Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. D3 (Infrastructure Planning and Management)
Online ISSN : 2185-6540
ISSN-L : 2185-6540
Volume 71 , Issue 5
Showing 1-50 articles out of 101 articles from the selected issue
Infrastructure Planning and Management Vol.32 (Special Issue)
  • Sachiyo FUKUYAMA, Eiji HATO
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_1-I_19
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The recent development of detection technologies of individual traces has been driving the advance in modeling theories and methodologies. In this study, we overview the methodological circumstances of data and models for describing the pedestrian behavior in networks 1km square, which are considered to provide some basis for evaluation of urban space planning. For finding a framework to figure out spatial structure and characteristics of urban districts through their historical contexts and emerging patterns of pedestrian behavior, we extract the related methods of network analysis based on graph theory and the modeling approaches to pedestrian choice behavior using observational data, and discuss the future direction.
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  • Takahiko KUSAKABE
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_21-I_31
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Recent advances of information technologies enable us to collect huge datasets relating to transport systems. Passive data, such as traffic detector data, smart card data, and probe vehicle data, can be automatically and continuously collected along with operation of the systems. The long-term continuous records of travellers' use of the transport systems can be stored in such passive datasets. This paper summarises the history of data collection in the transport studies in order to describe differences between conventional datasets and passive ones. Based on the passive datasets, the perspectives of the studies on variabilities in transport network are discussed.
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  • Hiroaki SHIRAYANAGI, Yukisada KITAMURA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_33-I_40
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    In Japan, recent low birthrate and aging population have progressively led to a crisis for infrastructure. In particular, the quantity of waste water from homes and factories is remarkably decreasing, along with the decline of economic activity resulting from the overseas move of Japanese companies. As a result, a condition of overcapacity of sewage systems has arisen. On the other hand, the risks of natural disaster, such as damage from local flooding by heavy rain, are rapidly increasing. But the capacity of rainwater drainage systems remains chronically short. We suggest that underground space is not being used effectively in urban sewage systems.
    In our study, which focused on the rainwater drainage systems and sewage systems of enormous social capital infrastructure, we commented on the conditions and problems of two systems. To improve the spatial conditions of the two systems, we suggested that space reallocation is required. As such, we proposed a framework of hybrid sewerage systems and showed its various benefits in terms of environmental issues and disaster prevention of inland flooding.
    Targeting a specific district in Japan, we estimated that the capacity of rainwater drainage systems would improve from 61.6mm/hr. to 65.0 mm/hr. by introducing hybrid usage of sewerage systems. As a result, the possibility of inland flooding damage in this district could be reduced up to 20.7%.
    Finally, Realizing hybrid sewerage systems would contribute greatly to appropriate reallocation policy for rainwater drainage systems and sewage systems in terms of cost, construction period, and feasibility, compared with the river reforming works and the rainwater drainage pipes' constructions.
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  • Kenji ONO, Yoshikazu TAKINO, Masaharu SHINOHARA, Yasuhiro AKAKURA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_41-I_52
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Resiliency of port operation is one of key elements, hence is essential for the modern port logistics business, and local and global economy. Developing business continuity plans (BCPs) for major port operation is, in this context, encouraged by the government in Japan in particular after the Great East Japan Earthquake. This study discusses and proposes a procedure and techniques, by focusing on the port logistics, for systematically preparing BCPs. Particular emphasis is placed on the practice to undertake business impact analysis for improving quality of port BCPs. Case studies undertaken by authors in Japanese and Chilean ports are also discussed for demonstrating effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed BCP preparation system.
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  • Kazuki NAGAO, Takeshi OHATA, Yuji KAKIMOTO, Hisatomo HANABUSA, Yosuke ...
