Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. D3 (Infrastructure Planning and Management)
Online ISSN : 2185-6540
ISSN-L : 2185-6540
Volume 69 , Issue 5
Showing 1-50 articles out of 88 articles from the selected issue
Infrastructure Planning and Management Vol.30 (Special Issue)
  • Kiyoshi KOBAYASHI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_1-I_14
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In traditional methodologies of engineering and risk analysis, it is the widely accepted presumption to delineate the scope of consideration by excluding uncertain events with extremely low probabilities, and to seek the rational means to maneuver the presumed risks in rational ways. But we learned these conventional wisdoms are no longer valid from the last earthquake in the Eastern Japan to cope with the unexpected huge disaster. In this article, I still wish to accept a paradigm at the first place that any kinds of analytical investigation for planning cannot stand without presumed comprehension of the world, but to acknowledge its insufficiency. I am motivated to seek the plausible philosophical foundations for risk management which could partly mitigate the methodological limitation driven by cognitive capacities of human beings. The article tries to contemplate the basic issues which may exist in risk communications between professionals and nonprofessional. The paper is concluded by illustrating some basic problems related to practices and researches in infrastructure planning and perspectives for human betterment.
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  • Ken-etsu UCHIDA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_15-I_29
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, factors which have an influence on travel time reliability in road network are clarified. Estimation models associated with benefit evaluation considering travel time reliability are then presented. The models presented in this study have been selected mainly from the models developed by the author. Conditions which should be satisfied by the benefit estimation models are presented next. Finally, issues and future prospect toward practice of benefit evaluation considering travel time reliability in road network are presented.
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  • Yuki TAKAYAMA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_31-I_46
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Numerous studies in the field of spatial economics have been devoted to explain mechanisms of the spatial agglomeration of economic activities. These studies have the potential to provide a basis for predicting and evaluating long-term effects of various economic policy proposals. However, there remain some fundamental problems for applying these studies to such applications, which result directly from technical difficulties caused by the non-convexity of spatial agglomeration models. In this paper, we first summarize issues of spatial economics and then review our studies that attempt to overcome these issues. Finally, we discuss future studies.
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  • Mamoru TANIGUCHI, Hirotoshi YAMAGUCHI, Hiroaki YAMAMURO
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_47-I_56
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Because of the Great East Japan Earthquake, inter-regional civic assistance has become more readily apparent than ever. Many people have recognized its importance. In this study, we examined the Great East Japan Earthquake as a case study. We classified people into groups using indicators such as local activities, the attachment to their region or country, consciousness of assistance or self-support and friendship, etc., which seem to be related to inter-regional civic assistance. Results show that we made seven groups and clarified their respective differences in inter-regional assistance. We also found that not only their distance from the region but also their level of activity, attachment to the region or country, and daily local activities were related to their level of inter-regional assistance.
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  • Mieko MASAKA, Kenji KATO, Akio KONDO, Masashi OKUSHIMA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_57-I_65
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The commuting social experiment for mobility management in the local city is conducted using the promotion of the health consciousness in the present study. As the result, it can be found that the frequency of healthful commuting is different whether the subject has commuted by a bicycle or on foot before the experiment. In consideration of the difference, the effect for the environment and the health are estimated. The estimated results shows that the CO2 discharge decrease between 43-70% and the risk for Hypertension and Type 2 diabetes decrease 10-19% on the social experiment. Therefore, the mobility management considering with the health consciousness in local city is expected to product some effects in both sides of environment and the health. On the other hand, increase in frequency of the commuting by a bicycle or on foot is required. Therefore, the effects of the measures such as change of the work time are analyzed.
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  • Shinya HARADA, Yohei EITOKU, Tomohiro TONE, Satoshi MIKI, Hiroshi WAKA ...
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_67-I_74
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Owing to the Tohoku-Pacific Ocean earthquake and tsunami, many roads were blocked in all over the Tohoku region, especially in the Pacific coast area, and a lot of villages were isolated. This situation posed a serious problem for the rescue operations. Therefore, a reliability assessment of the road network is more important than before.
    In this study, at first, we organized the area to assess the reliability of the road network from the point of view of the disaster prevention and set up required assessment measures. Secondly, we proposed the method of the road-connecting reliability that makes it possible to calculate assessment measures. Finally, we estimated the reliability assessment of the road network of Kochi prefecture and Iwate prefecture, and we verified that this assessment could apply to the practical business.
