Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. D3 (Infrastructure Planning and Management)
Online ISSN : 2185-6540
ISSN-L : 2185-6540
Volume 67 , Issue 5
Showing 1-50 articles out of 130 articles from the selected issue
Infrastructure Planning and Management Vol.28 (Special Issue)
  • Yoh SASAKI
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_1-67_I_14
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The author discusses design of infrastructures which basically serve as facilities of civilization. The main issues are how to recognize social demands changing over times and how to determine behaviors of design. The ideas of design in civil engineering field are arranged based on existing studies. The contemporary roles and values have changed over time making infrastructures not only as a tool but also as resource of regional identity. More over design in civil engineering serves as means of providing common grounds for communication and allowing users to form a sense of identity to that time and place. Some points on the designing process and its subjects to create those values are shown. Finally some suggestions for reconstruction design after the March disaster and the needs of accumulation of research on design activities are also described.
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  • Ran KAMIYAMA
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_15-67_I_23
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This research is to identify traditional perceptional ways of viewing a mountain scenery of the northern part of Kyoto. As a result, the mountains are perceived as a spiritual object, holy mountain, and scenery. Each perceptional ways of viewing mountains has been sustained since it had been found and coexisted with a newly found perceptional ways in a certain view point. This means Japanese mountain scenery contains multiple perception, which is historically and culturally valued, and each perception should be preserved and restored as a cultural value.
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  • Masahiko FUJITA, Jun-ichi TAKAYAMA, Sho-ichiro NAKAYAMA, Takashi USIBA
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_25-67_I_34
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    These days, our interest in nuclear plant accidents has increased, and civic actions for them have also been activated. Therefore, improvement of the disaster prevention planning to nuclear plant accidents is requested. In this study, we developed a microscopic traffic simulation system for evacuation plan near the nuclear plant as a system which supports to examine the disaster prevention planning, and applied the system to Kashiwazaki-Kariha nuclear plant area. Furthermore, the risk of each region near the nuclear plant disaster from the viewpoint of wind direction and the population was considered, the importance of each evacuation simulation was examined. As a result, we found that the present plan Kashiwazaki-Kariha made has the problem on evacuation routes and others.
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  • Toru FUTAGAMI, Noboru KIMATA, Kenichro HAMAMOTO
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_35-67_I_43
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The success or failure of disaster prevention risk communication are dependent on the specific specialist who made the disaster prevention field the speciality and was excellent also in communication power.
    That is, indication with if there are many places undertaken to the individual power of a risk communication subject is also made. If it is right, the risk communication which must cope with various disaster of various areas will become very difficult.
    Then, this research has introduced the ABC model of communication, the role theory, and the concept of an extended C system. And the risk communication which started among the local residents in a wooden high density city area is taken up.
    We try to pull out experience knowledge by application of the ABC role model which is one of the communication theories, and role analysis which used the role concept model.
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  • Mitsuaki KAWABATA, Shoji MATSUMOTO, Kazushi SANO, Satoshi TSUCHIYA
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_45-67_I_56
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    There have been a few attempts to apply the option value concept in the cost-benefit analysis for public transport services. Option values can be interpreted in terms of a risk premium that individuals with uncertain demand are willing to pay over and above their expected user benefit for the continued availability of a transport facility. This paper firstly reviews some issues associated with the evaluation of the option values for public transport, and secondly presents a case study to measure the consumers' surplus and option values for two railway links (LRT and local railway) in the city of Toyama, Japan. The study employs a methodology of stated choice method (SCM) rather than contingent valuation method (CVM) which has been often applied in the transport field. It gives an estimated range of the consumers' surplus from 300 to 500 yen per month per household, and the option values from 800 to 1,200 yen per month per household for the two railway links. The paper finally examines the inclusion of option values in the total benefit for Toyama LRT, and demonstrates the importance of option values in rail projects appraisal.
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  • Yumiko SETO, Nobuhiro UNO, Yasuhiro SHIOMI
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_57-67_I_68
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study proposes a method of evaluating road network robustness against a natural disaster, and aims to determine the optimal allocation of medical facilities in case of road networks degraded by severe natural disasters. Connectivity vulnerability and accessibility are important established concepts in evaluating the strength and reliability of road networks. In this paper, we first introduce a new network evaluation measure, distinct-paths-based accessibility index (DPAI), which is based on the both concepts of connectivity vulnerability and accessibility and considers the number of distinct paths between a certain OD pair, free-flow travel time, and the number of opportunities in an area, and develop a solution algorithm. We then formulate a medical facility location model that optimizes the medical facility allocation to each centroid in terms of DPAI, and apply the results to a real network. Although the optimal medical facility allocation varies according to the minimum DPAI, we found that it is possible to improve the robustness of an actual network by re-allocating medical facilities. Moreover, the allocation results depend on the importance value placed on the number of distinct paths. These results imply that it is critical to set the parameter regarding the importance of the number of distinct paths by considering risks and geographical features in the subject area.
