The aim of this study is to find out the transient phenomenon of slip sinkage of the drive wheel in operation with drawbar pull. In this paper, the following items were found experimentally and discussed: 1) Relation between the silppage, s and the potential sinkage h0 which is the sinkage at the steady state running of vehicle. 2) Transient phenomenon of slip sinkage of the driving wheel. 3) Relation between the contact length of the driving wheel, the contact pressure and the sinkage. Results are summarized as follows: 1) A transient phenomenon of the slip sinkage of a driving wheel can be simulated approximately as equations (2) and (7). They are dh/dt=K (h0-h) (2) dh/dt=K1h (h0-h) (7) 2) Relation between the potential sinkage h0 and the slippage s when the initial static sinkage is not considered, can be exprssed as h0=0.57s+3.44 (19) 3) Coefficients K and K1 are related to the slippage respectively as follows: K=-0.15s+13.06 (20) K1=-0.4 (s/75-1.0) (21) K and K1 decrease with an increment of slippage s. 4) The contact length was almost constant in spite of an increment of sinkage. The ratio α/β is proportioanal to the sinkage (hs+h0) when the initial static sinkage hs is considered. This is the reason why the angle α increases when the wheel sinks. 5) The maximum contact pressure has a negative linear relation to the sinage (hs+h0) because the increase of sinkage promotes the slippage of the driving wheel and it results in the increase of an angle α.
Portable truck weighing meter in which loading plate was supported by 4 strain pick-up columns, was designed. Compressive strain of each column was measured by means of seriesparallel combination bridge circuit of 16 strain gages. The results were as follows; 1) Bridge output of each meter was 15% less than the expected value. 2) Linearity of the relation between load and bridge output was fairly good, the deviation being in the range of ±2% at 0-1, 000kg. 3) The allowable load is 2, 000kg in static, and 1, 000kg in travelling load. The inadequate parts to be improved based on few years' experience were, 4) The connector should be attached inside of the apparatus to avoid breakage. 5) Considering the weight is 35kg, it will be easier to be carried by two man. But then the handles are better to be attached to the counter sides of the apparatus. 6) If the test tractor is larger than 50 PS, loading plate sige is desired to be 400mm×500mm at least.
In order to increase the performance of rice transplanter with the tine wheel, the profile of the transplanting tine to cut the rice-seedling-band and to transplant was investigated. (1) To generate the curve of the tine profile, the operation of the tine was analysed as follows. (a) Cutting of the rice-seedling-band, (b) moving the rice-seedling to the surface of soil after cutting, (c) moving into the prescribed position to transplant, (d) going away from the prescribed position. These operations must satisfy the following conditions respectively. (a) To cut the seedling-band smoothly, (b) not to part the seedling from tine by centrifugal force or gravity, (c) dX/dt<0 and dγ/dt>0 (cf, Fig. 1), (d) dX/dt≥0 and dγ/dt≥0 (2) As the result of investigating the profile of the tine to satisfy the above four conditions using TAMURA coordinate (cf. Fig. 3), involute curve is obtained as solution, and height of the tine (Th) is obtained by equation (21), where transplanting depth is d, diameter of the evolute is T0 and the length from center of the tine wheel to head of the tine is T0+d+h (3) Friction and adhesion between metal sheet surface and root part of the seedling-band were measured. And critical foward velocity of the transplanter to keep the seedling on the tine was estimated. Let the distance from the center of tine wheel to the middle part of tine be 0.4m and the number of tine on the tinewheel be six, then estimated velocity 3.2m/sec. (4) The profile of the tine on the usual rice transplanter of this type was found to be consisted of two circular arcs and satisfies the above mentioned conditions.
1 With the chizel type standard, the distribution of the temperature in soil was uneven, because the majiority of steam leaked out through the slit made by the standard-pass. 2 The standard of the wing type was fitted with the wing at the pointed end, and the steam-spouting pipe was put on the two points, above and below. As the results, the distribution of the temperature became even. 3 With the wing type, it was possible to make uniform the horizontal and vertical distribution of the temperature, by increasing the quantity of the steam. Considering the disinfection effect, the soil temperature must be above 55°C and this temperature must continue more than 30 minutes, the quantity of the steam needed was more than 100kg/m3 degree. But with the chizel type, the disinfection effect was not uniform. 4 After the application of the ateam, the temperature continued high in the depths of 10-20 centimeters but dropped a little at the depth of 5 centimeters. When the thermometer was placed on the surface, the temperature dropped rapidly as soon as the temperature-keeping canvas was taken off. 5 The highest inside temperature was 60°C in the clods of 50×55×50mm and 35×35×40mm. In order to complete the sterilization effect, the soil must be crushed into pieces. 6 The needed traction power of the plow at 20cm working-depth was 1.57 tons with chizel type and 1.75 tons with wing type. 7 In the growth-investigation on the sterilized soil, the beet-growth was obtained in the block which was mixed with barkmanure. 8 In the investigasion of damping-off, the steam-sterilization had remarkable effect and mixing organic matter had some good effect. Barkmanure was considered appropriate to supply organic material. 9 As regards the ability of nitrofication of soil, the amount of nitroficatic Bacteria* in the soil was kept by mixing organic matter after steam sterilization. * Nitroficatic bacteria are composed of nitro bacter and nitrotrozomonas 10 The ability of the nitrofication of soil was reduced by the sterilization without regard to the quantity of mixed organic matter. And yet the ability of the block mixed with barkmanure was some what higher than other blocks.