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  • Sachiko OHNO, Akiyoshi TAKAGI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_75-I_89
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An extremely severe earthquake and tsunami struck the Tohoku district on March 11, 2011 and it caused very serious damage to Japan. In order to propose appropriate evacuation behavior in the event of disaster, it is necessary to clarify how the resident evacuated in the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami, and what the direct and indirect factors of evacuation behavior were. Firstly, this paper collected several newspaper articles regarding tsunami caused by earthquake disasters and consider the individual decision and impeditive factors. From the perspective of individual decision, this paper showed the importance to have intuition by themselves as soon as possible whenever the earthquake happens. For this decision, the knowledge and experience would useful. In addition, it is necessary to be processed into information according to regional circumstances by receiving the common information, and convey for residents. Also schemes based on regions are necessary for support help-needed person. From the perspective of impeditive factors, those factors are divided into human error, infrastructure and society. It considered about psychological characteristics, especially focusing on human error. As the results, people would behave as usual despite the event of disaster and the relations between individual are important. Finally, this paper showed that individual decisions affect the others and whole regions.
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  • Tsunaki YAMADA, Masanobu KII, Kenji DOI, Emiko ITAMI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_91-I_99
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Number of elder people who has difficulty in shopping is increasing due to decline of neighbor shops and dependency on automobiles. To assess the measures to support their shopping, the process of generating the difficulty of elder people in shopping has to be analyzed. In this study, assuming that the spatial distribution of shopping activities is determined by supply and demand balance, we estimate where the number of shopping refugees is increased in future targeting at Takamatsu in 2035. As a result, it is found that the shopping refugees will increase in suburban area due to close of shops and poor public transport service. Assuming that spatial extent of residential area will get to be compact, it is also found that the number of shopping refugees is much less than non-compact case.
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  • Ryoga ISHIHARA, Nobuhiko MATSUMURA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_101-I_114
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study showed the actual condition of disaster oral tradition that has been taken over in the community, and the effects of handing down the lesson and experience of the past disaster.
    Therefore, we considered the significances of disaster oral tradition in the community from above this results. As a result, we found the possibility of being interrupted the disaster oral tradition that had been taken over in the community after this because the older people and the people who had been suffered from the past disaster tend to hand down the lesson and experience of the past disaster.
    Also, we found that trying to the consciousness of the disaster in harmony with our daily life in the community works related to not only the consciousness of the prevention of disaster, disaster prevention measure, and evacuation behavior, but also the attitude to the local area.
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  • Dowon KIM, Takeyuki OKUBO, Shoji ARAKAWA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_115-I_123
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Honganji-water pipelines built in 1897, is the kind of the environmental water service that is also a fire disaster prevention facility for the Higashihonganji temple which had burned down four times in a period of 76 years. But Honganji-water pipelines has stopped its water supply that the cast iron pipe has been rusted for leaking water. The aim of this paper is to estimate the possibility method of functional conservation and potential of firefighting water supply not only for temple site but also surrounded wooden local district. Based on the results of this case study, the process is for considering the use of historical water service conservancy.
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  • Tsuyoshi TAKANO, Hiroyoshi MORITA, Takuya TOGAWA, Masayuki FUKUMOTO, A ...
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_125-I_135
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study aims to establish a system to evaluate post-disaster living environment for refugees in each small district as “Quality of Life: QOL” by a time series. Taking the physical conditions of the residential areas and needs of the refugees into consideration, we evaluated the QOL level in the Tohoku coastal area that suffered severe damage from The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11th 2011.The following results were obtained: 1) It was shown that improvement in the redundancy of a road network contributes to the maintenance and improvement in QOL immediately after the disaster. 2) It became clear that the damage of lifeline or facilities in coastal area have long-term influence on the decline of QOL.
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  • Ryuta MORI, Eiji OHNO, Masafumi MORISUGI, Hiroshi SAO
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_137-I_144
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The travel cost method (TCM) and the contingent valuation method (CVM) are well-known as the typical technique of environmental economic valuation. The TCM can measure only the direct and current use value of environmental goods, but the CVM can measure the whole value including the non-use value of them. In the business of environmental economic valuation, it is often adopted that the use value is measured by the TCM and that the non-use or the whole values are measured by CVM. However, there is no statistical significance in the difference between those values measured by the TCM and the CVM, because these methods are modeled independently and do not have theoretical consistency. In this study, we have constructed a valuation model based on the CVM consistent with the TCM in order to measure the use and the non-use values of environmental goods consistently. With applying this model to measurement of environmental economic value of Shirakami Mountain Range, practicality of the method is also examined.
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  • Satoshi SUGIURA, Akiyoshi TAKAGI, Fumitaka KURAUCHI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_145-I_152
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Infrastructure asset management system generally determines the optimal maintenance strategy so as to minimize the LCC (Life Cycle Cost) of facilities without considering any accidental deterioration. In reality, however, road facilities are exposed to various dangers such as inadequate inspection, incorrect fatigue estimation, unforeseen external force and so on, and they may lose their function by such factors. If such deterioration happens, the impact of the deterioration onto road users is huge and it shouldn't be ignored. This study considers the risk of both road administrators and users. Especially it considers an efficiency of the maintenance from a viewpoint of road administrators and an variance of risks among road users to consider the equity among road users, and tries to minimize a weighted sum of the total risk of road administrators and the variance of user risks among road users. The proposed model has been applied to a simple hypothetical network and the performance of the proposed method has been discussed.
