This paper introduces a broad beam ion source which is suitable to ion-assisted deposition; describes that ion beam affects two dielectric films (TiO2/SiO2) and ZnS/MgF2) and two reflecting metallic films on the properties of stability, wear and corrosion resistance of films by IAD. The result shows that IAD is significant useful in improving the metal films as well as the medium films.
The crystal structure of Zr-Ti-V-Ni-Mn alloys with pseudobinary Laves phases was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The structure of these alloys was a single phase of cubic-C15 or hexagonal-C14 or a mixture of these phases. It was found that the ratio of C15 type in alloy was dependent on the ratio(rA/rB) of average radii of A and B atoms in the formula AB2, and the mixture ratio of C15 type in alloys increased with the increase of the ratio (rA/rB). For example, as Zr atom in alloys is partially substituted by Ti atom or V atom is partially substituted by Ni or Mn atom, the mixture ratio of C15 type decreases on account of the decrease of radius ratio (rA/rB). This ratio (rA/rB) is available as an estimate factor of crystal structure for these alloys with pseudobinary Laves phases.
It was found that the charge/discharge capacities and charging efficiency for pseudobinary Laves phase alloy electrodes increase with increasing molding pressure. A molding pressure of 9-10ton/cm2 was necessary to reach the largest discharge capacity (398mAh/g) for Zr0.5Ti0.5 (V0.375Ni0.625)2 electrode. The increase of the contact surface area of alloys and Ni yields increasing capacity.
Practical utilization of solar energy is highiy expected as an energy resource in the future. However, the low, intermittent and fluctuating energy density of the solar energy is an essential problem in the utilization. The energy storage and conversion are most prominent solutions. This paper reports of the research and development of solar-hydrogen hybridized vehicle (SHHV) in which solar energy and hydrogen energy are combined. We hope the active participation of private and public sections in this work.
Polyarylene (poly-p-phenylene, poly-1, 5-naphthylene, poly-2, 7-naphthylen) were prepared by nickel-catalyzed polycondensation of Grignard reagents from the corresponding dibromides. The polymers were extracted monomer on Soxhlet'sextractor, then these were annealed at 400°C for 24h in vacuo. The polymer were doping in order to increase conducting.
Nitrogen absorption of Sm2Fe17 was measured volumetrically using a siverts-type apparatus. To calculate the nitrogen concentration it is necessary to consider various problems like tempareture gradient in apparatus, deviation of nitrogen from an ideal gas etc. After considering this, the volimetrically obteined nitrogen concentrations agree with results of gravimetric measurement and gas analysis.
Most of neural networks are pattern classifier trained by an external supervisor. However, the real brain can acquire their behavior even without a supervisor. In this paper, a brief introduction of neural networks will be shown followed by the guiding principle of learning mechanism without a supervisor. First, the comparison between neural networks and electronic circuits will be given. Next, the network formation by backpropagation method will be introduced. The method is very effective, but it is a supervised learning, and it is very difficult to train the recurrent neural networks. Finally, a new unsupervised learning concept of Moderationism proposed by us will be presented, which is still under research but will be useful to understand the brain behaviors.