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_53-I_68
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    At the time of the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, a lot of the evacuees who used vehicles fell victim to the tsunami because of the heavily traffic congestion. Not only in this example, traffic congestion at a large-scale earthquake often has negative influences in various cases, for example occurrence of traffic accidents and obstruction of emergency vehicles. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to work out a plan which can make an evacuation by vehicles quick and reliable. Accordingly, this study aims to represent the traffic situation when an earthquake occurs by developing the evacuation simulator considering the analysis of vehicular behavior in the last Great East Japan Earthquake. Furthermore, a case study is conducted to assess the effects of the evacuation plans considering both structural and non-structural measures for easing traffic congestion.
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  • Madoka CHOSOKABE, Hiroki TAKEYOSHI, Hiroyuki SAKAKIBARA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_69-I_80
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Community people should identify recognitions of issues in a community in order to solve the issues. Community governance is a process for community people to solve the issues by themselves. We call community recognition social context and also define social context as typical wording in a community. Social context can be changed temporally. We focus on the issue of bicycle riding in Japan and clarify the change of social context by using newspaper article. We show that wording in newspaper articles on bi-cycle riding in Japan has been changed during the past 11 years.
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  • Syuji YOSHIKI, Hiroshi TATSUMI, Kayoko TSUTSUMI, Tsugumichi NISHIZAKA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_81-I_90
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Several studies show that memories of childhood influence way of life. Analyzing a relationship between memories of childhood and an awareness of city center is likely to provide measures, attracts a number of people at city center.
    This study carried out an questionnaire survey in Fukuoka city, and examined memories of childhood on city center. The results show that respondents have good memories, including of playing at a rooftop playground and meals in dining hall at a department store. And childhood various experiences especially playing at city center develop an awareness of city center.
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  • Misato IMURA, Eizo HIDESHIMA, Shinya NAKAGAWA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_91-I_99
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Voluntary activities for areal topics increase in our society. As an organization, which are established to act collectively, confronts with several impediments to start up, the related agents may be bothered. This study considers how to describe vividly the startup process of areal activity organization in which the related agents may change concern, attitude and position. Firstly, it reviewed the past cases of describing such process and classified the description ways. Secondly, it observed the startup process of “Retoro Nayabashi 100 Nen Jikko Iinkai” and then proposed a description way named “relation chronology”. This way captured the essential features of each person's intention to the organization in the phase of startup objectively as possible. Thus, changes in awareness, degree of participation, relationship among the members, and so on, were indicated properly on the graph of “relation chronology”.
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  • Noriko FUKUI, Masayuki MORIYAMA, Koichi KURODA, Narihito NISHIMURA, To ...
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_101-I_109
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    This paper tries to examine the possibility of open-house running continuously as a communication tool during construction of road improvement project at Shinmon-dori St. which is front approach to Izumotaisha Grand Shrine. We have confirmed that the staff of open-house facilitate smooth communication between residents, tourists and governments when they need to deal with questions and complains, and to follow-up for the plan. Additionally, it was found that the event utilizing Shinmon-dori St. under construction played a large role in promoting the project.
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  • Kyoko MATSUI, Makoto SHIMAMURA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_111-I_119
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Tornado detection and warning system is under development with high resolution radars, though, evaluation methods for the system have not been completed yet. Because tornadoes are extremely rare events especially in Japan, false warnings must happen in relatively high rate and cause serious damages to its reliability and business loss. This paper proposes economic evaluation of tornado warnings by cost-loss model, considering evacuation psychology, the relationship between probability of detection (POD) and false alarm rate (FAR). As a result, it is suggested that comparatively high POD is recommended for residents. On the other hand, high thresholds to decrease FAR are effective particularly for business operators like railways even if they miss some small tornadoes.
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  • Kenji SUGIMOTO, Ryudo TACHIBANA, Hiroyoshi MORITA, Hirokazu KATO, Yosh ...