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  • Kota NAKANO, Jun-ichi TAKAYAMA, Shoichiro NAKAYAMA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_153-I_161
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the relief activities, rapid emergency medical transport is essential to save more patients. Therefore, to establish exiting road only for ambulance that aimed shortening the distance from the highway to emergency medical facilities can avoid some traffic injury and is possible to shorten the emergency medical transportation time. Constructing exiting road only for ambulance is valid. In social situation that public works are reduced, it is necessary to analyze with cost-benefit analysis considered changing the population in the future.
    The purpose of this study are to analysis of effect that exiting road only for ambulance introduced into expressway and to improve emergency medical services in the future.
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  • Satoru OTANI, Chikako SADO, Mizuki KONNO, Kazuyuki TSUCHIYA, Kotaro MA ...
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_163-I_171
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    As a result of investigating the social discount rates applied to the appraisals and evaluations of infrastructure projects in major countries and international organizations, it turned out that in most of major countries and organizations the values of the social discount rates were reduced, the estimation method of the social discount rates were changed and the progresses of correspondence to the uncertainty of the rate such as the introduction of gradual-decrease discount rates over time, the improvement of sensitivity analysis and so on were performed. These reasons are mainly follows: the fall of rates at money market; the consideration of the fairness among generations; and the progress of researches and studies in this field of the social discount rates and related matters, etc. In Japan the social discount rate was set to 4% calculated based on the real yield of long-term government bonds in 2000, and has not been reformed. As it passed more than ten years since the current discount rate was set, it should be discussed if the rate is reformed or not. The points of argument about the reform of the social discount rate was arranged in order to consider the reform of the rate.
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  • Jin CHUJO, Takuya FUJII, Yoshifumi ISHIKAWA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_173-I_179
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, I investigated the business interruption caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake in each company of the manufacturing industry. I collected the data of approximately 1,300 domestic establishments, by surveying information of disaster-struck companies on the Internet and newspapers, etc.
    As a result, approximately 10% of companies suffered the damage caused by Disaster of Supply Chain Networks. It became clear that the period to production recovery was two and a half months.
    In addition, I analyzed about a relation between road traffic network and the production restoration of the manufacturing industry. The period of business interruption becomes shorter, when the transportation time from the supply base to the company becomes shorter.
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  • Yoshio KAJITANI, Muneta YOKOMATSU, Hirokazu TATANO, Nario YASUDA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_181-I_188
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The power shortages following the Great East Japan Earthquake create persistent impacts on Japanese industries. The firms which are not only located in the severely damaged area but also outside the area had to reduce power usage both at peak and total and spent considerable efforts to achieve the target amount of power consumption. The firms' inherent and adaptive ability to reduce the impacts of power shortages are regarded as “resilience” and the characteristics of resilience under power shortages revealed by the disaster should be immediately learned and even measured as precious lessons. This study quantitatively analyzes the relationship between the production output and power usages in 2011 and 2012 in Kanto and Kansai regions by time series analysis and find the sources of resilience against power shortages.
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  • Takahiro ISHIGAMI, Daisuke FUKUMOTO, Hiroshi INAHARA, Kensuke MOCHIZUK ...
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_189-I_196
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Japan, many local governments are reviewing authorized road plans which have not been built for long time based on changes in socioeconomic conditions. Many of these local governments are evaluating such routes to perform various functions of road, examining if they are still needed, and then, eliminating planned routes once they are determined no longer necessary. Meanwhile, authors consider road network should be restructured based on cities' vision (urban structure), rather than discarding unnecessary routes by comparing with the roles of road, and suggested a planning framework to achieve the vision earlier. In this paper, we describe a concept of evaluation for authorized road plans corresponding to the proposed planning framework, and verify the effectiveness using the review of authorized road plans in Saitama City as an example.
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  • Kunio SUZUKI, Tsutomu MORIMOTO, Jun-ichi TAKAYAMA, Masahiro KATAGISHI, ...
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_197-I_204
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Kanazawa, “Kanazawa Bicycle Network Association” was found in Feb. 2011, in Kanazawa City, which consists of knowledgeable scholars, MLIT Kanazawa Office of River and National Highway, Ishikawa prefectural police headquarters and jurisdiction police stations. In Mar. 2012, “Kanazawa Bicycle Run Space Maintenance Guideline (Proposal)” was drawn up. For safe and comfortable bicycle run space maintenance, it's necessary to specify the “left-hand side of the road” that a bicycle should run. However, in fact, the relation between the width of bicycle run space and vehicle travel speed (regulatory speed) is not clarified enough. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relation between the width of bicycle run space and vehicle travel speed (regulatory speed) by the result of the bicycle run investigation conducted in Kanazawa.