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  • Mitsuaki KAWABATA, Kazushi SANO, Satoshi TSUCHIYA, Shoji MATSUMOTO
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_69-67_I_78
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Since Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) deregulated bus service industry in supply and demand adjustment all over Japan in 2002, the role of community bus has become more and more important for elderly people and disadvantaged people who have no private means. However, it is very difficult that community bus runs on a stand-alone basis. Hence, operation of the community bus has been subsidized, and consensus building of non-beneficiary citizens is essential from the standpoint of fairness as well as beneficiary citizens. This study proposed hypotheses that 1) Bus operation by resident governed organization builds fairness perception for non-beneficiary citizens, and 2) Building fairness perception increases their willingness to pay. We conducted questionnaires to verify the hypotheses using contingent valuation method. As a result, both hypotheses are statistically-supported.
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  • Nobuhiko MATSUMURA, Tomofumi NAKAYAMA
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_79-67_I_87
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between trust for the government and management of public enterprise. We conducted a survey in Osaka International Airport and obtained 662 respondents. The results indicated that their ratings of trust and evaluation of public enterprise management were generally high. The evaluation consisted of those of the administration and those of public enterprise. Those who trust the government tended to positively evaluate public enterprise management.
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  • Yoshinori MISHINA, Yasunori MUROMACHI
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_89-67_I_100
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We develop a decomposition analysis method in which the residual term attributes to a related factor, which produces more reliable results. We then analyze changes in regional CO2 emissions from passenger cars and trucks in Japan over the period spanning 1990-2008 by the analysis method. The main factors for the decrease in the CO2 emissions over the period spanning 2001-2008 are the decrease in the travel distance per passenger car and the improvement in actual road fuel efficiency per average passenger car weight with some regional differences. On the other hand, the main factor for trucks is the decrease in the CO2 emissions per actual travel ton-km.
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  • Masashi ITO, Akinori MORIMOTO
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_101-67_I_108
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to clarify the factors in continuance of citizenry participation for social infrastructure improvement. Three factor is assumed from the research in the past and the case research. According to the questionnaire survey, the factor is summarized as Person (participant and connection), Consideration (target and mutual trust), Environment (process of consensus building). We examined the confidence of these factors by the case study.
    As a result, it has been understood that scheme of continuance of citizenry participation and three factors are effective. Moreover, it would be obvious that the continuance of citizenry participation doesn't go well in case of lack of any these factors.
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  • Masahiro KINOSHITA, Takumi ASADA, Seiji HONDA, Shinichiro KAWABATA, Sh ...
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_109-67_I_116
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In snowy areas, snow removal operations cause damage to road markings, so every year there is a considerable amount of money spent on repainting these markings. In this study, we analyze relationship between stripping ratio (DSR) calculated from images taken at 20-m intervals from a traveling vehicle and conventional stripping ratio (ASR), and relationship between DSR and reflectivity (RF) representing nighttime visibility. A method of estimating ASR and RF using sequent images taken from the travelling vehicle is developed. In addition, this method was applied to two national roads in Sapporo City, and the sections where the road markings need to be repainted are identified using the criteria for repainting.
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  • Takanori INAYAMA, Akiyoshi TAKAGI, Koji KITAURA
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_117-67_I_128
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to assess the forestry management policy referring to CO2 balance and regional economy. For our purpose, we develop the integrated model that consists of the economic model and the thinning model. The thinning model is able to simulate the forest situation for 50 years under the forestry management policy at Nagara river basin where is divided into 6 areas such as Gujo, Mino, Seki, Gifu, Motosu and Hashima. At the result, the utilization of thinning timber instead of the fossil fuel is effective. Especially, the policy of using timber for construction gives the CO2 reduction and social net benefit those are maximized in all forestry management policies of using thinning timber.
