This paper attempts to show that some methods of natural science can be utilized in sociological studies to analyze and formulate the whole process of fashion. As sociologist Tarde predicted a century ago, a custom-based society in the past has been transformed into a fashion-based society. There can be found numerous forms of fashion in almost every field of our daily life. Fashion is now recognized as being highly influential even in a nation's economy. Little is known, however, about the mechanism which controls the rise and fall of fashion. Its obscurity and formlessness has discouraged scholars from dealing with fashion as an object of academic researches. To break the deadlock, the modeling of fashion as a social phenomenon is indispensable.
The exicitatory effects of algesic substances on cultured murine dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were studied by measuring cytosolic calcium oscillations (conforcal laser scanning microscopy) and action potentials (patch-clamp whole-cell recording) in the cell body. Bradykinin, prostaglandin E2, and capsaicin evoked action potentials in the cell body. Calcium oscillations were also observed by the stimulation of the compounds. Both the action potentials elicited and the elevation of calcium ion concentration caused by bradykinin were suppressed by the irradiation of Ga-Al-As diode laser (830nm, 16.2mW). The laser irradiation may block the depolarizations via sodium ion channels and calcium ion channels.
The structure of a Rhodamine B-dye mixed L/LB film was simulated at the molecular level. This study was carried out for the aim of analyzing the molecule structure, the molecule occupation area and the optical absorption spectra of L/LB film. As a result of the study for optical and electrical functions of L/LB film, it was shown that there was an optimum point for the photo excitation of the thin film.
Natural water quality became worse these days by producing more pollutants than the amounts of decomposition in nature by primary decomposers. So, photocatalyst was intended to improve the environmenal water quality. However, photocatalyst was known to act both the oxidative decomposition of pollutants as well as primary decomposers. In order to know whether photocatalyst can contribute to the net result for the improvement of environmental water quality or not, phtocatalyst was applied to model polluted water. The rate of purification was measured by the rate of consumption of dissolved oxygen. When photocatalyst was applied, dissolved oxygen was consumed 5.7 times faster under bright solar irradiation, 3.3 times faster at twilight time, and 1.5 times faster even at night, than in model environmental polluted water without photocatalyst. These results show that photocatalyst can improve polluted water efficiently, if water can supply enough air, even in the presence of primary decomposers in both day and night.
The photo-rechargeable battery is element that photoelectric conversion and charge are possible by itself. In this paper, construction of photo-catatytic rechargeble battery was studied, using organic materials. By changing the polymerization quantity of the photocatalyst layer, an optimum point of generating efficency was found.
Millimeter wave frequencies are expected to be important for the high speed and large volume communication system in the multi-media society. Demands of light-weight, multi-functions are very high for such a system. The active integrated antenna is one of techniques to solve these problems. In this report, for use in the Intelligent Transport System (ITS), a 5.8GHz 2×2 active integrated antenna array fabricated on a soft substrate with a package-type FET and a K-band 2-element active integrated antenna array fabricated on a ceramic substrate with a MMIC oscillator were demonstrated. From the experimental results, it is believed that fundamental data for the new communication system were obtained.
In this paper, as one of the examples of an application of an active integrated antenna technique, a design method and experimental data of the active integrated amplifier antenna array were reported for microwave power transmission in the space solar power satellite 2000 system. The stacked structure of a unit cell in the array proposed here consists of three layers: the amplification circuit layer, radiation layer, and coupling layer. By incorporating 2×2 unit cells with the combination of a directional coupler and an FET amplifier, a light unit patch plate with weight of 200g.
Effects of tourmaline on germination and growth rate were studied for white radish sprout. We used ordinary distilled water and the tourmaline-treated distilled water, which were treated for one hour or one week, respectively. The tourmaline enhanced germination frequency and growth rate. An optimal time of tourmaline-treatment was one hour.
The collision fatigue limit was determined for Pb0.55Zr0.24Ti0.21Ox (PZT) piezoelectric ceramics. When the ideal collision energy (Eci: mJ) is applied below 16mJ, the collision fatigue fracture can not be observed by the collision test. Thus, we defined that the collision fatigue limit is 16mJ of the PZT sample with the static compressive stress generated by rubber cylindrical narrow hole. Namely, the infinite life is promised below the limit.