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  • Shunsuke SEGI, Kiyoshi KOBAYASHI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_205-I_216
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study analyzed the influence of planning and economic assessment which ignore the transition of the future population composition in a depopulation and aging society. With a dynamic economic model, we compared two states of the society and the economy; one state is realized by planning which ignores the transition of the population composition, and the other state is realized by the socially optimal planning, which considers the transition of the population composition. By comparing those two states, we analyzed the consequences for the economic activity and welfare in the present and future generations which are produced by planning which ignores the transition of population composition. We showed that compared to the planning which considers depopulation, the planning which ignores depopulation makes more infrastructure investment and thus reduces the welfare of the present generation and increases the welfare of the future generations. We also showed that the planning which ignores aging of population makes the same decision as the planning which considers aging of population does. However, if the government uses a fixed social discount rate while considering aging of population, they make smaller infrastructure investment than the socially optimal level.
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  • Taiki NISHIMURA, Yoshio KAJITANI, Hirokazu TATANO
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_217-I_227
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Japan has suffered many earthquake disasters in the past such as the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. One of the problems caused by earthquakes is the reduction in the number of tourists in the hotel business after a disaster. The reasons of reduction can be affected by the service capacity losses of hotel business in the damaged areas, recovery demand caused by volunteers and recovery parties and other reasons such as types of hotels and resources for sightseeing. In order to promote a recovery of hotel demand in the damaged areas, it is necessary to effectively offer information about the service quality and reconstruct a strategy of tourism based on the damage assessment of tourism. To better understand the reduction in hotel demand, this study tries to demonstrate how long the decrease continues and which areas suffer from this problem through the case study of the Great East Japan Earthquake. In this study, the data published by Japan Travel Agency and questionnaire survey data are utilized to conduct the detailed assessments for detecting the reasons of demand changes after the disaster. As a result, spatial-temporal demand changes and possible reasons, such as the distance from the inundated area, are demonstrated.
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  • Taro ARATANI, Terumitsu HIRATA, Teppei OSADA, Shinya HANAOKA, Tomoyuki ...
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_229-I_246
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study focuses on the actual situation of the aircraft operations in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake. By using the data including each aircraft's departure and arrival time to/from the target airports, the time series behaviors of the purpose of the aircraft activities and the number of parking at the airport aprons are analyzed. In addition, how each airport deal with the large number of aircraft operations in the aftermath of the earthquake are clarified through the interview survey. The result shows that the six to ten times of the aircraft in comparison with ordinary days were operated, and the rescue works and emergency medical transport were especially increased within 72 hours, in the aftermath of the earthquake. The results of the interview survey indicated that each airport had difficulty in keeping the apron for aircraft parking space including large number of helicopters and in fueling, but some of the lessons from the past disasters helped smoother operation of the airport.
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  • Masanobu KII, Shintaro SONE, Hitoi ONO, Yoichi HANGAI, Kenji DOI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_247-I_252
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Electricity Critical Peak Pricing (CPP) is considered as a measure to control the electricity demand at stringent peak time. This pricing scheme will induce not only energy saving inside the house but also behavior outing from house. In this study, we surveyed consumer's disposition of outing under CPP and analysed its impact on the consumer's disbenefit. As a result, it is confirmed that higher pricing will induce the higher outing rate, but it is also affected by number of people at home at peak time, ages of family member, and type of house. It is also found that the outing behavior in average is not affected by the population density and access to public transport at house location. However, the outing behavior of aged people who are over 70 is affected by the accessibility to public transport. It is indicated that CPP will bring higher disbenefit for aged people who live in disadvantaged area in transportation.
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  • Shotaro ABE, Dai NAKAGAWA, Ryoji MATSUNAKA, Tetsuharu OBA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_253-I_263
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, we constructed a database of land use in 1985 and 2005 using GIS to understand the transformation from business-use land to underused land in central areas of 37 core cities in 2005. Then, we analyzed the relationship of transformation from business-use land to underused land focusing on the spatial distribution between business-use land with underused land, and outdoor parking lots subsidy programs.
    Results show that business-use land has decreased in central areas of core cities, and outdoor parking lots have increased. Additionally, we clarified that business-use land which has high convenience of parking lots changes into underused land. Moreover, the rate of lot transformation from business-use land to outdoor parking lots is larger in cities where outdoor parking lots subsidy programs are established than other cities.