The automatic steering system which has two kinds of sensor for detecting the row of rice plant by contacting it was examined, the responses of the combine with the above system to the artificial row as the input were determined experimentally and the fundamental problems and the future principles were discussed. Moreover, by means of digital simulation technique the possibilities of utilizing the experimented automatic steering system in the actual field were investigated. The results of experiments and computation are as follows. For the automatic steering system with the sensors detecting the row of rice plant from both sides of row by contacting it, 1) As the delay time for restoring from steering motion to straight travel was increased, the path of the combine was disturbed because of the excessive corrections of errors. 2) As the travelling velocity was increased, the path of the combine was disturbed because of inertia effect of the mass of the combine. 3) Because of the double sensing device consisting of the main and supplementary sensor, the combine travelling at the top speed was able to track the input by means of the effect of the supplementary sensor. 4) The relationships between the dead zone widths of the sensors and travelling stability and tracking accuracy could not be found because the experiments were not produced so many. 5) The influences of the delay time, travelling velocity and dead zone width upon the phase shift between the input row and output path were not found. 6) The digital simulation of the automatic steering of the combine suggested the possibility of utilization of the experimented system in the actual field. For the automatic steering system with the sensors detecting the row of rice plant from one side of the row, the possibility of this type of sensor was found and the experimental results are as follows. 1) As the travelling velocity was increased, the path of the combine was disturbed. 2) The combine travelling at the relatively high speed could not track the input row because of the unsuitable shape and dimensions of the constantly contacting link of the latter sensor. 3) The path of the combine travelling at lower speed was smoother than the path of the combine with the sensors detecting the row of plant from both sides of the row, itmay be because of difference of the mode of sensing.
Three dimensional pattern instrumentation system was developed for fundamentals of pattern recognition of plant and soil. This system is constructed with measurement of reflection from specimen surface and computer controlled cubic scanning. Reflected light through the lens system is detected by the photo-sensitive devices like photo-transistor or photo-conductive element at the precisely regulated temperature. Sensor temperature is regulated within the variation of 0.002 deg, by the thermo-electric device. Scanning made by the three four-phase pulse motors is in the region of 60mm×30mm plane and the depth of 47mm with the minimum step unit of 45 micron, 12.5 micron and 15 micron, respectively. Measured data acquisition and scanning control are made by the same on-line computer and automated instrumentation is completed. This system has also the capability of photodensitometer for the transparent specimen.
This investigation was carried out to find the most suitable drying couditions for the intermittent drying system. The experimented work concerned with the influence of the temperature of the drying air, the rate of flow and of the drying time on the rate of drying. Drying tests were carried out under the conbination of temperaturs. 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, and 80 (°C), airflow 1, 2, 3, and 4(m3/sec-ton), and heating times, 3, 2, 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/6, and 1/8 (hr) Keeping the intermittent time constant at 3hr. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The drying rate increases with the increase of the temperature of drying air and the rate of airflow and with the decrease of the heating time, In particalar, the effect of airflow seems to be the greatest. 2) It is sugggested to use shorter heating time because it is more effective to increase the rate of drying and to prevent the drying damage.
The effects of drying airflow rates, drying air temperatures and drying times on rice qualities such as checking, germination and gloss were determined for rough rice in multi-stage drying. The tests were performed in 11cm deep static bed on 4 varieties of rice grown in Hokkaido, useing the laboratory scale drier equipments reported in Part I of this study. 1. The relationship of these three drying factors with the percent of checked kernels les to the conclusion that number of checked kernels decreased with increase of drying rates. Here, the drying rate means reduced moisture content divided by total heating time in hour. 2. It was found that temperature of rice in drier was closely related to number of checked kernels, so that temperature of rice could be considered as an index for safe operating schedule under any drying conditions. Data indicated that the safe limit of temperature of rice was 35°C. 3. Nnmber of checked kernels after drying increased continuously up to 48 hour after leaving the drier. 4. When temperature of rice in drier rises over 40°C, rate of germination decreased sharply. 5. Gloss of hulled or milled rice, dried under the condition of rice temperatures below 40°C, was not affected by heating. It has been demonstrated in many modern drying plants that these laboratory-scale experiments could be applied successfully on a commercial scale.