Metal Matrix Composite containing Fe2Tb0.3Dy0.7 particles in Al matrix is strengthened by the effect of magnetostriction. The composite is fabricated by powder metallurgy, and the average diameter and the volume fraction of the particle are 2μm and 5%, respectively. The magnetostriction induced by the magnetic field is relaxed at high temperature. Turning off the magnetic field at room temperature produces the residual stress. It is found that the compressive stress induced in the matrix develops the large tensile strength.
The foundation experiment to do the development of the anti-mold outer wall material was done. Most of the anti-mold material used TiO2 and Ag. But, TiO2 takes time, and there is a problem that a cost is high in Ag. An experiment was made to find substitute material. So, Garnet and Hydroxy-apatite were chosen, and it was examined. The experiment mixed with the experiment of spraying the surface of the agar culture area with the sample during the agar culture area was done. The experiment of spraying the surface of the agar culture area with the sample was ineffective. But, there was high effect in the experiment mixed during the agar culture area.
Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powder was prepared by the sol-gel method. Lead hydroxide, Zr butoxide, and Ti butoxide were used as starting materials. PZT powders were crystallized at about 773K with through out the precursors. Thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) were used to measure the weight changes of the dried gels to determine the annealing temperature. TG-DTA curve of the dried gels indicated that the thermal decomposition of organics occurred below 873K. The results of X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the pylochlore phase formed below 873K, and the perovskite phase was formed between 873K and 973K. The powder calcinated at 873K was pressed into pellet at 30MPa and additionally pressed by CIP at 100MPa. This sample was sintered at 1273K. The dielectric constant of the pellet was also measured.
A glass transition induced shape memory effect (SME) of the Zr-5at%Ni-9at%Al-30at% Cu glassy alloy is found. The remarkable SME is induced by thermal expansion from 300K to 600K. The shape memory metallic glass is suggested as a new concept of an actuator.
In order to establish the synthesis process in Ag-Sb-Te2 system, which is suitable for thermoelectric device, we have investigated the phase diagram of the AgSbTe2-Ag3SbTe4 system using the differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that a mixed phase of AgSbTe2 and Ag2Te, which are expected to show high thermoelectric power coefficient, existed in the wide temperature region between 334 and 564°C at the composition of Ag2.2Sb1.8Te4.
ITO thin films are useful materials for electric devices, where wettability of the ITO thin film is one of dominant factors of adherent and durability. Because electron beam irradiation decreases the contact angle of materials, we studied influence of electoron beam irradiation on surface condition of ITO thin film. From the results of contact angle measurement, x-ray photoelectron spectra and force-distance curve before and after electron beam irradiation on thin ITO films, we found that the surface energy was increased by the irradiation.
A magnetic shape memory effect (MSME) was found for the Fe-Pd alloy film prepared by magnetron sputtering process. Large strain was induced by magnetic field (10kOe) of Fe-30 at% Pd shape memory allay at 323K. The high magnetostrictive susceptibility was measured at low magnetic field even below 3kOe at 300K.
In this research, a teleassist biopsy system was constructed. To evaluate a basic performance of the system, the agar and meat phantom experiments were performed. From results, the robot arm was able to pierce straightly to the target point in the phantom with the biopsy needle.
Effect of dynamic sole pressure in footwear was examined by measuring sole pressure during walking. The results show the dynamic sole pressure was influenced by the type of footwear, and walking modality was clearly changed by wearing different type of footwear.
In order to analyze physiological aspect of motion sickness, an experiment was carried out with artificially generated motion sickness using revolving chair. As the physiological measures, power spectra of ECG R-R interval series, EGG, and R-wave Plethysmogram onset asynchrony (RPA) were used. Effects of administrated stomach medicine were also studied. In the motion sickness condition, changes of autonomic indices were observed. Importance of autonomic aspect in assessment of motion sickness was pointed out.
In order to analyze mechanisms of involuntary movement, readiness potentials of saliva swallowing were recorded in control and light sleep condition from healthy subjects. As a trigger signal for data averaging, surface EMG recorded from neck was used. Negative component of readiness potential before onset of swallowing was not observed clearly in sleep and control conditions. Sensory evoked potentials after swallowing were observed in both conditions. Result shows that it is possible to measure readiness potentials even in sleeping subjects.
