We have cloned a human genomic DNA fragment that contains a complex bent DNA structure and a LINE-1 (L1) sequence. The bent DNA structure spans from 70 to -440 relative to the transcription start site of L1, and contains a left-handed sup erhelical structure from about 70 to -200. When we changed the rotational orientation of the bent DNA relative to the L1 promoter by inserting double-stranded oligonucleotides between positions -3 and -4, L1 promoter activity was profoundly affected Inserts of 5 and 16 by altered the rotational position by about 180°, and stimulated transcription 2- to 3-fold Insertions of 11 and 21 base pairs, which altered the rotational orientati on minimally, had much less effect. We present here the first experimental evidence that upstream DNA architecture influences the machinery employed in L1 transcription.
The recent development of optical microscopy has brought about a more refined and sophisticated apparatus, such as a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which was originally described by Minsky (1957), and ever since has been applied to the field of medical biology. In early experiments, only fluorescent signals were detectable by CLSM. However, recent innovations have prompted the possible visualization of non-fluorescent signals such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and diaminobenzidine (DAB) signals by CLSM. Moreover, the combination of CLSM and image analysis system (IAS) has enabled us successfully to visualize subcellular organelles three dimensionally (3D) in routinely processed optical microscopic specimens. In the present review, we applied CLSM to the specimens prepared for optical microscopy, and demonstrated the intracellular identification of subcellular organelles and protein, which were comparable to those observed under electron microscopy. We also applied this microscopy to the observation of tumor angiogenesis and microvessel environment of tumor cells. Both the visualization of subcellular organelles, mRNA and protein products, and 3D images of microvessel environment of tumor cells are discussed in this review.
Generally, the natural marble ceramics is poor in corrosion resistance against acidity and alkali. We investigated the corrosion resistance against marble. In this study, chemical resistance and durability of each them which were coated by paint was estimated, when the marbles were used under environment of acid and alkali.
The rate-control processes depending on the temperature were investigated using TiB dispersed Ti matrix composite. The stress exponent was revealed to be 3.2 in the all temperature, while the activation energy changed from 515kJ/mol at higher temper to 81kJ/mol at lower temperature, suggesting the change in the rate-controlling phase from the ceramic phase (TiB)to the metallic phase (Ti).
In this study, it paid attention to oxidation resistance ceramics for discovering the thermoelectric material of the high temperature stage where it isn't still developed. B4C, SiC and SiB6 of electrical characteristic were measured as high temperature materials which have high hardness, high melting point, tough oxidation and tough corrosion in oxidation resistance materials.
In a forest or near the waterfall, people feel refreshing or so good. Recently, a part of scientists, explained about this fact. As one theory, this matter may be caused by a minus ion. It is said that minus ion is made by garnet system ceramics as used jewel. Then if the Garnet is mixed with paint or wall materials, people will be able to be led in comfort. And we experiment ammonia, formaldehyde gas and nitrogen oxide gas adsorption characteristic of garnet system ceramics for we get to the bottom of the fact.
In this study, the ammonia gas adsorptivity was evaluated by carbide of coffee beans residue. Ammonia gas was used as a test gas. When organic compounds included some nitrogen atoms are rotted, ammonia gas breaks out. It has irritating smell. And, it shows corrosion effect for metal plating, copper and aluminum. 10 to 1000ppm ammonia gas concentrations were prepared in globe bags with the carbide samples. After 15min, 1h and 24h gas concentration in each glove bags were measured by gas detector tubes. The carbide samples of the coffee bean residue showed excellent ammonia gas adsorptivity.
The remarkable SME is induced above glass transition temperature (Tg) by the transition volume change on Zr-5at%Ni-9at%Al-30at%Cu glassy alloy. The shape memory metallic glass is a new concept of the actuator applicable for hard-irradiated environment such as in fusion reactor.
The frequencies of a density oscillator which consists of two containers filled with fluids of different densities were measured by a laser light method, where both the fluids were contacted through a small orifice on the bottom of the inner container It was found that the frequencies of the oscillation increased with decreasing the surface area of the outer container filled with pure water and that the stable oscillation of the flow ceased beyond a critical value of the surface area of the water container as decreasing the free surface area of water.
A film-type oxygen sensor with flexibility and visibility has been required for monitoring a tear fluid and evaluating an oxygen permeability of a contact lens in vivo. In this study, a transparent oxygen sensor was constructed by incorporating an ITO (Indium-tin oxide) electrode into a flexible device made of a transparent gas-permeable membrane.
