The interaction between the dislocation line and superconducting orderparameter via gauge field is discussed. In this paper the principle is a conservation law of Burgers vectors for dislocation lines. The formulationis analogous to well known electro-magnetic gauge theory. Owing to the phase of order-parameter is coupled to the gauge field with respect to dislocation line, a new type of fulxoid is quantized. Moreover this theory gives an interpretation for the magnetic flux pinning mechanism.
The electrical and optical properties of nanostructured Ge and Si are different from those of bulk materials. We investigated the properties of Ge films deposited by a cluster-beam technique mainly using Raman spectroscopy as well the techniques of AFM, TEM, XRD, PL, XPS and optical absorption. The Ge films were deposited on Si and quartz substrates at room (Ge-RT) and liquid nitrogen (Ge-LNT) temperatures. AFM images showed the presence of nanostructures in Ge-LNT and smooth surfaces in Ge-RT. Raman spectroscopy showed two modes at 266cm-1 and 271cm-1 for both films, which are different from that of a diamond structure of Ge (300cm-1). Ge-RT films showed a line at 300cm-1 by annealing the films above 700°C, while Ge-LNT did not produce such a line up to the 700°C annealing temperature. And Ge-LNT films were quickly oxided by the UV light and showed a blue PL emission at 2.9eV.
The kind and extent of the contributions of dominant factors for a lattice constant were studied concerning AB2 Laves phase intermetallic compounds with a cubic-C15 and a hexagonal-C14 type structure containing IV or V groups as A atom. It was found that the dominant factors were atomic radii, electronegativities, and valence electron numbers of A and B atoms. It was possible to replace these dominant factors with the following ones: Atomic radii of A and B atoms, by the average atomic radius rav and the atomic radius ratio rA/rB; Electronegativities of A and B atoms, by the average electronegativity χav and the difference of electronegativity of A and B atom ΔχB-A; The valence electron numbers of A and B atoms, by the average valence electron Dav and the difference of the valence electron of A and B atoms ΔDB-A. On the other hand, the extent of the contribution of dominant factors for the C14 type structure differed from the C15 type. In C15-type compounds, the contribution of the atomic radius of A and B atoms was very large; the contributions of electronegativity and the valence electron of A and B atoms were not more than 10%. In contrast, in C14 type compounds the contribution of the atomic radius was about 50%, that of electronegativity was about 35%, and that of the valence electron about 15%. Consequently, C14 type compounds have more ionic and covalent bond character than the C15-type.
Based on functions of human being, the materials intelligence (Ih(50)) has been suggested, and the Ih(50) and practicality (Pr) were evaluated. When the Ih(50) and Pr values are 1.0 for the intelligent materials, the values [Ih(50), Pr] are [0.38, 0.7] for tourmaline and [0.33, 0.75] for piezo electric materials, respectively.
Giant magnetostrictive (Tb, Dy)Fe2 films were prepared using an ion beam sputtering (IBS) process. In spite of an amorphous like structure of the films analysed, significantly larger values of magnatization and magnetostriction were obtained in contrast with that of amorphous like films by flash evaporation process. The effect was yielded by Ar in the films included during the IBS deposition process.
Evaluation of Meissner effect is investigated for high Tc Bi oxide superconductors. The small addition (z) of Sb increases repulsive force. The maximum force is found at 0.05 of z. It agrees with the volume ratio of high Tc phase.
Based on biological application, it is important to know a wettability of hydroxy apatite of artificial bone. The wettability is estimated from the contact angle of liquid on materials surface. The electron beam (E. B.) irradiation increases the wettability of hydroxy apatite.
Synthesis, Solute Diffusion (SSD) method using a CuIn solvent and a Se solute was studied for crystal growth of CuInSe2. Boules with a high volume fraction of a single-crystal portion of CuInSe2 that crystallizes in the chalcopyrite structure are grown.
We study the characteristics of the Event-related variation of the blood flow, an experiment was carried out utilizing a strong emotional stimulation. Blood flow in the dermal tissue of the palm was analysed under the emotional condition. The premotor state in peripheral circulatory system was investigated.
Variation of the center of gravity were recorded in 11 patients and normal controls. Involuntary fluctuation segments were extracted and analysed. In patients with posture disorder, randomness were lower than that in the other patients. Results suggested that the random oscillation of the sway plays important role in posture control.
In order to analyze the sleep cycle in human natural sleep, physiological parameters were recorded from healthy adult subjects. Utilizing the spectral analysis of heart rate, autonomic state during sleep was investigated. Specific changes of LF and HF component of the spectra were observed in each sleep stage.