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_121-I_128
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The indirect damages as well as the direct damages by a large scale natural disasters are expected. For establishing a method to predict the damage to life and health of residents, the paper offers evaluation methodology by the life expectancy indicator. An application of the methodology to Nankai Trough Earthquake indicates that medical care system is insufficient in many regions for over one month. Furthermore, the prolonged evacuation life brings a new health damage. Evaluation of these phenomena by the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) reveals the difficulty of mitigation of the damages even after one month after the occurrence of earthquake. It is also desirable to enhance the lifeline beforehand. Improvement of medical care and the living environment in evacuation is essential.
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  • Yuki OHIRA, Hiroshi TSUDA, Toshimori OTAZAWA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_129-I_141
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Interactions between individual agents are fundamental to our society. Local interactions generate external effects such as knowledge spillovers and synergies. From the spatial aspect, face-to-face contacts are regarded as a crucial factor of the existence and the structures of cities. In this paper, we propose a social interaction model into which two kinds of strategic complementarity intrinsic to face-to-face contacts are incorporated, and examine those effects on urban spatial structure. Furthermore, we reveal that a decrease of transportation cost may lead to locational dispersion and decline the level of social interaction in a city.
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  • Kosuke TANAKA, Satoshi FUJII
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_143-I_149
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The need of public works has been increasing in modern Japan. However, in late years there are negative public opinions and media coverage for public works. In fact, the expenditure of public works has been largely reduced from the 2000s. On the other hand, public works seemed to be conducted positively for the period of the high economic growth. It is important to know what public opinions and media coverage were at that time because public works could be influenced by public opinions and media coverage. In this study, the target is highly reliable newspapers, especially editorials. As a result, the tone gradually changed to critical things after the war. Particularly, it was suggested that editorials in the 2000s have been in extremely negative tone.
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  • Ryoichi OSAWA, Riki HONDA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_151-I_161
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Maintenance strategy of infrastructure is often discussed as an efficiency optimization problem to minimize the expected LCC over the long term. However, risk management to prevent accidents is also an important issue, because the number of aging infrastructure has been increasing rapidly.
    In this paper, we discuss risk evaluation method to evaluate the probability of critical events, which can be used when we decide a management plan of infrastructures. The effect of maintenance strategy on the risk was simulated considering the effect of maintenance behavior and decay of structures. It was found that due to the inaccuracy of the monitoring, the tail of risk can grow fat, causing the change in the shape of PDF. Therefore, it is proposed to use EVaR as risk measure because it can quantify the risk considering the shape of the tail of risk by the concept of information entropy. Numerical simulation shows that by combining both LCC-optimization approach and presented EVaR-based scheme, we can rationally evaluate the performance of the strategies which can reduce the probability of occurrence of critical states.
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  • Hideyuki KITA, Mutsuki IKEMIYA, Yoko SUGA, Hirofumi YOTSUTSUJI
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_163-I_169
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Capability approach has become a theoretical base in developping methodology for planning local public transport. However, it is not necessarily clarified the advantage of this approach to the utility approach. To clarify advantages and differences of this approach, this paper develop an model in which “resource utilization function” is explicitly built in, and demonstrates that the optimal solutions found through capability and utility approaches are different.
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  • Kentaro KUMAGAI, Takashi TOMITA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_171-I_180
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    For a safety society from a large-scale tsunami, evacuation is the core in the comprehensive tsunami countermeasures. A numerical evacuation simulation is useful for estimating the tsunami evacuation behavior and making the safer evacuation plan from tsunami. To conduct the simulation, it is necessary to modelize a time delay to start tsunami evacuation.
    In this study, a mathematical model of the time delay to start tsunami evacuation is developped by means of reproduction of the tsunami evacuation behavior at the 2011 off the Pacific Tohoku earthquake and validation of the model with the case studies on the tsunami evacuation activity in two cities at the earthquake. In the model proposed, evacuees are classified into the three groups according to the reasons to start evacuation, such as the self-motivated evacuees, the passive evacuees and the tsunami imminent evacuees. Mathematical models are developed for each group of evacuees. Each model is a function of time and the other parameters, and the models outputs the estimated curve of the time series of the cumulative ratio of the people who start evacuation. The values estimated by the models for the three groups are summed up with each others. The reproduction result of the mathematical model shows a good agreement with the result of the questionnaire to approximately 5,500 people for the evacuation behavior of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami.
