Most of neural networks are pattern classifier trained by an external supervisor. However, the real brain can acquire their behavior even without a supervisor. In this paper, a brief introduction of neural networks will be shown followed by the guiding principle of learning mechanism without a supervisor. First, the comparison between neural networks and electronic circuits will be given. Next, the network formation by backpropagation method will be introduced. The method is very effective, but it is a supervised learning, and it is very difficult to train the recurrent neural networks. Finally, a new unsupervised learning concept of Moderationism proposed by us will be presented, which is still under research but will be useful to understand the brain behaviors.
Recently micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) fabricated by IC-compatible processes attracted much interest. The ultimate goal of MEMS research is to integrate sensors, actuators and electronic circuits on a silicon chip. Since micro sensors and circuits are well developed in last decades, micro actuators are under intensive investigation. The electrostatic force obeys favorable scaling in micro domains. Many electrostatic micro actuators have been reported. The frictions on the sliding surfaces is one of major problems in these motors. New developments to reduce the friction are reviewed. Especially, electrostatic actuators which utilize rolling motion of moving parts are explained in detail.
The scale pattern of Chum Salmon is considered to contain ecological information representing the rate of growth, physiological state of fish, the river stocks and so on. In the present paper, the authors propose an analytical method which uses Linear Discriminant Function associated with Spectrum Analysis of the scale pattern for river stock discrimination of chum salmon. The scale samples used were those collected in 1988 from the two rivers, about 30kms apart from each other, in Iwate prefecture as is shown below in the Fig. 1. The data obtained from two groups of fish with these known stocks were firstly converted to those of power spectrum elements, then they were applied to the linear discriminant function as variables. Satisfactory results of separation of the stock origin of the two with over 74 percents' accuracy were obtained by using the Linear Discrimination Function along with Power Spectralized Data. It can be concluded from the results that the proposed analytical approach is of considerable value in distinguishing the river stocks of chum salmon.
The precise positioning systems with space techniques by use of radio waves, such as the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Global Positioning System (GPS) have the potential for measuring the three-dimensional position of a point relative to other points on the globe with millimeter to centimeter accuracy. Therefore, the VLBI and GPS would be most attractive and powerful instruments for measurements of crustal movements. In order to predict the earthquake and volcanic eruption, the research on these techniques is very active in both their application and development in Japan. The precise relative positioning receiver by use of GPS satellites, named “PRESTAR”, has been developed in cooperation with Kyushu Tokai. University, Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) and Anritsu Co. Ltd. The baseline vector can be accurately estimated from the phase differences of carriers within an error of several millimeters, without any knowledge of the two positions where the receivers are located.
Methods utilized for investigation of complex dielectric permittivity (ε*) or complex conductivity (δ*) of superionic compounds in the frequency region of 106-8*1010Hz and the temperature range of 100-600K, are presented, as well as used experimental apparatus. At RF (106-1010Hz) a coaxial line method and developed resonance in a coaxial line method was used. The latter makes it possible to increase the sensitivity of measurements. In the microwave region (10-80GHz) the method of partially filled waveguide was used. Some typical complex dielectric permittivity investigation results of NASICON type compounds are shown.
The abrasive wear behaviour of some Fe-based (Fe-Ni-Mo-B, Fe-B-Si, Fe-B-Si-C systems) have been studied while abrading against emery paper as the abrading media under dry reciprocating sliding distance. Sliding velocity of 0.04m/s during these tests was kept constant. The roughness hardness and surface morphology of worn surfaces were also determined to understand the abrasive wear phenomenon in metallic glasses.
GATOR-GARD plazma coating technique had been started to develop the thermal spray technique for the target of better quality than D-gun which were used on Aero Turbine Engines and Industries. The development have been succeeded and more than 200, 000 Fan Blades were coated by GATOR-GARD for hard facing. Turbine blades of Industrial Gas turbine are applied of high heat corrosion resistance coating. PWA-286, Ceramic bond coating for Aero Engine turbine nozzles will be soon revised to include GATOR-GARD as alternate of Low Pressure Plasma Coating due to equivalent quality and lower cost in the atmosphere. GATOR-GARD process uses a high temperature, High Velocity, ionized He gas to deposit metal or ceramic particles on substrate materials. Particles are accelerated and protected from oxidation in Bundled, Contineous High velocity plazma stream controlled by GATOR-GARD nozzle. The high particle velocities and extremely short dwel time at high temperature produces High Density, High Bond strength coatings with unique structures which can be tailored for maximum resistance wear, erosion and impact.
A conventional heat oven was employed for superplastic alloy diaphragm forming of continuous carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic. In an innovative pilot scale pressure vessel design, specially formed parts were cooled by an air/water jet. Thus it is possible to control the crystalinity of semi-crystaline polimer matrix. The objective of this investigation was to establish the processing criteria required to economically form complex, large scale curved parts without causing shear-buckling. Female hemispherical section parts with varying depths were formed by apllying gaseous pressure across a superplastic alloy sheet. Part quality, and fiber placement inspected. An investigation was performed to study the pressurization forming cycle and it's relation between cooling rates with the air/water jet and impact damage by the drop weight test.
A plasma filament ion source has been developed as a long-lived ion source for use in ion implantation. This ion source uses a primary discharge to serve as an electron source for a second discharge, which is formed into a plasma filament replacing a thermionic metallic filament used in the Freeman type ion source. The operation is relatively facile and good beam stability can be obtained. With any combination of a plasma filament of either argon or neon and a feed gas of either fluoride (AsF5, PF5, PF3, or BF3) or hydride (AsH3), the lifetime was found to be more than 90 hours with an extraction voltage of 40kV and the corresponding ion current density over 20mA/cm2. Mass spectrometry results show that this ion source has an ability of generating a considerable amount of As+ and P+ ions from AsF5 and PF5, and hence will be useful for realizing a fully cryopumped ion implanter system. This ion source is also eminently suitable for use in oxygen ion production.