Most of aldehyde chemicals such as acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, etc. are defined as Specified Malodor Chemical Substances by the Environment Agency in Japan. In this research, a gas-phase biosensor for aldehyde chemicals was constructed by incorporating an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) immobilized electrode into a flow reaction cell. The sensor was used to measure acetaldehyde (0.525-20ppm) and formaldehyde (50-2000ppb) in the gas-phase with high selectivity for aldehyde vapor in the presence of other gas-phase chemicals and gave a negligible response to these chemicals.
Reducing pressure is one of the most important factors in preventing decubitus. One way to reduce pressure is to redistribute pressure over as large an area as possible. Soft polyurethane mattresses are good for redistributing pressure, however this type of mattress does not provide sufficient back support. So in order to reduce pressure and provide sufficient support, we have developed a silicone gel layered mattress. Silicone gel is frequently used as a shock absorber in various types of machines and our tests showed that silicone gel was superior to standard polyurethane mattress materials in reducing interface pressure. The silicone gel layered mattress was also preferred by volunteers over a standard hard mattress and a standard soft mattress.
In this study we examined the proper pressure of air boots for a person in a sitting position. Air boots can improve calf congestion by pulsatile calf compression. Higher pressure may improve calf congestion more, though it might decrease arterial blood flow. A photo-electric plethysmometer was put on the second toe of a foot to measure the amplitude of the pulse which represent arterial blood flow. A sensor of a near infrared oxygen monitor was put on the calf just above an air boot. A near infrared oxygen monitor can detect tissue reduced hemoglobin which exists almost only in venous blood. So, the concentration of tissue reduced hemoglobin could represent tissue venous blood concentration. When the air boots pressure was more than 140mmHg, the amplitude of the arterial pulse decreased to half of that without massage. Pressure less than 70mmHg didn't affect arterial blood flow. Meanwhile pressures of more than 70mmHg didn't show any difference in the improvement of calf congestion. So, we concluded that the proper pressure for air boots massage for calf congestion in a sitting position is less than 70mmHg.
In order to analyze the autonomic functioning during sleep, polysomnographic measurements including electrogastrogram (EGG) were carried out with healthy adult subjects. The periodic change of the EGG activities calculated from integrated power spectra was not identical to the change of sleep stage. It is suggested that the EGG reflects different aspect of the autonomic profile of human sleep.
We researched that illusion generated by the visual information and skin contact sensation. Intensity of illusion is dependent on the style of stimulation. The meaning of consuiousness about the illusion generation is discussed.
Visual information processing has been studied recently. Shape, color and motion are analyzed in different areas of the brain. In order to clarify the influence of color difference on the motion perception, we consisted the drifting dots on a VDT and measured the perception performance. The brain serial processing model of the visual information is discussed.
To investigate the relationship between sleep rating scales (OSA, KSS) and measured all night sleep EEG, experiments were carried out with healthy adult volunteers. Results showed that the KSS ratings correlated with time percentage of non-REM sleep state. The OSA ratings correlated with waking time in the experimental night. In evaluation of the quality of sleep, some attention should be paid to subjective ratings of the sleep.
It is possible to synthesize poly butylene succinate (PBS) to a number average molecular weight of something like 10000-12000 (GPC measured with chloroform used as solvent) by the deglycol reaction. The fungus strains used in this study were isolated from soil. The synthesized PBSs were decomposed by the fungus of six groups for two weeks. The study was clear biodegradation of PBSs with microorganisms.
Wettability of sapphire lens was changed by electron beam irradiation. Surface energy change of sapphire lens was estimated by extended Fowkes Theory. The dominant factor of wettability change is dipole factor on EB irradiated sapphire lens.
Various steels are prepared for a carburization in ferrite phase. Effect of alloying elements (Cr, Mo, V) for surface hardness was investigated in this study. We confirmed the low temperature carburizing below the A1 point of steel. The steel containing V and Mo increased in surface hardness to over Hv 600 approximately.
A composite consisting of Al matrix and giant magnetostriction particles was fabricated by powder metallurgy. The composite was heat treated under a magnetic field to produce compressive residual stress in the matrix due to the giant magnetostriction inside particles. Tensile tests revealed that the above magnetization heat treatment improved the yield strength of the composite. The strengthening mechanism based on magnetostriction was discussed using micromechanics analysis.
It is difficult to bond metal foams by welding process. The solid state diffusion bonding process is examined using closed-cell aluminum foam (ALPORAS). Utilizing the superplastic deformation of inserted 5083 aluminum alloy, the oxidation film is fractured. The bonding strength was evaluated through 4 points bending tests.