    The mathematical model developed and the parameters proposed is applied to the evacuation behavior in the two cities, Kamaishi City in Iwate Prefecture and Sendai City in Miyagi Prefecture, for validation of the model. The validation results of the model also show a good agreement with the results of the questionnaire in the both cities for the evacuation behavior of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami, by adjusting component ratio of the three groups of evacuees.
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  • Ryoji JINUSHI, Takamasa IRYO
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_181-I_189
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The fact that information on local services (e.g. local shops and restaurants) is not known by potential consumers affects their behaviour. Advertising may help remedy such information asymmetry and promote local shops in towns. An existing economic model of advertising, including limited consumer attention, is extended by considering the range of the affected advertising media area. The numerical analysis focuses on a pricing scheme only to local advertising media. Results implies such a scheme can create problematic case in which the distribution of information on local services is suppressed. On the other hand, in a limited case, it is proven that a Pareto-improving pricing scheme exists.
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  • Kumiko NAKAMICHI, Yoshiki YAMAGATA, Shinya HANAOKA, Xuyang WANG
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_191-I_200
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The serious further efforts on CO2 and other green house gases emission reduction by global climate change mitigation remain as an urgent global issue to be solved. In order to consider the global warming mitigation measures at local level, both direct and indirect CO2 emissions should be estimated at the municipal level and compared the spatial distribution with each other. The objective of this study is to estimate both direct and indirect emissions by municipalities in Japan and compare these geographical distribution. From the viewpoint of the emission responsibility, this study focuses on the indirect emission which means CO2 emission from different CO2 emitting regions of each sector whereas indirect emission means CO2 emission from the regions where the commodities are consumed according to expenditure of money on the items for household's daily life. As the result, the spatially explicit emissions are mapped as area cartogram from the viewpoint of both direct and indirect CO2 emission. The result of indirect emission is especially important in view of the emission responsibility.
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  • Atsushi KOIKE, Kenichiro SADAKANE, Eiji FURUICHI, Shintaro KATAYAMA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_201-I_208
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    In order not to cause a delay in transportation time in case of emergency such as traffic congestion, construction of expressway or disaster, manufacturing factory locates in the area where the alternative route to major cities is developed. “Redundancy Effects” in this study means that shortening of transportation time of the alternative route to major cities promotes manufacturing factory location. The purpose of this study is to estimate this effect by using fixed effect model.
    As a result of estimation, redundancy effects were observed in some areas. Many of these areas are far from the urban area.
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  • Sayamon SAIYOT, Mihoko MATSUYUKI
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_209-I_220
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The main objective of this study is to investigate and provide further empirical evidence of the complex relationship between poverty and social and economic vulnerability in a case study of urban Thailand.
    From our pre-survey, these house characters are expected to affect flood decisively. The case study is carried out in Bangkok and Pathumthani province. In both case study areas, there are some communities joining “The Baan Mankong Collective Housing Program (BM Program)” which as one pillar to improve the house for low-income people. In the field survey, in-depth interview and face-to-face questionnaire survey at the household level were conducted.
    As the results, average “situation of the flood”, “damage level” in Pathumthani province found higher than in Bangkok that notifies damage on a house in Pathumthani province is more severe than in Bangkok. As expected, risk exposures have the positive correlation with flood damage. There are several indicators of “adaptation to risk", and especially house characters have the significant correlation with risk exposure and flood damage. Moreover, there is no significant relationship between poverty and adaptation to risk. By the way, poor communities have social capital; they can join the BM program and receive support to improve their house.
