Compares to other middle income developing countries, Malaysia is emitting a significant amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) that causes global warming. Feasibility study on building a low-carbon society in its Multimedia Super Corridor city, Cyberjaya Digital Green City 2025 (DGC2025) was launched following the study of Putrajaya Green City 2025. The main objective of these studies is to build the cities to become a pioneer township in Green Technology. Smart 3R Cyberjaya is one of DGC2025 four themes and focuses on planning alternative solid waste management that fulfil the challenge of building both low-carbon and sound material society. Smart 3R Cyberjaya set the target of building a zero emission society that depend less on landfill and actively practicing waste reduction at source. This is quantitatively represent as 75% reduction of waste sent to landfill site and 50% reduction of total greenhouse gases emission, compare to 2025 business as usual scenario. Three counter measure scenarios were evaluated from combination of waste reduction at source; 2R actions and waste treatment selection; food disposer, recycling and thermal treatment. Solid wastes modelled in our scenarios are household solid waste, business solid waste, sludge, green waste and electrical and electronic waste (e-waste). In 2025, total waste generation is 207 ton/day and 1041 ton/year of e-waste. Both waste and GHG reduction target is achievable at 2025CM3 scenarios, 78% (172 t/day) and 84% (1459 t-CO2/day), respectively. Results of other scenarios could also give us a new image of alternative future society.
Long-term trends of tropospheric NO2 columns from four satellites, GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2, are analyzed over the capital cities in Southeast Asia, Japan and China for the period 1996 to 2011. The results show a significant increase in tropospheric NO2 columns over Shanghai during the study period (21.5% yr-1, reference year 1996). The seasonal variability reveals a different pattern between the different city locations. The cities located in low- and mid- latitude show the maximum levels in wintertime and minimum in summertime. Reversely, those cities near Equator give the opposite results. The inter-comparisons between the satellites show reasonably well agreements with the correlations larger than 0.75. The consistency between NOx emissions from several regional and global emission inventories and tropospheric NO2 columns is investigated and give the different results for each city due to the effect of meteorology. The comparison of ground- and satellite-based NO2 are performed for several stations. The results illustrate better relations for OMI and GOME-2 than GOME and SCIAMACHY owing to the differences in satellite overpass time and spatial resolutions. Finally, the results of seasonal variability from GEOS-Chem simulation generally agree well with satellite measurements. However, the model underestimated retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns by the factor of 3-4.