This investigation was carried out to find out the property of half-dried rough rice during temporary storage and the property of stored rough rice which were dried to 15% moisture content after temporary storage. Half-dried rough rice of different moisture contents (20%, 18%, 17% and 15%) were produced from the rough rice of different initial moisture contents (23.0%, 19.7%) by two types of commercial dryers (tempering dryer and continuous dryer), and were stored in 18 plastic bins. Eight items of rice property were determined for storage samples taken out of each bin. These were temperature, moisture content, checking, germination viability, odor, mold contamination and fat acidity. The property of half-dried rough rice in temporary storage deteriorated faster when the moisture content was high. Determining fat acidity was an effective method to indicate quantitatively the extent of damage of rice, and an objectionable odor seemed to be the most pronounced indication of quality deterioration of rice in storage. It was not clear whether the difference of property of half-dried rough rice during temporary storage was induced from the different drying method or different initial moisture content. On the 99th day and the 165th day after starting of temporary storage the moisture contents of storage rice were reduced to 15%. The dried rice is stored in the laboratory. Subsequent storage tests are still being continued.
We noticed the fact that the following equation did not hold good for some air oven methods of grain moisture measurement, where the apparent loss of dry matter was not taken into considration. Therefore we investigated on improved air oven methods so as to aviod the apparent losses of dry matter. Wi(1-Mi/100)=Wf(1-Mf/100) where Wi: Initial weight of grain Mi: Initial moisture content of grain (wet basis) Wf: Final weight of grain Mf: Final moisture content of grain (wet basis) The three standard measurement conditions for three air oven methods are shown in the following. (1) At 105°C for 5 hours with whole grain of about 5 grams (2) At 105°C for 24 hours with ground grain of about 10 grams (3) At 135°C for 24 hours with whole grain of about 10 grams The materials used were wheat, six-rowed barley, two-rowed barley and rough rice. 1. The replicate moisture determinations of samples were within 0.2% throughout all the tests. When the content of kernels with primary branch and ear breaking in rough rice was below 15%, the representative moisture content of rough rice including kernels with primary branch and ear breaking was able to be regarded as the moisture content of kernels. For the moisture measurement by the two-stage drying method, there were not effects of tempering period after pre-drying on moisture content values. 2. The weights of samples dried by the methods as shown in (1), (2) and (3) were regard as the defined constant weight regardless of drying time in the air oven. The defined constant weight means the weight after drying which does not vary over 0.1% during 2 hours of drying time in the air oven. According to the experimental results by the the methods in which the drying time only is varied in the air oven, the reduction in weight of sample stopped completely after the drying time of 48 hours in (1) and 240 hours in (2). However, the reduction continued deyond 240 hours in (3). 3. Regardless of the kinds of grains and moisture contents, the drying time in the air oven which did not show apparent loss of dry matter was 48 hours in (1), 240 hours in (2) and 48 hours in (3) respectively. 4. It was assumed that the moisture remained yet in the dry matter obtained from the drying period shown in the standard measurement methods, and this moisture was calculated as “the remained moisture content” on the base of the dry matter dried in the air oven during the period mentioned in 3 The relation between the remained moisture content and the measured moisture content was made clear. For below 15% and above 5% of moisture contents of rough rice, the lower the moisture content the higher the remained moisture content, For the rough rice in (2) and (3) except the range of moisture contents above mentioned, wheat, six-rowed barley and two-rowed barley, the higher the moisture content the higher the remained moisture content. 5. The smallest quantity of apparent loss of dry matter among the methods (1), (2) and (3) was obtained in the case of (3). In order to maintain the apparent loss of dry matter as insignificant as possible in the wide range of moisture contents, the adoption of the two-stage drying method was recomended
The yield of Gitrus Unshiu was about 3.3 million tons in the year 1972, and there is a probability that it would continue to increase in the future. Then the need of many large packing houses and workers would become pressing in the production districts. Grading of the citrus was done by manual sorting based on the external appearance and color. Due to this manual labor within the grading line of citrus, it became quite impossible to increase the sorting rate of fruits together with sorting efficiency. From this point of view, it becomes meaningful that an automatic color sorting facility to detect the maturity non-destructively should be planned and manufactured. To establish the standards of design for this instrument, a spectrophoto analyzer attached with an integrating sphere was set up and the optical transmittance properties of citrus Unshiu were investigated. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The degree of the presence of chlorophyl introduced absorption bands within the range of wave lengths (557.5nm-700.0nm) with diminishing absorbance as the peel color varied from green to yellow or red. (Fig. 6) 2. There was a strong absorption band near the wave length of 670.0nm due to chlorophyl. If the fruits were of the same dimensions, the degree of this absorption was proportional to the chlorophyl content in the peel. The relationship between the chlorophyl content and optical density at the wave length of 671.5nm was OD=0.543 CH+1.295 (Fig. 7) 3. Spectral absorbance curves of the fruits of difference sizes having the same degree of color, became parallel at the wavelength ranging 670nm to 700.0nm, By considering this, effect of size variation of the fruits could be neglected. 4. There was linear correlation between the chlorophyl content and ΔOD at a couple of wavelength, as shown in Table 2, the best one being that of (671.5nm-700.0nm.) or (681.5nm-700.0nm). 5. The effect of fruit's dimension on ΔOD could be neglected at a couple of wavelengths (681.5nm-700.0nm), (Tab. 3). 6. From the results mentioned above, it could be concluded that the color of peel which indicates the maturity of intact Citrus Unshiu can be precisely detected regardless of the size of samples by measuring ΔOD of the specimen at wavelength (681.5nm-700.0nm).