Thus far, in the field of infrastructure planning and management, many types of economic equilibrium models have been developed. They have been advanced independently based on traditional economics through careful consideration of geographical spaces, for example, cities or regions. In recent times, they have been widely and successfully used in practice as tools for policy and project evaluation. This article reconfirms the significance of economic equilibrium models in the field of infrastructure planning and management in the special issue "Recent progress in economic equilibrium modeling for infrastructure planning and management; computable general equilibrium models and computable urban economic models." The article proceeds to describe the papers that are included in this special issue.
This study aims to develop a spatial computable general equilibrium model for measuring the economic impacts arising from accessibility changes generated road infrastructure projects. After reviewing historical background of SCGE models, the paper pointed out the drawbacks of SCGE models with iceberg specification, from both viewpoints of the model calibration and the benefit calculation. To resolve these issues, the paper proposed a novel method to incorporate a transportation sector into a SCGE model as an independent industrial sector. The paper also showed a labour supply model relating the travel-time saving in household sector of each region with the level of labour service supply. The proposed model was applied to the economic impact analysis of the Tokai ring road. At the same time, the paper shows through the sensitivity analysis for the given two parameters, the substitution elasticity of trade and the ratio of labor endowment against the benchmark labor supply, that those have the critical effects in measuring economic benefits for accessibility-improvement.
Port and airport are the most essential infrastructure for international freight transport. Therefore many trade transport industries are located on near port or airport. The locational characteristics have to be considered in order to understand the effect to regional economy by port/airport policy and trade policy. This paper builds an open-economy multi-region computable general equilibrium model which features the activity of trade related industrial sector regarding export and import. The behavior of export industry sector and import industry sector are explicitly formulated in the model as well as other industrial sector. The numerical analyses derive implications about the impacts to port city and hinterland city by trade demand shock and technological shock.
In recent years, high speed rail has been invested rapidly in East Asia. Many of the evaluation of high speed rail have been a focus on economic effects. On the other hand, many of the environmental impact of development on high speed rail has been a focus on CO2 emissions from transport, did not consider CO2 emissions from economic growth. Although the SCGE model is built in each country, there are not international comparisons analyses. In this study, we calculate the economic efficiency and CO2 emissions by SCGE model of KTX and MAGLEV. We analyze the difference of transport and industrial structure by international comparisons.
Thus far, many types of computable urban economic (CUE) models have been developed and applied in practice. Most CUE models treat buildings and lands as one set, and it is assumed that the aggregate supply of building spaces in any zone is proportional to the aggregate land supply. Moreover, the modeling of building markets can be the basis of the analysis of the emergence of high-rise buildings particularly in city centers. In this study, we have developed a new CUE model that explicitly formalizes the building market and describes the endogenous supply of building spaces by a representative developer for each zone. Further, the results of both the proposed CUE and conventional CUE models are compared, and the potential of a CUE model for explicitly formalizing the building market is discussed.
The computable urban economic (CUE) model, which is completely based on microeconomic foundations, is an advanced form of the urban model that was developed from land-use transport-interaction models; further, theCUEmodel is both operational and practical. In recent times, theCUEmodel has been widely used as a tool for analyzing real urban economies and evaluating the implementation of urban polices in practice. In this paper, we discuss the current issues and perspectives of CUE models. First, the significance of the CUE models is reiterated by providing an overview of its prehistory and a description of their characteristics. Subsequently, the paper lists the current issues from the viewpoints of model construction, identification, and application as well as its practical applications and propagation. Finally, the paper presents important perspectives on the issues and discusses the directions for further theoretical developments.
In this paper, system for participatory planning, in which plural participants are involved in the process for planning and making decisions, is discussed. Then, the model for describing conflicts which can arise in participatory planning is proposed. First, the problems of game theory in describing conflicts in participatory planning are discussed. Second, policy conflict model is proposed. Based on the proposed model, typology of conflicts between participants is shown. Schemes for governing such conflicts are also considered. Finally, the proposed methodologies are applied to the problem on regional public transportation planning.
In the evaluation of transport measures, objective indicators have been used dominantly. For example, reduction of travel time and travel cost are considered in assessment of road-construction, Meanwhile, subjective indicator include psychological state of man have less studied compared with such objective indicators. However, subjective scale seems to directly reflect service level for them. With this recognition, some transport measures used subjective indicators includes satisfaction for travel. Subjective Well-being (SWB), is one of potential scale to assess the impact of Infrastructure management. SWB consist of both of cognitive and affective scales. Previous studies showed that SWB during travel have significant influence on SWB for their life. In this study, we implemented questionnaire survey to explore determinants of SWB during travel. As a result, it was indicated that the effect of SWB of each minutes during travel on Linked trip SWB is not dependent on the travel modes used in Trip leg. This indicates that SWB for each minutes can be integrated to produce Linked trip SWB. Then, we examined determinants of SWB during travel for each travel mode. As a result, preference for scenery during travel have significant positive effect on SWB during travel in common. Besides, result showed some determinants, such as activity during travel and travel time, have different effect depend on travel mode.
