An enlightened viewpoint in infrastructure management is put forward whereby institutional arrangements and physical facilities, as well as parts of the natural environment, are systematically coordinated to serve the common needs of different stakeholders in society in a sustainable fashion. A pressing issue in infrastructure management is how to encourage cooperation among divergent stakeholders who envision different alternatives to infrastructure development, management and renewal. Accordingly, requirements for public participation in infrastructure management in North America are discussed. Their policy and governance implications are also discussed including possible utilization in Japan. To facilitate conflict resolution, a range of techniques designed for handling multiple participant-multiple criteria problems are suggested.