In order to assess psychophysiological state of the hyper arousal, pulse transit time during a mental task was analyzed using the ECG R-wave finger plethysmogram onset asynchrony (RPA) measurements. As the mental task, we used the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST). As the experimental condition, a balloon burst setting with time limit and narration comprehension test were used. Under balloon burst setting experimental condition, measured RPAs were shorter than these in control condition. The result suggested that the RPA is a possible tool for the assessment of panic state through the autonomic responses.
In order to reveal cognitive processing of sensory information in binocular rivalry, visual evoked potentials (VEP) were recorded using pattern reversal stimulus to received side and the other side of visual field. VEP components were observed by evoking stimulus to non-received side of visual field. Results show that the processed information projected to visual cortex does not always generate subjective visual experience.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of swallowing chilled water and stomach medicine administration on electrogastrography (EGG) activities. EGGs were recorded from healthy adult subjects. Event related components elicited by water swallowing were observed in analyzed power spectra. EGG responses to the stomach medicine were also observed after oral administration. Spatial characteristics of the responses were discussed.
Two different visual patterns presented separately to each eye can't fuse images. Only one of two patterns can be perceived exclusively and alternatively. This phenomenon is known as Binocular rivalry (BR.). We have been measuring BR. to investigate human visual information processing. Authers have already reported that the alteration of BR. dominance is not-symmetrical. (BR. asymmetry) Present study reports neither visual acuity nor eye dominance is not the origin of BR. asymmetry. Some aspects about the mechanism of BR. is discussed.
A tactile sensor using moiretopography is developed. The sensor is composed of a Ronchi grating, a gel sheet, light scatterers, a light source and an ITV camera. Using the sensor, contour lines of an object with which the sensor touches were extracted and shape of an object in a visco-elastic object was found.
The influence of the high static magnetic field to the crystal growth processes of the hen-egg-Lysozyme was studied by method of the observation such as microscopic interferometry to make the mechanism of the crystallographic orientation clear. As a result, orientation of the crystals was obviously controlled by the direction of a magnetic induction under 6.0T, but the magnetic field gives the crystal orientation only and never changes a condition figure.
A single crystal is typically used as a laser material for solid state lasers. The laser medium made of a single crystal is generally limited by several factors in fabricating large size crystals and heavily doping optical active elements. For the improvement of these factors, it is proposed to use the polycrystalline medium (ceramics) for the laser. In this study, we evaluated the spatial distribution of Cr ions, which were doped as optically active elements, and the emission spectrum of the element. These measurements were performed with the SNOM (Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope) installed with a spectrum photometer. The fluorescence spectra of Cr ions were measured using this equipment with the spatial resolution of several hundreds nanometers.
The oxidation resistance of the C/C composite is low because all constituent material of the fiber and matrix in C/C composite consists of carbon. Therefore, the C/C composite material has some limits to the effective use of the other various excellent properties. The aim of this study was to give the resistance oxidation performance to the surface of C/C composite covered with SiB6 by dipping process. SiB6 powder was dispersed to a triethyleneglicol using the dipping process in order to coat this sample. The C/C composite sample was obtained with additional mass equal to about 2.5% of the total sample mass, and surface of its sample was coated with SiB6 powder. The sample made by the oxidation experiment showed better resistance to oxidation in comparison with the C/C composite material without its process.
SiB4 has excellent chemical property as well as low thermal conductivity and high electric conductivity at high temperature, so it is promising as a thermoelectric material. SiB4 was made by hot-pressing. The oxidation behavior of SiB4 sintered body was studied in air for 5min to 25h ranging at 773 to 1373K by mass gain and XRD. The SiB4 was slightly oxidized up to 1173K. However, mass gain of the SiB4 increased markedly at 1273K.
Silicide of the transition metal is an useful compound as a heat-resistant material. Especially, CrSi2 is high melting point and hardness, and moreover, It changes heat into electricty. Therefore, CrSi2 is paid attention. Thereupon, We examined the oxidation resistance of the CrSi2 powder, in order to search the application CrSi2 possibility at higher temperatures.
In recent years, “high temperature” ceramics as materials with strength and high melting point are drawing the attention for ceramists. These ceramic materials are expected to be used as a fireplace for nuclear fusion, aircraft engine, rocket nozzle and fireplace materials for high temperature incinerator. High-temperature oxidation behavior of sintered SiB6 body was studied in air at 573-1273K for 5min to 25h by measuring mass gain and X-ray diffraction. In spite of increasing temperature and time, weight gain by oxidation of sintered SiB6 body was not approved at 1273K. However, the oxidation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis at higher then 873K.
