In most of Asian countries, recent urbanization causes, coupled with weak governance, serious impediments for public infrastructure services and serious water pollution problems. The effective countermeasures are requested world-wide. The UN's proposal on Millenium Development Goals is one of them. ODA is a main engine to promote technical transfer with capacity building generally leading to unsuccessful results so far. Hereupon, the authors intend to propose a new approach based on integral basin management systems (BMS), which have been applied successfully for every water-related problems including heavy water pollution in Japan. It consists of mainstay structural measures (centralized sewage works) and supplementary non-structural measures (on-site sanitation systems). Firstly, an analysis is made on the workability of BMS approach under rapid urbanization process during the high economic growth period in Japan. Then, an analysis is made on BMS application models for two Asian mega-city cases to verify how it could realize appropriate and flexible solutions in those basins.
Iskandar Malaysia (IM) is a new economic region in Malaysia's most southern state, Johor. The region is targeted for massive development by 2025 with a targeted rapid increase in the population to 3 million, or double the 2005 level, within the 20-years development period. The current handling method for solid waste in the area depends solely on final landfill and is not sustainable for the future of IM with massive waste generation forecasted by 2025. However, in order to develop an alternative solid-waste management plan, details study of the waste generated are crucial but are currently unavailable. We carried out a study at the Seelong Waste Treatment Facility in June 2012 to characterize household solid waste (HSW). We separated one hundred kilograms of HSW into 27 physical groups and proximate analysis and calorific value analysis were run on the samples in the laboratory. HSW generated in IM consists mainly of food, paper, and plastic in the proportions of 41%, 22%, and 21%, respectively. The moisture content, ash content, combustible content, and measured calorific value of the waste were 56.9%, 8.2%, 34.9% and 1591 kcal/kg, respectively. Further study of the suitability of the waste for alternative waste handling methods shows that, other than landfill, composting and incineration could be applicable in the study area through promotion of waste separation.