CaSiO3 and Ca2SiO4 gels were prepared by sol-gel method using a calcium metal, methanol, and tetrametyoxysiliane as starting materials. The formation of CaSiO3 and Ca2SiO4 by heating the gels at various temperatures was investigated by using X-ray diffraction. It was found that single phases of β-CaSiO3, α-CaSiO3, and β-Ca2SiO4 were synthesized at 700°C, 1200°C, and 700°C, respectively. These formation temperatures were lower than those obtained in other method. Furthermore, the formation process was different from that observed for calcined powder of CaCO3 and SiO2 prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method.
Cd or Zn doped CuInSe2 and undoped CuGaSe2 crystals have been grown using synthesis solute diffusion method with controlling the growth rate. The CuGaSe2 crystals having a single phase were obtained under the same growth condition as CuInSe2 for the first time. The Cd or Zn doped CuInSe2 crystals have p-type conduction, in contrast to that of doping Cd or Zn using Brigeman method (n-type conduction).
The empirical equation, based on electronegativities and atomic sizes of constituent elements, for the estimation of the thermodynamic stability of hydride of AB5-type alloys was proposed. The equation can estimate the plateau pressure of PC isotherms with a reliability higher than 99.8%. Moreover, it is found that the deviation of plateau pressure from the estimated value describes the phase segregation in alloy morphology. In this research the dissolution behaviors of alloys in a KOH solution were also discussed in relation to the phase segregation.
High-temperature oxidation of heat-resistant alloys with small amounts of sulfur and reactive elements (Y, Hf) was studied for 1800ks in air at 1273K by mass change measurements, observation of surface appearance of the alloys, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Mass change of the alloy with 7ppm of sulfur showed low value because of marked spalling of the oxide film on the alloy. Mass changes of the other alloys with sulfur increased with increasing sulfur up to 491ppm of sulfur. Mass changes of the alloys with sulfur and yttrium were 4.3-5.1×10-3kg/m2. Mass changes of the alloys with sulfur and hafnium were 2.3-5.2×10-3kg/m2.
The cyclic-oxidation of Fe-20Cr-4Al alloys with 0.1 mass% sulfur and 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 mass% yttrium was studied up to 5cycles (1cycle=18.0ks) in oxygen at 1373K by mass change measurements, observation of surface appearance of the alloys, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-my microanalysis. Mass changes of all the alloys mostly increased with increasing number of cycles. The surface oxide of 0.1 S, 0.05 and 0.1Y alloys spalled, and that of 0.5Y alloy showed good adherence after 5cycles.
The cyclic-oxidation of Fe-20Cr-4Al alloys with 0.1 mass% sulfur, and 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 mass% yttrium was studied up to 5cycles (1 cycle=18.0ks) in oxygen at 1473K by mass change measurements, observation of surface appearance of the alloys, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Mass changes of all the alloys increased with increasing number of cycles, and that of 0.5Y alloy decreased compared with the other alloys after 5cycles.
High-temperature oxidation of heat-resistant alloys with small amounts of sulfur and reactive elements (Y, Hf) was studied for 1800ks in air at 1373K. The mass changes of the 2, 53, 104 and 171ppmS were 0.5-0.9×10-2kg/m2. On the other hand, the mass changes of the 5, 185, 491 and 1300ppmS were less than 0.2×10-2kg/m2 or negative values because of marked spalling of oxide scale on the alloys. Oxide on the 1300ppmS was convoluted, and those on the alloys with reactive elements were planar morphology. The formation of planar morphology on the oxide and that of stable reactive elements sulfide particles may lead to good oxide adherence.
Stress relaxation is an important property for spring materials. In particular it is desired to know the relaxation at an elevated temperature from practical viewpoint, however standard method for the measurement of the property is not yet established. Authors made a new apparatus for testing the high temperature stress relaxation of thin plate materials. A thin sheet of Cu-Ni-Sn alloy, which has an excellent stress relaxation character at room temperature, is submitted to inspection for the testing in the temperature range at 423K. The measurement gave a reliable result as like as measurements obtained from conventional methods at room temperature.
Corrosion resistivity of a Carbon/Carbon composite irradiated by both H2 and Ar sheet plasmas is analyzed gravimetrically. It is found that the corrosion rate in the case of the H2 plasma is three times grater than that of the Ar plasma. Such a value of three is approximately equal to the ratio of the heat fluxes of H2 and Ar sheet plasmas, indicating that the physical sputtering can be main cause of the corrosion in our experiment.