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  • Yu MAKIMURA, Naohiko HIBINO, Shigeru MORICHI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_265-I_274
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the Tokyo metropolitan area, the pattern of population fluctuation and aging depends on the area; thus it is important to grasp the difference in order to make a well-balanced residence policy. There have been studies on the changes of age structure along suburban radial railways but focusing on the central area using other methods of analysis is an issue that remained unexplored until now. This study aims to analyze the time series changes of age structure in the central Tokyo area (the 23 wards area). Inside the central Tokyo area, the population fluctuation of 20 to 24 years old is larger than that of any other age class. The older the age class is, the smaller the population fluctuation tends to be. Therefore, in order to avoid rapid aging in a particular area, it is important to target a well-balanced residence policy on people in their twenties and thirties. Furthermore, this study found places where the age structure is not apt to change because the 15 to 24-year old population increases and that of 25 to 44 decreases. This study also pointed out several railway lines for which a decrease in the number of users is foreseen because of rapid aging along them due to a concentration of a particular age class.
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  • Masataka MIYAKI, Takuya NEMOTO, He CHEN, Mamoru TANIGUCHI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_275-I_281
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The life in our country has changed because of motorization, the change of the lifestyle, etc. As a result, the location of commercial and public services have changed and made it difficult to go shopping and using public service within walking distance for everyday life. Issues should be solved in our country where the aging society is going on. In this research, changes between the location of commercial and public services 40 years ago and the present are clarified from the point of within easily walking distance for elderly persons in the Tsukuba area which is maintaining the traditional colony form on Tsukuba-city, Ibaraki prefecture. The conclusions from a quantitative analysis show the number of them decline notably in central colonies which once have played the important role for everyday life. It is also clarified that service contents in other colonies have also changed.
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  • Keisuke SATO, Atsushi KOIKE, Nobuhide KAWAMOTO
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_283-I_295
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The objective of this paper is to construct the SCGE (Spatial Computable General Equilibrium) model not only estimate the road development effect but also port development effect. This constructed model has the advantage which can estimate the differences of development effect and the synergetic effect among the road and the port policy at same analytical platform. Especially, this paper develops the empirical SCGE model based on the RAEM-Light model which can estimate the product change at subdivided regional area such as the municipalities. Therefore, these analytical information by the constructed model will contribute to the effective decision making on the project priority and combination of the project implementation at regional policy.
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  • Hiroyoshi MORITA, Kenji SUGIMOTO, Hirokazu KATO, Akito MURAYAMA, Sator ...
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_297-I_308
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We have developed a model to predict a house-rebuilding trend and to comprehensively evaluate residents' quality of life (QOL), amount of CO2 emission, and the urban maintenance cost, which is aimed at evaluation of future spatial plans and the environmental performance of the built-up areas on a time-series basis. We used this developed model to perform a case study of the Choja-machi district located in downtown Nagoya City, Japan, and found it possible to reduce CO2 emissions more at a certain point in the future, as well as over the entire process up to the district's future renewal plan, through an organized renewal of the entire district than through the renewal of each building planned individually, which as a result improved the residents' QOL.
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  • Ayako TANIGUCHI, Ryunosuke KAWAMURA, Kunio AKAZAWA, Yukie OKAMOTO, Kou ...
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_309-I_316
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, authors made two hypotheses to clarify quantitative effects of the influence which student's daily wearing a sportswear on university's scenery and attitude toward school works; the first one is that wearing a sportswear while commuting to university has a negative effect on university's scenery. The second one is that wearing sportswear while commuting to university has a negative relationship with the student's attitude toward school works. Authors conducted a questionnaire survey targeting students of University of Tsukuba. As a result, two hypotheses were verified, and authors found that commuters using public transport had a tendency not to wear a sportswear; commuters wearing a sportswear had a positive attitude toward wearing a sportswear compared with those who did not wear it.
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  • Kantaro TAKEUCHI, Takehito UJIHARA, Hirofumi ABE
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_317-I_325
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    According to the national census in 2010, there are 38 prefectures where population is decreasing in Japan. Therefore, the measure for building of a sustainable regional society is required. In the urban and regional planning field, there is a pressing need to manage urban layout towards realization of “Compact city”. However, on the other hand, about how urban layout is changing, the actual condition is not analyzed from the compact city viewpoint. Therefore, we analyzed population change of district level in Okayama city from the compact city viewpoint. In addition, the district-based national population census data of 1995-2000-2005-2010 was used for analysis. It became clear from the analysis result that the measure which controls the sprawl population change in the suburbs is required towards realization of the compact city.
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  • Yuki TAKAYAMA, Takaya YAMAMOTO, Toshio YOSHII
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_327-I_333
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, weinvestigate the effect of transport market structure on the distribution of economic activity. To achieve this purpose, we extend an economic geography model developed by Thisse8) in order to incorporate the transport sector. Analysis of this model shows that if the carriers' entry is free, agglomeration of economic activity increases price competition among carriers that fosters further agglomeration. By contrast, if entry is regulated, the agglomeration increases the carriers' market power. Consequently, entry regulation in the transport sector may lead to the collapse of the agglomeration.
