Cardiolipin-CF, RPCF and TPI tests were carried out on 1, 019 serum specimens of both syphilitic and non-syphilitic persons. With non-syphilitic sera, the results by RPCF test agreed fairly well with those by TPI test; while the former test overlooked some of the weakly positive cases (17 among 1, 019). The antigenic specificity of Reiter strain of Treponema pallidum was analyzed by complement fixation and gel diffusion precipitation tests. The following results were obtained: 1) The main component of the antigen for the RPCF test was precipitated with ammonium sulfate at 75 percent saturation from the sonicate of the organisms. The antigen was immunologically distinct from cardiolipin. 2) Reiter strain shared an antigen with a virulent treponemal strain (Nichols). This antigen constituted a partial antigen of the virulent strain as the results of the gel diffusion precipitation test indicated. 3) Syphilitic human sera contained an antibody which reacted with another antigen present only in the virulent strain. These observations may partly explain the inconsistent results in serological tests with Reiter strain and those with the virulent strain.
Three hundred and twenty strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from clinical and food materials in this prefecture from 1963 to 1964, were examined their in vitro sensitivity to 11 antibiotics and 3 antibacterial compounds by the agar plate dilution method. On the other hand, that of 72 strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, , 37 strains of Vibrio comma (cholera vibrio, 13 and El Tor vibrio, 24) and 9 strains of Aeromonas hydrophila was tested and the difference in those was investigated. Vibrio parahaemolyticus was sensitive to mitomycin C, panfuran S, chloramphenicol and tetracycline, moderately sensitive to erythromycin, novobiocin, nalidixic acid and nitrofurantoin, and much resistent to penicillin G, streptomycin, kanamycin, oleandomycin, colistin and polymyxin B. There was no difference in the sensitivity to all drugs tested between Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus, but Vibrio comma and Aeromonas hydrophila were distinguished from Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the sensitivity to some drugs.
In 1963, it was reported by Kuwabara and his coworkers that the multiple drug-resistance (R-factor) of Shigella was transferred to freshly isolated strains of V. cholerae and V. eltor through conjugation, and the transmitted resistance was quickly lost after a few subcultures on drug-free nutrient media. In this report, further experiments were carried out to ascertain the possibility of transmission of R-factor through conjugation from Shigella to Aeromonas and NAG vibrio. Shigella flexneri 2a, strain 103-R4 was chosen as the donor, and strains of V. cholerae, V. eltor, NAG vibrio and Aeromonas hydrophila were tested for their competences to serve as the recipients of the R-factor. Experimental results revealed that many of the used strains were competent recipients of the R-factor through conjugation, and the transmission frequencies varied according to the used strain and selective drug used. Drug-resistances of the resistantized recipient strains were relatively low as compared with those of the donor, and some of the selected clones were found only resistant to tetracycline. Transmitted resistances were quickly lost after several successive transfers on drug-free nutrient agar. Retransmissions of R-factor from resistantized Aeromonas to sensitive V. cholerae, and from resistantized vibrio to Shigella or Salmonella were also accomplished. Resistantized Salmonella and Shigella strains were as highly resistant to SM, CM, TC and SA as the original donor, and their transmitted resistances were maintained at least after 10 subcultures on drug-free nutrient media.
50ml of fermented milk, containing 1 to 2×108/ml of live Lactobacillus acidophilus strain Shirota (LAS) and 180ml of market milk were orally administration daily to healthy infants (2-6 years) for 35 days, and its effect on the constitution of microflora in feces was investigated, using appropriate selective media. In control group, normal microflora in one gram of feces was found to consitute of 108-1010 of Bifidobacterium classified to three physiological type, 106-109 of enterobacteria group in which E. coli was predominant, 103-105 of lactobacillus group consisting of 60% of L. acidophilus and other lactobacilli (L. plantarum, L. casei and heterofermentives), 104-107 of enterococci, and 10-104 yeasts. During the first 7 days of adminstration, lactobacillus in feces increased to 106-108/gram and this level persisted during the whole administration period. This lactobacillus was serologically identified to be LAS. In contrast, enterobacterial group and enterococci decreased by a facter of 1/100 and 1/50, respectively. When administration was stopped, LAS decreased gradually and one to two weeks after became undetectable, while the suppressed groups recovered to original level. Concomitant with this change, the pH of the feces rised from 5.0-7.5 to original value, 6.7-8.7. Other members in feces were not siginificantly affected through the period of experiment. These results led to the conclusion that LAS survives in human intestinal tract though it does not establish permanent residence, and alter the consititution of microflora, being especically antagonistic against E. coli and enterococci. The antagonistic activity of LAS is discussed.
Biological and biochemical characters of ten strains of Mycobacterium kansasii have been described. Colonial morphology: Rough. Photochromogenic. No pigmentation in dark. Growth at 7 days on Löwenstein-Jensen medium (LJ medium); at 2 weeks on Sauton agar. Growth at 28°C and 37°C; but no growth at 45°C. Growth on Ogawa egg medium containing 0.5mg/ml sodium salicylate. Niacin: Negative. Growth on Ogawa egg medium containing 50μglml thiophen-2-carbonic acid hydrazide. No tolerance to 0.1% picric acid in Sauton agar. No tolerance to 0.25mg/ml hydroxylamine in Ogawa egg medium. Positive urease and positive nicotinamidase, but negative reactions for other eight amidases among Bönicke's ten amidases. Nitrate reduced. Two-week-arylsulfatase: Positive. None of organic acids utilized as sole carbon source (organic acids tested as sole carbon source for growth: acetate, citrate, succinate, malate, pyruvate, benzoate, malonate and fumarate). No acid from glucose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, xylose, rhamnose, raffinose, inositol, mannitol and sorbitol. Glucose utilized as sole carbon source for growth; sucrose utilized by four of ten strains; fructose, ethanol and propanol not utilized. L-Glutamate not utilized or, if any, slightly utilized as sole (simultaneous) carbon and nitrogen source. L-Glutamate, succinamide and nitrate utilized as sole nitrogen source for growth; L-serine utilized by four of ten strains; urea utilized by two of ten; acetamide utilized by two of ten strains tested; benzamide, pyrazinamide, isonicotinamide, nicotinamide and nitrite not utilized. Albino type of M. kansasii was produced in the laboratory by Tsukamura (S) (1963) and Runyon (1964). Scotochromogenic type of this organism also was reported by Tacquet et al. (1965) and Hauduroy et al. (1965). These findings arised necessity for an identification method of this organism without use of photochromogeneity as a marker character. Over-all similarity of any test strains to the above characters would indicate that the test strains belong to the species M. kansasii, even if the test strains were nonphoto-chromogenic or scotochromogenic. Differential diagnosis of this organism from other mycobacteria also was discussed.