We will report about analysis for randomness of body sway fluctuations with Brownian-motion. X-Y components of the movement of the center of gravity were recorded and initial part of the averaged variation of the squared displacement suggested the statistical characteristics of the physiological mechanism.
The variation of the center of gravity and microvibration were measured. The data analysed by FFT showed that the spectra of both body sway and microvibration had a 1/fα feature. But theirserious differences suggested that the origin of the microvibration is not related to the body sway oscillation.
Time series of the center of gravity were analysed to investigate the effect of visual distraction on posture control function. Visual distraction was created by rotating disk filled with geographical patterns. Specific fluctuation related to visual signal was observed. The role of visual sensory processing in posture control was discussed.
In this paper, an attempt was made to produce flavonoids by means of tissue culture using the callus induced from apical cell of the safflower seedrings. The callus induced in dark didn't yield flavonoids, while five of flavonoids were induced under the light. One of them isolated from the callus under the light was assumed as quercetin by UV spectrum.
Microbiosensors for glucose and lactate measurement were constructed by coating of hydrogen peroxide electrode 800μm in diameter with immobilized enzyme layers, The sensors were applied to the determination of glucose and lactate in mammalian cell culture media and human saliva.
In this study, from the fresh leaves of Metaseqouia glyptostroboides flavonoids were extracted by methanol. A flavonoids among these was isolated by cellulose and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The isolated flavonoid was identified by using UV/VIS spectra.
Recently, many people are interested in the clean energy. We discuss overview on the utilization and history of hydrogen energy. We introduce the hydrogen storage alloy that is the new material for ecology.
The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of each substituent such as Al, Mn and Co in the H2 absorption of LaNi4.5Al0.5, LaNi4.5Mn0.5, LaNi2.5Co2.5 alloys by the measurements of temperature and pressure dependences of the H2 absorption rate. The pressure dependence of the reaction rate was observed, but the pressure dependence of the reaction rate was independt of the temperature change between 273K and 353K. And the activation energies of reaction rates of all sampls were lower than that of LaNi5. The effect of substitution was clearly observed in the kinetics.
A new type solar still (85×70×25cm3) has been constructed, which is called as the “tilted-tray, wick type solar still with a condenser room”. A new material “SOLAR-α” has been utilized as the wick, which was manufactured by UNITIKA LTD. Performance tests have been made under a solar simulator in the laboratory. It was found that (1) the distillation productivity linearly increases in proportion to the irradiation intensity I, (2) there is an optimum saline-water flow rate which results in the maximum productivity, and (3) its value (about 30ml/min per 1m2 evaporating area) is almost independent of I. The additional condenser room, however, has a little effect on the procuctivity, especially in the small I. Discussions have been made on the improvement of the still.
When the Mg-Li alloy reacts water, it generates the electromotive force, reaction heat and H2 gas. The lithium addition decreases electromotive force and increases the generated volume of hydrogen. These properties are useful to generate the electric power.
Photovoltaic-quarity CuInS2 thin films were prepared by means of a sulfurization of precursors under a S-vapor pressure. Conditions for preparing of single-phase films with a highly preferred (112) orientation are presented.
Lithium plasma generated by contact ionizatin has been studied to separate lithium ions. The lithium plasma is squeezed by magnetic field and entered into the separation region through a rectangular slit. Plasma densities can be controlled by changing magnetic field and applied voltage of the slit. The density is obtained in the order of 106-107.
We report the measurement of emission intensity of OH radicals (309.0nm) in the hollow cathode discharge by laser induced fluorescence methods. The OH emission intensity increases with increasing the discharge current.
We produced OH radicals by means of injecting O2 and H2 gasses against the Ar-sheet plasma vertically. A P-brunch (A2Σ (v=0)→X2∏ (v′=0)) spectrum of OH radicals was measured by Optical Emission Spectroscopy. As a result, the rotational and vibrational temperature was obtained about 2300K-3800K.
Two machines, called “String Plasma Device (SPD) and” Isotope Separation Device (ISD), were used for the present work. Among many plasma parameters the ion temperature, Ti, is not yet determined for these machines. The Ti obtained from the emission spectrum is 2-13eV for the SPD and 1-4eV for the ISD.
The plasma parameters were investigated by probe methods with varying an angular of the target which was placed at the end of a magnetized sheet plasma. The space potential, the electron density and the electron temperature of the sheet plasma were unsymmetrical distribution in the magnetic field intersecting the target surface at a shallow angle 30°. There results considerd that the losses of ions on the inclined target surface is non-homogeneities in the thickness direction of the sheet plasma.
The cusp magnetic field for the confinement of plasma does not used widely due to the large plasma-loss from the line cusp. To improve such drawback, we design new coil which shows the nil magnetic field at the center. Although the symmetry of the magnetic field is not completely satisfied.