We compared the relationship of the compactness of urban structure, with the service frequencies of railways and tramways stations, and also with the spatial distribution of pedestrian spaces in the city center, targeting local cities in Japan, France and Germany. First, we showed that many German cities have higher proportions of populations around stations to those of cities in Japan and France. We also determined that the proximity of pedestrian spaces to railway and tramway stations was high in the order of Germany, France and Japan. Then, we compared the compactness of urban structure of local cities using two urban compactness indices, which we calculated by way of principal component analyses. The results show that German cities have more compact urban structure than cities in Japan and France. Moreover, in the case of considering the proximity of pedestrian spaces to railway and tramway stations, French cities have more compact urban structure than Japanese cities.
A variety of uncertainty affects the deterioration processes of infrastructure. Deterioration rates vary significantly according to the differences in the structural characteristics, use, and environmental conditions of infrastructure. In order to overcome the problem of overdispersion of deterioration rates caused by the heterogeneity of structures, the mixed Markov deterioration hazard model has been proposed considering the heterogeneity of deterioration rates among groups of infrastructures. In this study, it is assumed that the overdispersion of deterioration rates depend on the heterogeneity of deterioration rates among groups of infrastructure and that of respective infrastructure. Then, the mixed Markov deterioration hazard model that takes into account hierarchical heterogeneity is formulated, and a hierarchical Bayesian estimation method is proposed. Lastly, the appropriateness of the proposed method is discussed through the empirical analysis of the visual inspection data on bridge slabs.
This paper focuses on supply chain-transport supernetworks and presents a model for optimising the values of discrete design variables in a transport network. Modelling is undertaken on the basis of MPEC, where the upper level is a combinatorial optimisation problem for determining the best combination of links on the transport network, whilst the lower level describes the decentralised decision-making of manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, demand markets (consumers), freight carriers and passengers. A supply chain-multimodal transport supernetwork equilibrium (SC-MT-SNE) model is developed and incorporated within the lower level. These are mathematically formulated, and the equilibrium conditions to be governed in the whole supernetwork are derived. Numerical examples are then undertaken for investigating the influence of the improvement and disruption of links in a transport network on the performance of supply chain networks.
The purpose of this study is to develop the diagnostic method for repaint of road markings using the stripping ratio (DSR) is calculated from images of road surface taken from a vehicle traveling. A questionnaire survey on appearance (daytime visibility) of road markings was conducted, and then the relation between DSR and the score of examinees, and criterion of DSR for repaint was clarified. In addition, we have proposed the Road Marking Condition Index (RMCI) based on nighttime visibility and appearance, and revealed that repaint section can be reduced by the use of RMCI. Because RMCI can adjust the ratio of nighttime visibility between appearance, road administrators can set up a maintenance level in response to situations such as nighttime road traffic volumes or luminance in road lighting.
This paper models a spatial infection process of foot-and-mouth disease as a form of Markov chain process, and proposes the estimation methodology for the spatial infection probabilities. To apply this methodology, it takes into account of the fact that the observed data are affected by 1) the possibility of infection during incubation period and 2) artificial policies such as preventive culling. The observed data is the information about the expression of foot-and-mouth disease of animals, but not the infectious states of animals; as a result, the time-series infection states of animals cannot be grasped perfectly. This paper proposes the methodology using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method to estimate the spatial infection model including such characteristics. In addition, the availability of the proposed methodology is verified using the case of the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in Miyazaki prefecture in 2010.
Many studies of infrastructure productivity have been conducted. Researchers have estimated the production function including infrastructure stock as a production factor by using time-series and regional data as macro data and have determined whether or not infrastructure development has significant effects on national economy. On the other hand, Barro and Sala-i-Matin (1992) reported that the influence of accessibility improvement by infrastructure development has marginally decreased recently. Although these discussions have focused on the national economic growth, we don't get the information how economic changes in the regional economic level by infrastructure development. On the other hands, we know the regional infrastructure development has several effects as our current experience. Some of the effects are positive, such as increasing productivity in a private sector and inducing regional development, but some are negative, such as inducing the outflow of consumption from smaller, local cities to larger cities (This is known as the "Straw Effect"). These phenomena, however, have not been studied in practical terms. In this paper, the fixed effect model based on the panel data is used to clarify the positive and negative regional economic effects of existing expressway development. Using panel data (time series and regional statistical information), it is possible to analyze the spatial influence of expressway development. And this model is constructed by formulating a correlation between expressway development (change of accessibility) and regional economic effect. We used this model to clarify the positive and negative effects about population, productivity and production changes by existing expressway development in Japan. In the conclusion, the population in most rural regions is decreasing with expressway development. However, economic activities such as manufacturing, wholesale and retail production are increasing. This shows that the expressway development has a possibility to make relocate the population distribution, and contributes to an efficient economic activity.
In this paper I would like to consider the effect of transport policy toward low-carbon society focusing on health aspect. Questionnaire surveys were conducted with 180 employees in Tokushima city. The CO2 reduction effect of these policy is 17-32%. This value is more than 10 times from the basic Monetary Policy. The opinion of person about using automobile have a great influence on these policy. And if, target person consider to refrain using automobile, and, they think no-using-car transport is not difficult, the effect are achieved more. The result of this survey will have impact on transport policy in provincial city.