Potencies of diphtheria toxoid of combined vaccines (PD) were estimated in guinea pigs by primary response using the National Standard Diphtheria Toxoid, Plain, as a standard and were expressed in “International Unit” (I.U.). Infants aging 6 to 12 months were immunized by three injections of the vaccines with monthly intervals. Titers for diphtheria antitoxin of the serum specimens were determined a month after the last injections. The children receiving combined vaccines of 20-30 I.U. per cc had an average antitoxin titer of 1-1.3 units; while those receiving a fluid diphtheria toxoid of 3 I.U. per cc an average titer of 0.06 unit. The effectiveness of the vaccines in human beings correlated to the potency in guinea pigs, only when the number of the pertussis bacilli in a vaccine was in a certain range. The above vaccines contained 24 billion baccilli in one cc. An average antitoxin titer of the children receiving a vaccine containing 36 billion bacilli reached to 6.9 units, although the potency of the vaccine was 24 I.U., the same level as the combined vaccines described above. The discrepancy could not be explained because of the difference in the number of the injections in two animal species. The optimum number of the bacilli for the maximum adjuvant effect might vary depending on the animal species. Improvement of the assay method for combined vaccines awaits further investigations.
The authors have observed a new phenomenon in rabbits which were intravenously inoculated with heat-killed cells of a certain strain of Candida albicans or a lipopolysaccharide fraction or an “endotoxinlike substance” from the strain, followed by the challenge of living cells. The treated animals showed a unique syndrome consisting of torticollis, spontaneous nystagmus, exophthalmos, cataract, ataxia, etc. about two weeks after the last injection of the living cells. Hearing and vestibular functions proved to be conspicuously disordered. The animals became hypersensitive in consequence of the above immunization procedure and serum antibody was also remarkably increased in titre. Histopathologically, granulomatous tubercles, cell degeneration, demyelination and other changes in the central nervous and vestibular systems were noticeable. These findings demonstrate that both the central nervous and vestibular systems were involved in the positive cases of this phenomenon, and immunity or autoimmunity seemed to play an important role in the mechanism.
Staphylococcus aureus was studied in the bottom layer cultivation in the nutrient agar medium by using 9cm-petri dishes. Colony forming efficiencies were more efficient in the mixed or bottom layer cultivation systems than that of the surface. In the bottom layer cultivation, a sheet of colonies, with opaque center and homogeneous large round periphery, were characteristically formed at 18 hours after the cultivation. This type of colonies, other than those of opaque round, or spindle appearence of the deep colonies, had the similarities with those of L form of the organism which were called fried egg appearence. But the strains derived from this study were not identified as staphylococcal L form because of the reversion to the mother strain at the primary cultivation. Staphylococcal phages were effective to the colonies of that type. The destructive, or eaten effect by the phages to the colonies in the bottom layer cultivation were seen as like as the cytopathic effect of the tissue culture. Hemolytic staphyloccal strains were generally not hemolytic in the deep cultivation. But, in the surface cultivation, crystals were seen restrictively in the surface colonies of many of the hemolytic strains.
Differentiation of Myc. avium from nonphotochromogens is not always easy by their biological prperties. However, obvious difference observed in the degree of acidfastness of these two types of Mycobacteria as the effect of the ultraviolet irradiation for certain time period enabled us to devise a new, simple method to differentiate one from the other by the acidfast stainabilty of the smears. This method is likely to be available in the daily practice before getting informations about them by other precise in vitro and in vivo tests.
By means of intracutaneous infection of heat killed staphylococci, the sensitization against the vaccine or the toxoid was achieved. In the sensitive animals the cutaneous reaction by the vaccine or toxoid was accelerated. After the intracutaneous injection of live cocci or α-toxin, redness and swelling of locus were more prominent in the sensitive animals whereas the abscess appeared in the sensitized animals was much more reduced compared with unsensitized animals. Increased local reaction in the sensitive animals was inhibited by the injection of vaccine intravenously. Such a characters acquired by sensitization was able to transfer to unsensitized animals by the intravenous injection of the cells derived from intraperitoneal exudate of sensitized animals.
1. Penicillin (PN), chloramphenicol (CM), or tetracycline (TC) resistant variant of Streptococcus faecalis in this paper was more sensitive to other kinds of antibiotics than its parent strain, except that PN or TC resistant strain was cross resistant to synthetic PNs or oxytetracycline respectively. 2. During a year storage of the strain in stab culture or in starch powder the resistant value of PN dropped down remarkedly, though those of CM and TC never did. 3. Drop of resistant value dering serial transfer of the strains in drug free media appeared even after only first passage in case of PN, though in CM it did not after tenth but after twentieth and in TC not at least before twentieth passages. 4. By addition of desoxycholate to media the PN resistance was artificially removed, whereas the CM or TC resistance was still stable. 5. Moreover, the PN or CM resistance was decreased by acriflavine treatment, though the TC resistance stood unchanged, and the frequency of occurance of decreased resistant strain was higher than normal transfer procedure.