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  • Tetsuya OGAMI, Masatoshi MAKINO, Masahiro ISHIKAWA
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_129-67_I_136
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Roundabouts have been actively introduced in many countries due to the higher levels of safety and traffic flow they offer compared with general intersections. Japan is also taking steps such as guideline development to promote them, along with the collection of demonstration data on test roads. However, only a few roundabouts have so far been introduced in the country, and northern Japan (an area known for its harsh weather conditions such as heavy snowfall and low temperatures) in particular faces a need to establish an efficient way to maintain and manage roundabouts in winter.
    The results allow enhanced snowplow model selection according to roundabout shapes and enable the proposal of snow pile locations and heights in consideration of visibility and other factors. Study of efficient snow removal method in Roundabouts.
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  • Kota NAKANO, Jun-ichi TAKAYAMA, Shoichiro NAKAYAMA
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_137-67_I_144
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the relief activities, rapid emergency medical trans port is essential to save more patients. Currently, advanced medical facilities such as the third level emergency medical facilities to deal with patient with an advanced disease are concentrated in urban areas. There are regional differences in emergency medical services between urban areas and local areas that th ere are few third level emergency medical facilities.
    Emergency medical transport from local areas to urban areas use the expressway. But, the increase emergency medical transportation time is problem, if emergency medical facilities are away from the highway interchange. Therefore, to establish exiting road only for ambulance that aimed shortening the distance from the highway to emergency medical facilities can avoid some traffic injury and is possible to shorten the emergency medical transportation time.
    The purpose of this study are to analysis of effect that exiting road only for ambulance introduced into expressway and to improve emergency medical services in the future.
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  • Kei ITO, Hirokazu KATO, Naoki SHIBAHARA
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_145-67_I_153
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study aims to estimate the required level of mass transit development in trunk lines to achieve the target of CO2 emissions from intra-regional passenger transport.
    The target of CO2 emission from intra-regional passenger transport in 2050 is set 20% of that in 2000 in each region. First, the spread of innovative technologies is forecasted and then CO2 reduction from it is estimated. The remaining amount of the targeted reduction is identified as the required reduction from transport policies. The change in CO2 emission resulting mass transit development is estimated, including the reduction from replacing private vehicles and the emissions arising from construction and operation of the transit system. For this purpose, the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment is applied. The transit system that emits the least CO2 per passenger-km is identified for each region.
    Accordingly, the results of this analysis show the necessary lengths of additional mass transit lines depending on urban area and population density, in order to achieve the CO2 reduction target for intraregional passenger transport by 2050.
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  • Tetsuo YAI, Mio SUZUKI
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_155-67_I_167
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Japan, there are huge number of bicycles and little length of bicycle facilities. It is pointed out that a reason of the lack in bicycling space is probably absence of bicycle transport planning scheme. In this study, we reviewed the bicycle traffic policies in Japan and investigated the bicycle policies, the development of bicycle facilities and planning scheme in the Federal, State, Metropolitan Planning Organization and some cities in the United States by publication reviews and interviews. As a result, we figured out the relationship and the whole picture of them basically. Then, we suggested the important points of developing the bicycle policy system in Japan as follow; 1) policy continuity, 2) importance of the network plan, 3) institutional design for policies, planning, and development in consideration for routine accommodation, 4) collaboration with stakeholders, citizen, and NPOs, and 5) ideal design for bicycle facilities.
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  • Ryoko MORIMOTO, Naoki SHIBAHARA, Yuri HATTORI, Hirokazu KATO
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_169-67_I_176
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the case of assessment of products or projects, appropriate identification of system boundary which affects the results is important. This study applies life cycle assessment (LCA) with expansion of system boundary and examines the difference of results among the case of some different system boundaries. Combination of inter-regional passenger and freight transport system and reduction of environmental load by constructing a new system, superconducting maglev and Shinkansen as a high speed freight transport would be used between Tokyo and Osaka is evaluated. The estimation result of total environmental load by integrating passenger and freight transport is less than superconducting maglev development. Sensitivity analysis can indicate the number of high-speed freight transport which can offset increase in the environmental load.
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  • Seitaro YUKAWA, Michinori HATAYAMA, Hirokazu TATANO
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_177-67_I_188
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    According to a report of the Central Disaster Management Council, if a large flood in Tokyo area happens, approximately 663 thousand people are exposure to water, and 421 thousand people need to evacuate. Under this assumption, evacuation plan for mass people is required. In order to develop effective evacuation plans, planner needs a method to analysis of the evacuation risks, and also needs a method to evaluate alternative plans. However, for analysing large-scale flooding evacuation plans, because it requires to handle huge amounts of data is difficult to apply existing methods. In this study, we propose a method to evaluate evacuation plans for large flood in metropolitan area by using equilibrium analysis.