    This study reveals that the most vulnerable group is poor communities that locate in the more flood-prone area and look rather a drawback in social capital. Originally a low-income community is vulnerable and can not join the program that supports to enhance its adaptation to risk. To mitigate poor people's vulnerability to flood, enhancing their social capital is through indirect but essential way.
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  • Takumi ASADA, Naotaka IKUTOMI, Mikiharu ARIMURA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_221-I_228
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    In this study, we developed the estimation method of the location pattern of housing based on distribution around housing using the data of urban planning basic survey in Sapporo. First, location characteristics value that affect the pattern of housing was clarified. Using the characteristics value, discriminant model of pattern of housing by support vector machine was conducted. In result, the model could classify "appearance" and "invariable" 77% accuracy, and "disappearance" and "residual" 83% accuracy. We tried to predict location of the housing in Sapporo Kita-ku using the discriminant model. It was found that the ward resulting separation of residence in the future.
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  • Akihiko KANAI
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_229-I_245
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    In Germany, from the beginning of railway era in 19th century, terminal stations of metropolitan cities frequently applied the sandwich layout (two sided) whose departure and arrival facilities were disposed in both sides of tracks, while in France, many engineers and architects started to try the front layout (head type) and U-shaped layout. Thanks to the fact that the free entry system allowing all passengers to access platforms after check in, the L-shaped layout, as a transitional solution from the sandwich layout to the front layout, began to appear in 1860's, earlier than in France. To respond to the operational necessity that several trains should leave at the same time, the front layout concentrating all passenger flows in frontside building and disposing a cross platform at the dead end connection to many intermediate platforms, were applicated from the 1880's.
    Contrast to the fact that French metropolitan stations tended to apply the dead end layout, German central stations in metropolitan cities in 1880's tried to adapt the through type layout. To reduce the passenger's risk to cross the tracks, and to separate passenger's circulation from baggage transportation, many of them were viaduct stations, some of which had inserted dead end layout in the center of tracks to facilitate to transfer from one station to another, so called hybrid layout. We aim to analyse the excellent control of passengers and baggage's flows in German station layout and their variety and we clarify its historical transition, comparing with French railway stations.
    As for the façade expression, German stations tended to apply the arch form to the silhouette of main building as a front face to the city, while French stations chose both gable glass screen and neo classic façade according to the context of located site.
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  • Shoichi KOTAKI, Junichi TAKAYAMA, Shoichiro NAKAYAMA, Masahiro RACHI
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_247-I_259
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    In this study, the authors have organized the actual situation of the environmental space of a station square, which is a subject for this study, based on survey data on present conditions of city planning , a questionary survey to an administrative officers and square users and results of a case research. Further, the environmental space was classified into a walking space, communication space, landscape space so as to clarify planning tasks for each space. The results have revealed directionality of environmental space development such as setting the percentage of environmental space as more than 0.5 in a planning phase, using index such as walking space ratio and aspect ratio, and needs for securing users' visibility for placement of rest space, multipurpose space, tree planting and hydrophilic space.
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  • Keishi TANIMOTO, Satoshi TSUCHIYA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_261-I_268
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Due to the decrease of revenue by population decrease, many gas stations are exposed to the risk to bankrupt in Japan. Especially in rural depopulated areas, it may be difficult to purchase the fuel within neighboring areas near future. In this background, the measures to avoid the withdrawal of the gas stations have been investigated by local government. To make the effective measures, the evaluation of the sustainability of the station by the government is useful. In this study, we develop the method to briefly assess the sustainability of gas station using break-even analysis and show the effectiveness of the method.
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  • Hiroshi ONO, Seiji IWAKURA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_269-I_280
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Generally speaking, public opinion influences are known to extend period of infrastructure planning and construction. However, there is not the verification survey of relationship between public opinion and the extension of the period of some specific projects.
    Firstly, 11 hypotheses about the causation of the extension of the period by the public opinion were made based on published information such as newspaper articles and assembly minutes on urban railways and high-standard levee. Secondly, we carried out interview survey into 14 persons who affected the directly or indirectly progress of projects.