The R (rare earth) Fe2 compound with the C-15 Laves phase exhibits huge magnetostriction over 1000ppm. Effects of microgravity conditions on directionally solidification of TbFe2 melt were investigated. The microgravity conditions of 10-5 G for 10 seconds were obtained by the drop shaft experiment. It obtained by the drop shaft experiment system at the Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC). The samples under the 1G terrestrial conditions and under the microgravity conditions were examined by using optical and scanning election microscopy. Grains were randomly oriented in 1G terrestrial experiments and had not any crystallographical alignment The grains of the samples prepared under microgravity condition have been aligned along the solidification direction to form a columnar structure.
Saving energy in the living life is a pressing need today when the restriction on the earth environment is strict with energy consumption. We examine a lighting environment at the present residence from the illuminance and lighting method. As a result, we show that EL (Elector luminescent) and LED (Light Emitting Diode) has a possibility to become a source of light which is abundant and energy conservation in the next generation.
The photo-rechargeable battery is an element that photoelectric conversion and charge storage are possible by itself. The construction of photo-catatytic rechargeble battery was studied, using organic materials. An optimum point of generating efficency was found by changing the polymerization quantity of the storage layer.
All plastics photo-exchargeable battery is made of storage layer and photocatalyst layer in the organic substance. We attempt to improve that the replenishment of the electron to the photocatalyst layer is easy to be carried out by using the anion exchange filter. When the light was illuminated, there is a term to which the storage quantity shows the maximum value by adjusting the film thickness of storage layer and photocatalyst layer.
The molecular state of Rhodamine B/Arachidic acid mixed LB film was analyzed from 3D model simulation. As a result, it was considered “the molecule of the film rotated, when the pressure was applied to the film”. It became explainable in respect of the result of the π-A curve. It was examined by relation between the average of roughness of the surface from the AFM. The film was stabilized, when Arachidic acid was more abounding. It seems to have the electron functionality which the LB film of the AA/Rb=1 in a good condition.
The photo-rechargeable battery with the carbon plate is an element that photoelectric conversion and charge storage are possible by itself. Therefore the simplification of the battery and storage ability is improved. As a result, it is confirmed that electricity is stored in electrode by carbon plate and optimum polymerization current in the photo catalyst layer. It is confirmed that carbon plate is superior to nesa-glass plate.
The photorefractive single crystal bulk samples have been used for image recording. Films of Bi12GeO20 (BGO) were deposited by using RF magnetron sputtering. Thin films have merits in device integration and mass production. BGO films were fabricated on the substrates composed of glasses (CORNING 7059) and ITO films. The relationship between optical properties and process condition was studied to obtain a good crystalline film. The film with crystalline phase only was obtained on both substrates at the substrate temperatures above 200°C. BGO films with two type of structure were deposited on ITO films.
This investigation aimed to investigate the H2 absorption kinetics of Ce films with thicknesses of 50nm and 100nm prepared under ultra high vacuum condition. At the initial stage, the reaction probability, r of H2 exhibited r=1. With increasing H2 gas amount absorbed, the reaction probability decreases rapidly. After that, the reaction probability exhibited a plateau region, and then reaction probability decreased two orders of magnitude. Finally the gas amount of N reached 200ML for a film with a thickness of 50nm and 420ML for a film with a thickness of 100nm, respectively.
Recent developments in microwave and millimeter-wave technologies and in optelectronic technologies have allowed multimedia network systems consisting of a wireless communication system and an optical-fiber communication system to be realized. A optically controlled MMIC is suitable to realize such a system. However accurate physical modeling of optically controlled MMICs has not been completed yet. When gate bias is low, self-oscillation shifts the high frequency side. This paper describes the experimental results of the optically controlled InP based MMIC oscillator with illumination. Experimental I-V curves of MESFET are compared to results obtained using both equivalent circuit analysis and physical modeling using the FDTD method.
A new type mist singlet oxygen generator (Mist-SOG) for the chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) has been developed. This SOG is devoted to make the liquid recirculation unnecessary with the complete reaction through a single pass of basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP). In order to determine the quantity of water vapor, a gas sampling system has been introduced newly. In this experiment, 43% of Cl2 utilization and 39% of singlet oxygen yield were obtained with Cl2 molar flow rate of 4.7mmol/s. H2O2 utilization in the BHP was achieved as high as 9.6%.
Recently, the demand of information and telecommunication systems has been growing rapidly. In order to realize these systems with small, lightweight and multi-function capabilities, planar circuit and antenna technology have been used. However, these technologies have problems such as low gain and surface wave loss. Photonic band-gap technology is believed to be a promising new solution to these problems. In this paper, simulation results using the FDTD method for photonic band-gap structure on a microwave and a millimeter wave circuit substrate made by etching are presented. The analysis of a Microstrip line and a millimeter wave active integrated antenna with PBG structure are also presented.