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  • Kuniaki SASAKI, Akihiro NISHIYAMA
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_189-67_I_195
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study focused on the possibility of subjective indicators to evaluation of transportation environment. The data we used in this study was collected in two communities at Hokuto city in 2009 and in 2010. We investigated the difference between two communities and between two points of time. From the statistical test, the life satisfaction became higher significantly at the community where new public transportation was provided. Moreover, the individual change of transportation environment is also significant factor of subjective indicators. We concluded that subjective indicators such as life satisfaction can measure the environment change of transportation and confirm its applicability to evaluation of transportation measures.
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  • Nozomi OHISHI, Tomoyasu ASAOKA, Akiyoshi TAKAGI, Koji KITAURA
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_197-67_I_208
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the activities of professional football team to contribute to regional revitalization. First, we executed a survey which is intended for spectators who had visited the match of “FC Gifu”. With a result of survey, we evaluated benefits of non-market value by a professional football team. These results showed the benefits of community service by a professional football team is as much value as those of matches of a professional football team.
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  • Yuji NANBA, Makoto TSUKAI, Masashi KUWANO
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_209-67_I_219
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the meeting about decision of advocacy community, the communication conflict often occurs. In the previous studies, the opinions were summarized by attending a conference and reading the stenographic records and hearing or questionnaire survey to stakeholders. However, the conventional approaches have the difficulties in time consuming work and the subjectiveness of opinion classification. The objective approach that can understand the opinion of each stakeholders with the transition is required to get the effective fact-findings about the discussion facilitation for the community workshop.
    This study purposes to build the procedure for the opinion extraction by using text mining approach from the stenographic records. Based on the Marcov model quantitative index is defined to figure out the particular transition point along the participant's communication. As a result, the transition of opinions and speakers were visualized, and the discussion structure was shown.
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  • Toru FUJISAWA, Eizo HIDESHIMA
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_221-67_I_229
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Negotiation occurs and often repeats through the communication process to make some plans for the community by retailers, dwellers, and the others who are concerned with in and around the community like downtown shopping mall. It is beneficial to remove prospectively potentials of conflict to smoothen the planning process. In this study we firstly observed and described two cases of communication process by the related agents in a shopping mall community. Secondly we inferred the factors in shifting negotiation aspects by means of resolving the profit into some items, so as to reveal formation and transformation of negotiation aspects. Moreover we explained that the factors in shifting negotiation aspects can be treated as the drivers to lead the breakthroughs.
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  • Masamitsu ONISHI, Kiyoshi KOBAYASHI, Hidetoshi NAKANO
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_231-67_I_242
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Application of PPP (Public Private Partnership) to infrastructure developments is a common phenomenon around the world. This movement of adopting PPP allows the financial source of infrastructure development procurement to be diversified. Recent development of Islamic finance made itself remarkable as one of the alternatives for financial procurement in PPP projects. This paper proposes a formal model to analyze a mechanism of determining the rate of return (RoR), or the interest in the conventional finance, in order to derive an implication of the recent development of Islamic finance to the procurement cost of project financing projects for infrastructure. The analytical result of our paper shows that Islamic bank's RoR are lower in both of the deposit market and the lending market compared to conventional banks. Furthermore, the more religiously conscious those Muslim depositors are, the higher the RoR of Islamic finance becomes, and also the less the transaction costs are, the higher the RoR of Islamic finance becomes.
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  • Yuta FUNASE, Hirokazu TATANO, Satoshi TSUCHIYA
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_243-67_I_254
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper develops a methodology to analyze the global impact due to the malfunction of the critical infrastructure, especially ports. The model consists of an international SCGE model and intra-regional overland transportation network model. As a case study, the impact due to the malfunction of port of Nagoya is estimated. It is revealed that the production of goods in Japan decreases in most sectors. However, the economical damage strikes not only the affected country but also other countries especially those which have close ties with Japan. Moreover, it results in the change of world trading network and also the shift of productive factors from the affected country to other countries.