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  • Ryunosuke KAWAMURA, Ayako TANIGUCHI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_335-I_344
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, we focused on the place recognized as “ibasho” in urban areas except a residence, office and school. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the “ibasho” and a quality of life (QOL) or awareness for community (e.g. place attachment), and to classify the “ibasho”.
    We conducted a questionnaire survey on the internet to examine whether to have the “ibasyo” or not, and QOL scales, awareness for community scales and “ibasho” scales developed in reference to preceding studies.
    Results showed that the eating place and friend's or relative's house and library was more recognized as “ibasho” and that people who had “ibasho” had a significant positive effect on the QOL and awareness for community. furthermore, we classified the “ibasho” into seven types by characteristic of “ibasho” scales.
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  • Yoshikazu UBUKATA, Yoshihide SEKIMOTO, Teerayut HORANONT
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_345-I_352
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to examine as tourism statistical data of human mobility tracks by Global Positioning System (GPS). We study the trajectory of about 800,000 anonymized cell phone users whose position is tracked for a one-year period. The main results of this study are that number of logger in Ishikawa pref. and Kaga city area and that day's trip tourists behavior. That behavior is visit frequency, sojourn time and visiting spot. These details are hard to investigate existing statistics. We think that it is available to some extent by planning adjustment with other survey data.
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  • Kosuke TANAKA, Takeshi NAKANO, Satoshi FUJII
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_353-I_361
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is the analysis of the tone of the Japanese newspaper. In Japan, newspapers are considered as a reliable source of information. It is conceivable that the tone of the newspaper has some influence on national policy. We have quantitatively analyzed the editorial's five major Japanese newspapers. Moreover, in the field of humanities and social science, it has been said that “story” is useful for understanding the dynamics of the society. We were to be incorporated in the analysis considering a narrative approach. As a result, the majority of the editorial claims are based on the neo-liberal ideology: the percentage was 88.1%. On the other hand, those based on Keynesian economics as an alternative way of the ideology were only 1.8%. It has been quantitatively shown that the tone of the newspaper companies are dominated by the big story based on the neo-liberal ideology.
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  • Mitsuyo YORIFUJI, Nobuhiko MATSUMURA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_363-I_372
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This research was conducted at the Ikoma ekimae shopping street, which is central district of Ikoma city, to make clear the transition of the operation of activation and the reason for continuation of it with the point of view of individual actors, by reviewing papers and hearing to the main actors. Consequently 4 stages of operation were seen; governmental organization leading with improvement of environment, and then Chamber of Commerce leading, leaders of shopping streets leading, shop owners with leaders of shopping streets leading with soft activities.
    The important things for continuation of operation was seemed to be the networks between associations as players, the relationship between the representations of association and individual shop owners, created through practicing the regular activities together.
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  • Kosuke TANAKA, Yusuke KANDA, Satoshi FUJII
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_373-I_379
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, I have analyzed the trend of the time series of newspaper reports. In Japan, it is commonly said that media reports have to be critical of public works. Besides, such reports can affect critically to national policy as well as the impression people have. Due to those backgrounds, we intended to get the basic knowledge about the tendency of these reports. Therefore, we examined the secular change in the frequency of some of the “words” which related to public works with a keen consideration of the historical background about it. As a result, more negative press seems to have been made in accordance with the increase of expenditures on public works.
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  • Kumiko NAKAMICHI, Yoshiki YAMAGATA, Hajime SEYA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_381-I_389
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Scientific forecasts predict that climate change will be magnified, raising the risk of natural disasters in the future. The climate change will be gradual, but extreme weather events will increase in frequency and intensity. Vulnerability created by the water related disaster should be solved especially in Megacity which many assets are located. The realization of climate change mitigation and adaptation remain an urgent global issue. As a way of flood risk adaptation and CO2 emissions mitigation, it should be effective that people retreat from flood-hazard areas and realize compact city. It means climate change mitigation and adaptation is compatible. There is an urgent need to review synergy and trade-off between climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. The objective of this study is to develop an integrated evaluation system for direct and indirect CO2 emissions under land-use scenarios considering compact city and flood risk prevention and electric vehicles (EVs) and photovoltaic (PV) panels introduction scenarios, in order to assess both mitigation and adaptation measures. For creating the scenarios, this study used a spatially explicit land-use model at a local town level. Indirect emissions based on household's expenditure are also estimated in addition to direct emissions. In this study, the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, Japan, is selected as a case study to apply the system for assessment. The simulation results suggest that climate change mitigation and adaptation can generate a synergistic effect from the viewpoint of CO2 emissions.