We demonstrated a new system of a magnetized sheet plasma with vertical gas-flow to investigate the reaction between the plasma and neutral gasses. The high energy part of the electron-energy-distribution function fe (E) above the ionization (-13.6eV) and dissociation (-5.1eV) energy of O2 decrease with increasing the oxygen gas flow.
We developed the measuring system for the ion acoustic wave in the plasma. The phase velocity of the ion acoustic wave is obtained by phase delay between the excitation signals and the received signals in the glow discharge with parallel electrodes.
A laser cavity with a cone-mirror was devised to obtain TEO1 laser output mode which was the low loss mode through the hollow metallic waveguide. In this time, a fundamental research was carried out to characterize the basic optical properties of this cone-mirror.
A Fizeau type of infrared interferometer was fabricated using a infrared He-Ne laser (wavelength of 3.39 micron) as a coherent light source and an infrared imaging camera. Germanium crystals were used as a testing material to characterize the basic performance of this interferometer. The spacial variations of both thickness and refractive index were estimated for Ge samples with a wedged shape.
This paper describes a method for obtaining a frequency stabilized light source with a laser diode using a fabry-Perot resonator as a frequency standard. It is obtained that feedback current is proportional to a transmission light intensity. It was confirmed that AFC circuit functioned normally.
Photorefractive effect with Rh-doped BaTiO3 crystals are more sensitive to near infared light, compared with nominally non-doped crystals. The reflectivity of photorefractive phaseconjugate mirrors was measured for several wavelengths in the nearinfrared. The reflectivity of about 25% was obtained at the wavelength of 780nm in a ring configuration.
Generally, unstable resonator can be used for high power lasers. The large aperture laser medium with the unstable resonator can oscillate in a single transverse mode. But the low gain laser medium can't oscillate with the unstable resonator. Therefore, we proposed new unstable resonator for low gain, large aperture laser medium.
A transverse RF discharge excited carbon dioxide slab laser has been operated cw with hybrid unstable resonator. An output power is 130W at 6.5% efficiency with a frequency of 125MHz and 35Torr of gas mixture 1:1:3 (CO2:N2:He). In this condition, the small-signal gain is measured at 0.82% cm-1.
Optical mount technologies which will be needed in manufacturing for practical opto-electronicsystems are reviewed. So we suggested The Optical Surface Mount Technology (O-SMT). This time, We made an Optical Surface Mount Device of Transmitter/Receiver Type.
A basic reserch with a new method to detect magneto-optical signals using an external cavity laser diode is performed. The magneto-otical signal is detected as the frequency shift of a beat signal. Because of its simple structure and large frequency shift for small Kerr rotation angle, a highly sensitive optical head is possible.
The optical disk system hasn't yet been so popular because the system is too expensive. To solve this problem, a lensless optical floppy disk system was developed by eliminating the kinds of the optical components. This paper introduces experimentations, concerning W/R characteristics.
The transverse deflection measurement between a head and a disk varying a lensless head height against Bernoulli base plate under various measurement conditions of dynamic characteristics for the floppy disk are performed. In this experment in order to find a suitable value for both the disk rotation speed and the head hight, both optical method and capacitive method were applied to measure the gap and deflection.
We fabricated the three dimensional slight probe movement system for scanning tunneling microscope (STM), The scanner used the piezoelectric tube, We measured the hysterical expansion for the piezo tube and a convection value of the control system for scanner.
FIM image is investigated using computer simulation for modulated structure of Ni-11at%Ti. We obtain the dark part in the computing FIM image as a result of the influence of field evaporation for modulated structure.
We measured Pressure-Composition-Temperature relation for the LaNi5-H system using 9mm in the side length of cubic block and less than 64μm particle size of powder sample. The sample size has marked influence on equilibrium pressure in the vicinity of hydrogen solubility limit of the LaNi5-H system.
Unmmisted process by EB irradiation is investigated on the medical glass. Unmisted degree is improved by EB irradiation. After all, EB irradiation yeilds an effect on unmisted degree in medical treatment.
An influence of electron beam (EB) irradiation on the wettability is investigated of the (100) plane of the Si wafer. The wettability is estimated from the contact angle of water. The EB irradiation increases the wettability.
Effect on sulfur in high temperature oxidation of Fe-20Cr-4Al alloy was studied for 18.0ks at 1273, 1373 and 1473K in oxygen. After oxidation at 1473K, adherence of oxide scales on Fe-20Cr-4Al (104ppm, 171ppm)S alloys was improved, however, oxides scales on Fe-20Cr-4Al (35ppm, 53ppm)S alloys spalled over the entire surface during cooling.