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  • Mamoru TANIGUCHI, Aya SHIBAIKE, Seiji HASHIMOTO
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_255-67_I_262
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Along with searching of the supporter of compact urban layout in the future, the relation between the attitude of local civil servants and their Social Cap ital Capability (SCC) which had been paid attention in the planning field for forcusing on coproduction, collaboration, partnership or cooperation in these days was clarified. Attitudes and attitudes change were produced by one shot lecture (OL) that told the meaning and the possibility of the policy of the compact city. It is also found that usual personal attributes are not effective to explain the level of SCC of each servant. Retrospective analysis that inquires personal life history and experiences is executed to investigate how each SCC has produced and thrived.
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  • Mamoru TANIGUCHI, Seiji HASHIMOTO, Keisuke FUJII, Taishi KANAI, Junta ...
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_263-67_I_269
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Now it is encouraged to realize compact urban layout in planning fields. At the same time, services such as shops and offices are retreating from region because of decreasing population. These changes cause potential new risks that give rise to inconvenience for residents. This study aims to clearify these new risks lurking in future urban layout. Case study is executed in Kurashiki city and real transportation behavior of residents are examined. The result shows that in case of shopping, potential risk of residents who live in outer central area who rely on bicycle are most serious. The important point is that retreating urban service from suburbs does not always make most serious impact on suburb resident who rely on personal car.
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  • Yanhong YIN, Shoshi MIZOKAMI
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_271-67_I_281
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study attempts to better understand the relationship between energy consumption, individual quality of life and urban structure. Three main parts are included in this paper. In section two, a model is developed to estimate the real and minimum energy consumption on maximum individual utility level. Then we applied the model to Kumamoto and Nagasaki metropolitan regions to estimate the related individual energy consumption. In section three we analyzed the relationship between energy efficiency and compact city characteristics from density, diversity and accessibility aspect. In section four, eight policy scenarios related to gasoline tax increasing and mass-transit fare reduction is simulated to estimate the effects on energy consumption. Finally the paper discusses the results and gives conclusions.
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  • Yuko ISHIZUKA, Yasutsugu NITTA
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_283-67_I_290
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We knew from previous research that visually impaired people did not want wide range tour activities such as walking through area. In this study, we have the hypothesis that good experiences through five senses are made to contribute to any rise in intent to walk. This study focused on walking around with the tour guides and aimed to clarify the effects of intent to walk around for visually impaired people. As a result, following issues were clarified. The experience of walking around with tour guides could support the increasing better impressions for the area and “Intent to recommend to others”, and was effective to find the glamour of the destination for the visually impaired people. On the other hand, they did not contribute to any rise in intent to walk the area.
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  • Arata FUSHIMI, Mitsuhiko KAWAKAMI, Masahiro KATAGISHI
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_291-67_I_298
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper studies actual conditions of the suburban residential area and its transformation based on a case study in Kanazawa City. This study was done by selecting typical six districts and analyzing existing data and questionnaire survey data, As a result of this study these are concluded as follows. Although population has been decreasing, the number of household has been increasing. This phenomenon was caused by the decreasing of the number of household members such as single person's family. Younger families newly live at the divided lots which were originally arranged by the Land Readjustment Project and they tend to have environmental problems caused by the small-scale land lot. In general household types were getting smaller and older after younger members leave their home.
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  • Kenji HIRAI, Mitsuhiko KAWAKAMI, Takafumi MOTODATE
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_299-67_I_306
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper studies actual conditions of large-scale commercial facilities in the local conurbation area using their floor area against number of residents and also actual conditions of planning guidelines prepared by the Prefectural governments. These are conclusion as follows. Although the small-scale commercial facilities are decreasing large-scale and medium scale commercial facilities are increasing and they tend to locate in the outer area of the conurbation. This tendency cause centricity decline of the central city. Thirty prefecture governments employ the method of post coordination as the location planning, which has limitation for location control and thirteen prefecture governments employ the before coordination method, which is mere effective for location control.
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  • Kouichi MORIKUNI, Mitsuhiko KAWAKAMI, Akinori KURANE
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_307-67_I_314
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper studies actual conditions and its planning problems about the revision of planed roads that has been carried out according to the guidelines formulated by the planning department of the Prefecture governments and major city governments. Although most of the planning departments do not tackle alternatives against the abolishment of the planned road, some city government in Ishikawa Prefecture try to review relatively positive alternatives according the Prefecture's Guideline. Several actual cases of revision of planned roads were studied by field surveys and interviews to officers of Prefecture and City governments. As a result of the study these are concluded as follows. Positive proposals are talked at the adhoc committees for the revision of planned roads, but most responses by the planning officers are abstract and actual alternatives were hardly prepared. This kind of situation is caused by the linkage absence between review of the planned road and urban planning and weak planning institutions for the realization of the planning proposals except the planned road system.