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  • Toshiaki TSUDA, Makoto TSUKAI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_391-I_400
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Recently, spatial data set for fine zone scale becomes available. In spatial econometric models, areal interpolation is employed when a mismatch of zone scale occurs between the dependent and independent variables. On the other hand, Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP), often cause some problems in terms of biased estimation of model parameter due to inadequate treatment for spatial dependencies related to the spatial dependency matrix. This study develops a novel spatial econometric model which can handle MAUP by introducing spatial aggregation matrix and spatial distribution matrix, that satisfy the pycnophylactic property. We empirically examined the applicability of the proposed model for small area interpolation. The result of estimation for inter-regional passenger attraction traffic proved that the proposed model can perform well for small area interpolation.
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  • Kaichi ICHIKAWA, Hisashi KUBOTA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_401-I_412
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Japan, efforts to develop practical evaluation indicators have begun to be seen in private sectors in order to realize sustainable cities. The key issue is, however, whether the evaluation indicators are actually influencing on policy making and actions of the local governments; or their effectiveness. In view of the fact that such indicators have been effective and contributing to some extent to the local governments in Europe advanced in promoting sustainable cities, we studied and clarified the effectiveness of the evaluation indicators created by big media companies being taking a lead in number of sample cities and continuous applications, through surveys of the local governments on their mindset and actions.
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  • Shuji OSAWA, Yuto KUBO, Makoto ONO, Keita USHIDA, Tetsuo MORITA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_413-I_421
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, the authors report development and application of an interactive music system M[you]sic, which illuminates soundscape of public spaces and utilizes city planning. The M[you]sic system senses information of pedestrians and performs music and sounds based on the illumination program that operator programmed. The authors expect that interaction between pedestrians and M[you]sic system makes atmosphere of the space. The M[you]sic system contains supporting tools for contents design, analysis of log data in order that operators easily use it. In this paper the authors examined the interactiveness brought by M[you]sic through the demonstration experiment. From the log data, behavior of the pedestrian interested in the generated soundscape changed, the behavior was input the system again and the space was illuminated.
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  • Shinya KURAUCHI, Tatsunori ISHIMURA, Toshio YOSHII
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_423-I_431
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This research analysed the car owner's intention toward car sharing service in the provincial capital city. An in-depth interview survey was conducted in Matsuyama city to investigate the car usage, perception of the monetary cost related to car usage, perception of the existing car sharing service, and intention toward the hypothetical car sharing services. The results showed that the majority of car owners had not considered the overall cost related to car usage and they tend to overestimate it. Such respondents stated relatively high intention toward the car sharing service compared to the ones who underestimate the overall cost related to car usage. Also, it seems to be very important for the penetration of car sharing system to introduce a service which would reduce the user's anxiety about the availability of the service.
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  • Shuichi MATSUMOTO, Hironao KAWASHIMA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_433-I_440
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is a concern that eco-driving vehicles, because those driving behaviors are different from other vehicles due to e.g. e-start, may inhibit smooth traffic flow. Therefore, it is necessary to study about cooperation in eco-driving by vehicle groups that were viewed with “vehicle-to-vehicle communication” and “road-to-vehicle communication”. From that background, this study aimed to: 1) Analyze fuel consumption rates and driving behaviors of multiple succeeding vehicles to follow an eco-driving vehicle. 2) Observe the impact of information on fuel consumption rate of the preceding vehicle to succeeding ones. As a result, the following findings were obtained: 1. By providing information to multiple following vehicles, the fuel consumption rate of the following vehicles can reduce. 2. When the information of fuel consumption of a preceding vehicle was provided to succeeding one, it was found that acceleration of following vehicles tended to be reduced. From the above, it is suggested that sharing the information on preceding vehicles was effective when vehicle groups were targeted.
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  • Kazuo YAMAMOTO, Seiji HASHIMOTO
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_441-I_448
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The number of relinquishment of the driver's license is growing each year, but it is difficult for them to go shopping or go to the hospital without a car. In this paper, we carried out a questionnaire survey for those who have driver's license and who relinquished the driver's license, in urban and mountainous areas of Okayama Prefecture. We look for the factor's of needs that how to go shopping or to consult doctors without driving. As a result, it has discovered that if they have trouble commuting because of residence inconvenient area or physical weakness, they tend to use life support service more. In order to support independent life of who relinquished the driver's license, it is important to expand the life support service especially in hilly and mountainous area, accompanying with the promotion of relinquishment of the driver's license.
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  • Takahiko KUSAKABE, Taku SHARYO, Yasuo ASAKURA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_449-I_460
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Traffic incidents such as traffic accidents sometimes bring severe congestion in urban expressway networks. The traffic information is often provided by VMS (Variable Message Sign) in order to help travellers' route choice behaviour, and mitigate the impacts of the incidents. The purpose of this study is to show travellers' route choice behaviour when traffic incident information is provided on the VMS in urban expressway networks. SP (Stated-preference) survey was conducted to observe travelers' behaviour when travellers get the incident information on the urban expressway. The ramp choice model is developed in order to clarify the reaction to the incident information. The results of the survey shows behavioural differences caused by the type of the indices of the degree of the incident congestion are quantitatively represented. The effects of tendency information of congestion and toll policy of urban expressway are also discussed.
