cutting length. Therefore, in case of ensiling of haylage materials, it should be noticed to cut materials as short as possible and to give loads as continuously as possible. 4. Corn harvested by a forage harvester has higher permeability of compressive force than grass harvested by a sickle and cut by a cylindrical cutter, perhaps due to the difference of crushing effects on materials between harvesting implements. 5. In case of the air-extruding method, vacuum degree of 250-400mmHg can bring the density of materials to void-ratio 1, which may be suitable to the fermentation as silage. So that, it seems to be practicable to construct a special type of stack silo by the air-extruding method, utilizing an agricultural vacuum pump.
The authors investigated heart rate and relative metabolic ratio of five abult male subjects walking on the belt tread mill. There was found very close positive correlation between heart rate or increasing rate of heart rate and relative metabolic ratio (Tab. 1). The relation of these indexes can be shown by a simple equation y=ax+b, provided that coefficients a and b vary according to each subject (Fig. 3 and 4). So that, once an equation of each subject has been given, the intensity of barn works may be assumed roughly only from the measurement of heart rate of the same subject in operation. But, heart rate seems to be more strongly affected than relative metabolic ratio by psycological factors. The authors intend to perform further investigations on the above relations of various work in and around the livestock barn.
The results of the field tests which have been aimed to find the prediction methods of the trafficability of the soft paddy fields for agricultural tractors were discussed summarily. In order to predict the trafficability, the cone penetrating methods produced by the Waterways Experimental Station were used and it may be found that this methods were able to be available for our purpose.