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  • Kazumasa SUZUKI, Akinori MORIMOTO
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_315-67_I_320
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Over the last two decades measures toward the compact city have been conducted in some cities in Japan. But, the effect of the measures is insufficient for reducing the demand in suburban development, and it may require considerable time to become effective for smart shrinking. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the systematized measures toward the compact city with the new concept of “location management”. As the result of data gathering from local authorities in Japan, the measures were classified into three categories, which is pull measure, push measure and relocation measure. Most of the measures fall into the category of pull measure for the reason of seeking the attractiveness by local revitalization.
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  • Eriko SHIOI, Akinori MORIMOTO
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_321-67_I_326
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Recently, the future city in 2050 has been discussed to cope with contribution for the considerable reduction of CO2 emission. Although the future image using illustration is shown to explain the future city, the concrete city image of real city is obscure and hard to understand for citizens. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose the visualization process to produce the future city image in existing city by using the technology of Virtual Reality.
    As a result, a future image of real city in 2050 would be shown by combining the future city planning and the present citizens' preference. In order to produce the common image, the continual communication to citizens would be required to bridge the gap between the proposed future image and citizens' preference.
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  • Natsuki KITAGAWA, Haruna SUZUKI, Tsuyoshi HATORI, Satoshi FUJII
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_327-67_I_332
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of a sense of alienation from four types of communities (i.e., family, organization, region, and nation) on subjective well-being (SWB). Using the existing scales of SWB which were composed of “Affective SWB” and “Cognitive SWB” and “alienation scales” developed on the basis of Hegel's theory, the associations between SWB and a sense of alienation from communities were examined. According to the obtain data, it was indicated that a sense of alienation from communities may have negative influences on SWB.
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  • Naoko MIYASHITA, Shigeru MORICHI, Hajime INAMURA
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_333-67_I_341
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study analyzed how urban structure, such as land use, in Tokyo downtown area has been changed during the period of 1980 and 2010. After land price of Tokyo downtown touched the bottom in year 2000, population of the city center started growing rapidly together with the increase of dwelling space supply. On the other hand, the number of establishments has been growing only in specific areas owing to changes in the industrial structure and urban development accompanied by the agglomeration of information and communications industries. The urban development has been driven by the opening of new railway lines. These changes will generate some urban problems in future such as the imbalance between capacity of transportation infrastructure and growth of urban density.
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  • Hiroto INOI, Shota ITO
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_343-67_I_350
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this research, it is focused on conferences conducted in screening process of registration of Special Transport Service (STS). The result of questionnaire to STS told the problem involved in the conference. From result of questionnaire to STS and Taxi company, the attitude of taxi company to a conference and STS is investigated. As a result, considering that taxi company would like discuss deliberately even if they pay more time and effort rather than entry of the other taxi company that go in their market. In the conference, member are required to judge without detail information. It might make taxi company restrained attitude.
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  • Yoshihisa SHIMODA, Masaharu OOSAWA, Takayuki KISHII
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_351-67_I_359
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Tama New Town which was constructed by new urban residential built-up area development project and land readjustment project, constructing major public facilities was one of the most difficult problems. Therefore new urban residential built-up area development project helped land readjustment project. This paper made it clear what was the rule on major public facilities construction, how long does it take to construct major public facilities and what was the background to this system.
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  • Tatsuo TAKASE
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_361-67_I_367
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This chapter focuses on preschool choice behavior by parents of their preschool children. Recently, a lot of number of serious problems of originating in declining birthrate and dual-career family clearly is existed in Japan. However, those problems are hardly solved though the governments have been doing various policies. Therefore, it is necessary to construct discrete choice model and analyze kindergarten and nursery center choice behavior by parents of their preschool child. In this study, effects on some policies are analyzed by using nested logit model. Moreover, a marginal cost on school time according to type is estimated. Consequently, it is able to be founded that the nursery user attaches great importance to the overtime childcare and the distance from the house by this research. Additionally, it can be known that the kindergarten user attaches importance to the school fee and the pickup bus.
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  • Takuya OKUMURA, Dai NAKAGAWA, Ryoji MATSUNAKA, Tetsuharu OBA
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_369-67_I_377
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, we analyzed the transitional relationship between DID population density and passenger car ownership rate based on the data of 163 cities from 1975 to 2005.