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  • Takahiro NAMIZAKI, Tomio MIWA, Takayuki MORIKAWA, Toshiyuki YAMAMOTO
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_461-I_469
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    As one of the measures against CO2 emissions reduction, the interest about an eco-driving is increasing. Until now, the large-scale field experiment about the effect of eco-driving for private drivers is few. The changes in driving behavior and fuel consumption of private drivers by activating consciousness of ecodriving have not been well investigated. In this study, we analyze the effect of eco-driving prompt system using the data obtained from a field experiment in Toyota City. Then We also develop models of the fuel consumption and the intention for eco-driving. The results suggest that the reduction of fuel consumption varies according to characteristics of drivers and roads. Also, we apply the estimation results to calculate citywide potential impact, and then it is shown that the CO2 emissions could be cut down about 10%.
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  • Kazutaka TAKAO
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_471-I_477
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In recent years, many blog texts are written by common people, many of which are expected to contain naked voices of the authors. Concerning the travel behaviour, we expect that we can study travellers' sentiment by analyzing blog texts for increasing travellers' satisfaction. However, blog texts contain many informal expressions that are not grammatical. Since many of the existing systems of natural language processing are developed with formal texts, they are often weak on informal texts. Moreover, these informal words may be the sentiment that the authors want to emphasize in particular. Therefore, this paper focuses on these informally transformed words. This paper analyzes the transformation patterns of the blog texts about using behaviour of Kansai Airport and reports the customization of a morphological dictionary.
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  • Masashi KUWANO, Makoto TSUKAI, Mayuko IWAMOTO
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_479-I_488
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Japan, the government promised to reduce CO2 emission in 2020 by 25% comparing with 1990's levels as a countermeasure of the global warming problem. CO2 emission from transportation sector shares 20 % of total CO2 emission, and it is brought by 90% from car. Therefore, effective politics are required to reduce the car CO2 emission. This study, purposes to develop the dynamic approach for CO2 management policies including the investment, timing and its amount choice of available, policy measure, in order to meet the reduction target under the policy-cost minimization standard. Our analysis is organized as follows. At first, this study develops two models which objective variables are renewal period and annual vehicle kilometer, or purchasing car type. The models are used as the sample generator of the target area. The optimization problem which designs the dynamic policy type and amount is formulated with the constrained condition about the reduction target, for the cost minimization of policy implementation. Through empirical application of the proposed model system, the effectiveness of the simulation system is clarified.
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  • Hiroki OHNISHI, Masashi OKUSHIMA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_489-I_496
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In general, traffic congestion in local area is observed only at peak hour. Therefore, it is significant to estimate the effects of transport policy for temporal dispersion of traffic at peak hour in local area. The present paper is aimed at identification of factor for decision-making of departure time on commuting by car in local area. In the present study, commuting time of car user in local area is analized with the database of the person trip survey in the Tokushima city area. The distribution of commuting time for commuter with the fixed starting time for work and commuter of the flextime system is analized. In particular, the commuting time decision model of car user in the local area is described with survival time analysis. As the result, it is not easy to acquire sufficient compatibility in the model with specific probability distribution. On the other hand, it is suggested that the semi-nonparametric model is suitable for description of commuting time of car user in local area.
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  • Daisuke FUKUDA, Makoto CHIKARAISHI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_497-I_510
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study presents a comprehensive review on discrete-continuous models. We classify discretecontinuous models into (1) structural type models derived from microeconomic theory and (2) reducedform models which mainly focus on detailed behavior descriptions in terms of data fitting, and outline the features of these models. Although the model selection may depend on what kind of phenomena we are dealing with, we generally argue that (1) Kuhn-Tucker approach might be preferable when the first priority of the analysis is maintaining the consistency with microeconomic theory, (2) reduced-form models might be preferable when we try to develop higher accurate behavioral models or behavioral models with the data potentially having observation bias, and (3) compromise discrete-continuous models between structural and reduced-form models can also be developed. We also review the empirical applications of discrete-continuous models in travel behavior research.
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  • Kakuya MATSUSHIMA, Kiyoshi KOBAYASHI, Hiroshi FUKUI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages I_511-I_521
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 15, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Travel mode choice behavior and residential choice behavior are considered to be mutually interrelated. If residential sorting effects are ignored when estimating mode choice of individuals, the estimation results would be biased because of the endogeneity in the model. In this paper, the mechanism of residential sorting and its effect on the economy are analyzed by building a theoretical model that explicitly treats emotional part of utility for choosing specific travel mode. We also verify the residential sorting effects by using person trip survey data in Japan. The paper concludes with a discussion of model findings for policy planning. In particular, we found implementing soft transport policy measures that effects of individuals' preference for travel mode have to be considered as one of the tools of city planning policy measures.
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