The pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare is causal fungus of cucurbit anthracnose. Multiple races have been identified in the United States, suggesting that it is necessary to cultivate suitable resistant cultivars and breed new cultivars with the most suitable resistance gene. This study examined the pathogenicity and virulence of 20 strains in Japan to clarify the existence of races and virulence differences. Based on the symptoms on inoculated cotyledons and true leaves of watermelon, we could evaluate the compatibility of each strain to each host cultivar. Our analysis based on the reaction to the host cultivar harboring the resistance gene Ar-1 (Cla001017) revealed the existence of three races in Japan. An alarming result was that a race that overcame Ar-1, which is a target gene in current watermelon breeding in Japan, is present in Japan. The cucumber and melon host cultivars showed diverse symptoms, whereas a squash cultivar was resistant to all strains. Three strains caused severe damage even to the most resistant cucumber cultivar ‘Ban Kyuri’ and resistant cultivars harboring Cssgr, a well-known gene conferring loss-of-susceptibility resistance. Screening genetic resources for novel resistance genes using strains with high virulence is of vital importance for watermelon, cucumber, and melon production.