    As a result, from 1975 to 1985, passenger car ownership rates in all cities increase, and the increase of passenger car ownership rate is not related DID population density. However, from 1995 to 2005, the higher DID population density, the smaller the increase of passenger car ownership rate. Moreover, the increase of passenger car ownership rate where DID population density has increased is smaller than that where DID population density has decreased.
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  • Tatsuya MORIKAWA, Dai NAKAGAWA, Ryoji MATSUNAKA, Tetsuharu OBA
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_379-67_I_387
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, the detailed database about the regional characteristics targeting 1,784 districts in 61 cities is built to analyze the relations between urban layout or regional characteristics and the traffic environmental load on the micro scale, considering the actual urban planning or the situation of housing development. And focused not only the spatial layout of districts in cities but also the land development timing, and analyzed the relations of traffic environmental load from both sides.
    In conclusion, in spite of the similar positional relationship of districts in cities with the commercial area and the station and so on, districts developed in early time have the smaller traffic environmental load than those developed in late time, and land development timing is also important factor of traffic environmental load in the planning of the compact city.
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  • Masato MIYATA, Kunihiro KAMEGAI, Hirokazu KATO, Yasuhiro KAWASE, Yoshi ...
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_389-67_I_398
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In hilly and mountainous areas in Japan, there are many economically underproductive forests and farmlands that could have ecosystem service and produce social values. It is necessary to give quantitative evaluation of these areas with respect to their efficiency under severe financial situations.
    This paper proposes the NOD (social Necessity Of Districts) indicator, which is the ratio of values of those artificial forests and farmlands to their maintenance cost at the forest ownership compartment level in Matsusaka City and Taki Town, the total value of ecosystem service level of artificial forests all over the areas has been estimated at 101 billion yen per year and the total maintenance cost at 5 billion yen per year. The optimal placement of foresters based on the distribution of NOD values can increase the total value of ecosystem service level approximately by 30 percent.
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  • Kazuaki OKUBO, Makoto OKUMURA
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_399-67_I_406
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper explores property of knowledge of elderly and young people acquired by information exchange through social network in aging society. This study proposes a model of elderly people who acquire knowledge from their experience and exchanging information with young people. It was found that assumption, which is used in many studies, is not valid in this case and average value of initial beliefs is different from true state. The difference between the average value of initial beliefs and the true state can be adjusted by the information exchange among the number of elderly and young people. This paper assessed the conditions for agents to enable to select the desirable action based on the adjusted beliefs.
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  • Kantaro TAKEUCHI, Takehito UJIHARA, Hirofumi ABE
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_407-67_I_416
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This analysis examines challenges and identifies opportunities in converting “existing building stock” in a wholesale business complex in Toiya-cho district , Kita-ku, Okayama city into new stores. “The existing building stock” includes existing industrial and office buildings that are either used ineffectively or not at all. Actual conditions of stores in used buildings were assessed from results of a questionnaire survey of visitors' actions and opinions. Results show that the visitors' actions are apparently related to the “element of the area unit of Toiya-cho” and that they raise opportunities of store use and creation of prosperity. Furthermore, results reveal that new store accumulation in existing buildings changes the atmosphere of Toiya-cho and positively influences visitors' actions, which further increases benefits for the stores. Results clarified that the atmosphere beneficially affects the charm of Toiya-cho.
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  • Nobuhiko MATSUMURA, Yohei ODA, Narihiro KIDA, Yuki KUSUDA, Yutaro HIRA ...
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_417-67_I_425
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Although the Japanese suburbs housing complex has been ever proud of “novelty” and “the sense of the upper class”, it lose brightness by the present. We have to breed “familiarity” to retain suburbs housing complex as a place of residence. “the familiarity” that is the synonym of “being used to it” “the friendly feeling” means a mental bond. However, I thought that a physical bond also should be included by “familiarity” and I defined the element to “managing a place” as “familiarity”, including “being used to it” “the friendly feeling”. And I made a questionnaire for the cause in these concepts and performed a questionnaire in Daiwa housing complex of Kawanishi city, Hyogo where there was vigor. As a result of factor analysis, 4 elements was confirmed as “the familiarity”. 4 elements was “being used to it” “the friendly feeling” and “managing the place of the need activity” and “managing the place of the voluntarily activity”.
