Two protein fractions II and III, obtained from human strain Aoyama-B tuberculin were tested on their sensitizing-activities comparing with DT and PPD-s. Four groups of guinea pigs were sensitized respectively by intramuscular injectionof fractions II, III, DT, or PPD-s mixed with Bayol F and Arlacel A. Thereafter animals were tested periodically on their skin reactivities with the intradermal injection of the same dose of fractions II, and III, DT, and PPD-s. Results were as follows: 1) Animals were well sensitized in all groups and developed the maximal reactivity at 6th week after sensitization. The sensitizing-activity to induce the skin reaction to 5 mcg PPD-s in g-uinea pigs fell into the following sequence; DT, PPD-s, fraction II and fraction III. 2) The animals sensitized with fraction II alone developed strong skin reaction to homologous antigen, fraction II. 3) In the animals sensitized with DT or fraction II, the maximal reaction was observed at 24hrs. after intradermal injection of homologous antigen, respectively, but it was 8hrs. after injection with other antigens.
1. 866 strains of staphylococci which had been isolated ten years ago and stocked without transplan-tation, were inoculated in Brainheart infusion broth. There were 187 strains of coagulase positive and 133 coagulase negative still surviving. The 187 coagulase positive strains were compared with the 100 strains isolated from suppurative lesions, in 1961 in regard to phage group and drug resistance. As the results of phage typing of 187 strains, the strains belonging to phage group I were less in number than phage group III or untypable group. We had observed no change in each phage pattern. Of the strains in 1961, there were considerably numerous strains having multiple resistance to antibiotics, (PC, SM, TC, EM, CP, KM.). It was observed that the type 80/81 was agreed with the drug resistance at the limit of 107./ml of HgC12. The staphylococcus strains stocked for 10 years had less drug resistance and did not show so clear relation to the type 80/81. 2. We have examined the resistance against desication of the representative 3 strains in each phage, groups through 4 seasons. group I was more resistant than any other group in every seasons.
In view of the difficulty to establish a localized pulmonary Aspergillus infection in experimental animals, the authors attempted to produce the infection in rabbits with the aid of sensitization by the cell components ofAspergillus fumigatus. Sensitization of rabbits was done very effectively by the repeated intramuscular injection of the whole cell homogenate, cell wall preparation and lipopolysaccharide fraction obtained from a certain strain ofA. fumigatus. Infection of the animals was followed by the intrapulmonal injection of spores of the fungus. This treatment for sensitization proved to be a very important prerequisite for producing lesions in the lung, being much severer in the sensitized animals than in the non-sensitized or non-treated. The physical condition of emulsion of the sensitizing materials was known to be also important in sensitizing animals; a water in oil (w/o) emulsion was much more effective than a oil in water (o/w) emulsion, resulting in the development of severer lesions. However, the physical condition of spore suspension seemed not significant in this point; in the rabbits sensitized with a w/o emulsion of the sensitizing materials, lesions were produced by both w/o and o/w emulsions of spores, whereas when sensitized in o/w emulsion, developed lesions only by a o/w spore emulsion. Concerning the activities of induction of lesions, the cell wall preperation was almost same as the whole cell homogenate, whereas the lipopolysaccharide fraction was much weaker than the above two, even than the non-treated controls. Sensitization was also tried to establish by means of endotracheal inoculation of spores in physiological saline solution and infection was done by endotracheal route, too. These treatments, however, produced more extensive and slighter lesions. Thus, it may be concluded that the most effective method for establishing a localized pulmonary aspergillosis in rabbits consists of a combination of sensitization of the animals by repeated intramuscular injection of the whole cell homogenate or cell wall preparation ofA. fumigatusin a w/o emulsion and the subsequent intrapulmonal inoculation of spores in a w/o emulsion.
In order to study the mechanisms of toxin production, the relation of toxin release of toxinogenic strains (C4 (β) and PW8) to its biological states was observed. The process of the toxin liberation by untreated organisms (C4 (β)) was not parallel with the phage release, suggesting that the toxin liberation is independent of the bacteriolysis by phage maturation. When the phage maturation was inhibited by proflavin, the release of toxin was almost equal to the proflavin untreated organisms, showing again that the liberation of toxin is not associated with the bacteriolysis. Also in ultra-violet irradiation, the process of toxin liberation did not associate with the phage release. From the observations on the toxin production of ultra-violet irradiated and of antibiotics treated cells, it was showed that the viability and growth of organisms were required at least for the toxin production. It was interesting that the growth of organisms was accompanied by toxin liberation in spite of no cell division by adding penicillin. It might be suggested that prerequisites for the toxin production were the viability and the growth of the cells and the cell division was not necessary. From the consideration of these results, the possibility of toxin formation by cell-free systems was. discussed.