Superplastic deformation behavior was examined in high-purity 3mol% Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZP) with fine and coarse grains, and their deformation mechanism map was drawn. The fine grain material below 0.3m showed two deformation regions with stress exponent 2 at high stresses and 3 at low stresses, while the coarse grain material above 1m showed two deformation regions with stress exponent 1 at high stresses and 3 at low stresses. These deformation regions can be predicted by the obtained deformation mechanism map.
Silicon boride (SiB6) was reported that have the characteristics of oxidization resistance and excellent hardness in the high temperature. On the other hand, Boron carbide (B4C) was known that have high hardness after the diamond, and high See-beck coefficient. It is able to expect that the SiB6-B4C composite ceramics have the characteristics of hardness, resistance oxidization, and high See-beck coefficient in the high temperature. SiB6-B4C ceramics were prepared by hot-press sintering method. The sintered body's chemical components were determined by using X-ray diffraction analysis and their relative density and electrical conductivity were measured.
Catalyst activity of aluminum phosphate can be changed dramatically depending on their preparation. In this paper, the sol-gel process and precipitation process were desceibed. The characteristics of sol-gel process, fine, uniform-sized particles were obtained, and high specific surface area and high catalysis activity can be expected. As raw materials, aluminum isopropoxide and triethyl phosphate were used. Diethanolamine and 2-methoxyethanol were used as solvents. Aluminum phosphate were synthesized in three ways. Each synthesized aluminum phosphate had been dried for 24h at 353K. Dried samples had been sintered for 2h at 873K and additionally sintered for 2h at 1173K, 1273K, 1373K and 1473K in the air. The catalyst activity of sintered samples was validated by the decomposition of C2F6 and XDR analysis.
Spalling of oxide scale on Al2O3-forming heat-resistant alloys cooled in liquid nitrogen or air was studied by mass change measurements, observation of surface appearance of the alloys, X-ray diffraction, scannig laser microscopy, scannig electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. The mass changes of 104ppmS alloy at 1473K, of 104 and 1300ppmS alloys at 1573K, and of 53 and 1300ppmS alloys at 1673K showed big different values by the two cooling media of liquid nitrogen and air. On the other hand, the mass changes of the other alloys, except 24 and 53ppmS alloys, showed each similar values by the two cooling media after oxidation at 1473K.
High-temperature oxidation behavior of Fe-20Cr-4Al alloys with small amounts of sulfur and reactive elements (Y, Hf) were studied for 360ks in air at 1373 and 1473K by mass change measurements, observation of surface appearance of the alloys, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Small amounts of yttrium to the alloy showed the increased oxidation resistance. On the other hand, oxide scales on the 900 and 1900ppmHf alloys spalled the entire surface after oxidation at 1473K for 360ks. These results may be attributed to their thermal stability and the differential free energies of yttrium and hafnium sulfides.
High-temperature oxidation behavior of Fe-20Cr-4Al alloys with 3, 7, 53, 104, 171, 185, 1300 and 6300ppm of sulfur was studied for 360ks in air at 1373 and 1473K by mass change measurements, observation of surface appearance of the alloys, X-ray diffraction, scanning laser microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Mass changes of the alloys with 7ppm of sulfur at 1373K, with 53 and 1300ppm of sulfur at 1473K showed negative values. This fact was in good agreement with spalling of the oxide on the alloys.
High-temperature oxidation of Fe-20Cr-4Al alloy purified by floating zone melting was studied for 360ks in air at 1373, 1473, 1573 and 1673K. Oxide adherence of the alloys purified by froating zone melting was improved. Mass changes of 0.99, 1.23, 1.84 and 3.88ppmS alloys increased with increasing temperature of oxidation. Mass change of 3.88ppmS alloy showed the smallest values at any temperatures of oxidation because of spalling of oxide scales on the alloy.
The hydrogen storage alloys are expected as useful smart materials such as hydrogen storage alloys for fuel cells, battery electrodes and materials for other energy related systems. The H2 storage alloys are usually pulverized at each sorption cycles by the large volume expansion. In investigating the effect of alkaline pretreatment on pulverization, we examined the new presentation methods for the powder distribution in the course of H2 sorption cycles.