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  • Nobuhiro SANKO, Toshiyuki YAMAMOTO
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_427-67_I_434
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    RP/SP model has been widely used, but an efficient SP experiment design for RP/SP model has not been examined very much. This study aims at investigating estimation efficiency of RP/SP models considering both the design of the SP experiment and the assumptions made with respect to error structures. The attribute levels of the SP survey are sometimes designed by considering their differences from those of the RP survey. In the RP/SP model, assumptions are made about error structures between the RP and SP models. However, it is not known how the SP design and the assumptions are related from the viewpoint of estimation efficiency of RP/SP models. This study analyses the relationship using simulation technique. Both a true model, where the model structure is the same as the one assumed in the data generation process, and a general model, which includes the true model as a special case, are estimated. Results suggest that the larger the variance of error components, the larger the difference in attribute values between the RP and SP required to obtain better efficiency, and that better efficiency of general models is obateind when the attribute values of the SP is close to those of the RP.
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  • Masayuki ANDOU, Jun-ichi TAKAYAMA, Sho-ichiro NAKAYAMA
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_435-67_I_453
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to provide an effective infrastructure, to make the congestion easier, and to manage the traffic demand, and to achieve the comfortable traffic circumstance, it is necessary to understand the characteristic of driver's route choice, and to select the appropriate route selection model actually suited in a comparatively narrow area in the urban area.
    In this study, from the result of the survey of the route choice behavior in the real traffic, it is clarified that the drivers choose the route according to various factors not only the travel time but also the width of the road and the number of signal intersections etc., and verified adaptability with an existing Logit type route selection model based on the characteristic of the route choice behavior of such as the drivers. As a result, it turned out to suit the MNL model most, and to suit the C-Logit model next. Moreover, to attempt the accuracy improvement of the route choice calculation, it proposes the calculation method that takes the situation in the road and the route into the effect.
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  • Yuriko SATO, Naohisa OKAMOTO
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_455-67_I_464
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Japan, several efforts for improvement of recreational area and improvement of quality of tourism have been done. Especially, it is necessary for tourism measures to keep the repeater for each recreational area. However, there are few studies which discussed what is the factor which make tourist repeater and discussed what is difference between activity of repeater and activity of non-repeater.
    This study tried to reveal the characteristics of repeater using discrimination analysis and covariance structure analysis. And also, it is tried to compare the activity and evaluation of recreational area by repeater and non-repeater. Using these results, several matters are discussed from the viewpoint of tourism policy.
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  • Junya NAKAI, Sho-ichiro NAKAYAMA, Jun-ichi TAKAYAMA, Kazuki NAGAO
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_465-67_I_472
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    When evaluating transportation policies or plans with public transit such as LRT with exclusive railway, it is important to consider travel time punctuality of railway public transit in comparison with road travel time uncertainty. We cannot assess the effect of introducing LRT appropriately in same cases if we neglect the difference between railway public transit punctuality and road travel time uncertainty. It is also important to consider within-day dynamics of traffic situation, especially morning and evening peak hour. In this study, we propose a semi-dynamic traffic assignment model with road travel time uncertainty and exclusive railway LRT's punctuality. Then, we apply the model to Kanazawa urban network and examine the effect of introducing LRT and its influence to road traffic semi-dynamically.
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  • Tadashi ITOH, Manabu OHNISHI, Yoshitaka AOYAMA
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_473-67_I_480
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper intends to explain the influence on travel and consumption activity by a jump in gasoline price through household questionnaire in Hiroshima city. During April 2008 to August 2008, gasoline price jumped from about 130 yen per liter to 180 ye n per liter. About 25% of household samples indicated to decrease car usage and a half of the rest households saved consumption. This is caused by trip attribution and income. We also calibrate multinomial logit model for car usage and ownership, then predict an influence of a jump in gasoline price.
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  • Yuya OKAMOTO, Sho-ichiro NAKAYAMA, Jun-ichi TAKAYAMA
    2011 Volume 67 Issue 5 Pages 67_I_481-67_I_489
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Assignment of route flows is required when examining fare discount of some routes on urban expressways. In general, traffic assignment of a large-scale road network needs much computation capacity and computation time, and work of data entry and displaying results is also very tough. It is important to reduce computational cost and capacity especially when traffic assignment is made many times. Aggregation of traffic network is one of the methods for reducing the computation cost, maintaining the accuracy of the results. In this study, a method of aggregating the routes that consist solely of general links is developed using sensitivity analysis, and traffic assignment is made between the aggregated general link route and routes which wholey or partially include expressway link. Then, the above method is applied to a simple network and its validity and computational time reduction are examined.
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