Porous glass-ceramics are prepared by crystallization and subsequent acid leaching of the CaO-TiO2-P2O5 gels through a sol-gel route from Ca metal, Ti (tBu)4 and H3PO4. The crystallization process of the gels having the different starting compositions is investigated using X-ray diffraction. The compositions of 45CaO-25TiO2-30P2O5 (mol%) with excess P2O5 is found to be necessary to contain only CaTi4 (PO4)6 as a residual crystal phase.
We have invetigated the synthesis of Cu2-II-IV-S4 quaternary compounds (II=Zn, Cd; IV=Ge, Sn). The single phases were obtained, and melting points and crystal structures of the phases were determined using the differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. Among these compounds, bulk crystals of Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2CdSnS4 were grown by the horizontal gradient freezing method. Optical band gaps of both Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2CdSnS4 were determined by optical absorption measurements to be 1.38eV.
CaMgSi2O6 gels using a mixture of each individual metal alkoxide were prepared by sol-gel method adding hydrochloric acid with various concentration as a catalyst. The crystallization of CaMgSi2O6 (diopside) by heating the gels at various temperatures was investigated using X-ray diffraction. Hydrochloric acid concentrations above 3mol is found to be suitable.
The Group-III nitrides have attracted much attention for applications of blue light emitters and high temperature electronic devices. The synthesis of single-phase gallium nitride (GaN) powder has been achieved by reacting gallium oxide or gallium triisopropoxide with ammonia (NH3) flowing in a hot wall tube furnace.
Oxidation behavior of boron phosphide (B13P2) ceramics under the high-temperature conditions was studied. The powder of B13P2 was baked at 773K to 1273K for 2h, 5h, 25h and 50h. The weight gain of B13P was measured as a function of temperature and time. Thermal gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) was used to measure the weight changes of B13P2 as a function of annealing temperature. TG-DTA plots indicated that B13P2 began to be oxidized at 1050K. Moreover, every baked B13P2 was analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The result of X-ray diffraction analysis showed that B13P2 changed to be amorphous at 1127K.
Aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) was prepared by the use of two processes that were precipitation method as a classical technique and alkoxide method as a novel approach. Aluminum nitrate hydrate and ortho-phosphoric acid aqueous solution were used as raw materials for precipitation method. Aluminum tri-i-propoxide and ortho-phosphoric acid anhydrous were used as starting materials for alkoxide method. 2-Methoxyethanol was used as solvent. The products in each process were dried for 24h at 393K and then were sintered for 3h at various temperatures in air. As a result of X-ray powder diffraction analysis, it was observed that crystallization occurred above 1273K in precipitation process, but 973K in alkoxide process.
The water polishing increased the dislocation density near the surface region, which depended on the polishing time. The hardness was increased up to a limited value whereas the dislocation density was saturated. The maximum hardness value was obtained as 1.5 times higher than that of niobium plate before the polishing.
Environmental pollution with Dioxines has become one of critical issues. But its spectral characteristic is unknown. In this study, we conducted to detect the trace Dioxines by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). We investigated spectral characteristic of dibenzo-p-dioxine (DD) and dibenzofran (DF) in solvent (n-hexane) in ultraviolet wavelength region. As a result, we obtained the fluorescence spectrum by using pump-laser at a wavelength of 225nm with a pulse energy of 100μJ/pulse. Fluorescence peak wavelength of DD and DF were measured to be 300nm and 340nm, respectively.
Taking advantage of the photo-catalytic properties of Titanium dioxide, a novel photo-rechargeable battery was prepared. Performance of this battery was found to be a function of the polymerization quantity and ionic concentration. The result showed that at certain polymerization conditions, a maximum value for storage quantity could be obtained.
The relationship between the solar wind magnetic field variations and the geomagnetic storms on the ground is investigated based on the data of the ISEE-3 and IMP-8 satellites in the interplanetary space and Dst-indices obtained from the ground magnetometers. This study shows a clear relationship between the geomagnetic storm index, Dst and a new devised index, which is made from a multiply of the southward IMF (Bz) and its duration (hours).
The photo-rechargeable battery was produced by the merocyanine dye mixed LB film which functioned as a photo-catalyst. Poly-Pyrrole film which is the storage layer was polymerized electrolytically by current control. As a resalt, very small self-discharge was obtained, when the polymerization current was small.