    As a result, rapidly increasing negative public opinion is attributed to "negative remark on the projects by mayor" or "low intelligibility of the citizens" , and "the formation of the negative public opinion by mayor" put planning and construction on ice.
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  • Satoshi KASAMA, Yasuaki MATSUDA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_281-I_292
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Recently in Japan, “Landscape Improvement” in the public works projects attracts more attention and discussion than before.
    On the other hand, demand for reduction of public investment is also serious, and therefore, clear explanation for necessity and validness of “added investment” for such landscapical or aesthetic matters is highly required. However, a method to evaluate the outcomes or benefits brought about by such a landscape improvement has not been established, which makes it difficult to discuss how to approach the landscape improvements and to build a consensus.
    Toward resolving these issues, we are now conducting research on how landscape improvements affect the communities and their economics. And in 2014, we proposed the draft Model described the sequence of events that were expected to be induced by such landscape improvements.
    This paper aims mainly to investigate the validity of the Model, through the survey of the cases of past performed landscape improvement projects in Japan.
    The survey was carried out in a questionnaire to the officers of local governments according to the location of the cases. Majority of the cases were selected from the award winning landscape improvement projects. In the questionnaire, we questioned about the existence of the 28 phenomena that were considered as a possible effect of landscape improvement, based on the draft proposal mentioned before.
    Using the result of the questionnaire, we made analyses on the effect of landscape improvements and the results confirmed the validity of that draft proposal. Also, we reviewed on the adequate indexes for evaluating the effect of landscape improvement based on the analysis results. And the indexes such as “increases of visitors and changes in their behavior” and “increases of willing persons to move in the community (or continuation of residency)” were found to be notable indexes.
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  • Masashi KUWANO, Kei FUKUYAMA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_293-I_303
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The objective of this study is to propose a new approach for analysing the accessibility of life-related facilities, considering the possibilities of alternative transportation (e.g. pick-ups and drop-offs) by household members and friends, and of shopping errands for others. This study classifies individuals into three categories according to the proposed accessibility indices, namely, 1) people who are able to access facilities by themselves, 2) people who are not able to access facilities by themselves, but can indirectly access them through others, and 3) people who cannot use the facilities. After categorizing individuals according to the suggested three accessibility classes, this study employes a novel ‘regional accessibility measure’ that is calculated using the share of each category among the populace in a target community. This study follows a three-step analysis in order to calculate the proposed regional accessibility. This study applies complex network modeling to reproduce a social network in accordance with the attributes of the study area using survey results and other available statistical data as the first step. The second step of the study involves developing a discrete choice model of whether or not an individual can access facilities by him/herself in order to quantitatively analyze the effect of individual and household characteristics. In the last step we calculates regional accessibility by combining the results of the reproduced social network with the connections among life-related facilities on the individual level.
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  • Natsuki GOTOU, Terumitsu HIRATA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_305-I_312
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    This study firstly analyses the change of age distribution balance in nation-wide level and city level. Age distribution balance is measured by Gini-Coefficient. It is found that the balance in nation-wide level has been lost in average and the urban areas keep better.
    Secondly we propose the index for measuring the attractiveness of each city to keep younger people in their home city without relocating to the regional central city where they are employed. By using this index, we statistically analyse the factors in urban and transportation services to affect the younger peoples' behavior to choose relocation or commute from their home city to the regional central city.
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  • Megumi MASAKI, Shintaro TERABE, Makoto KASAI, Masai MUTO
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_313-I_322
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    We have been developed a measurement on activity of “gourmet gotochi”, local soul food which characterize its own area. The “gourmet gotochi” can be a potential attraction to increase visitors, however, some of the “gourmet gotochi” may lose its ability to get more travelers. We assumed the activity level appeared as both of the accumulation measure and centripetal measure of the restaurants location according to our previous study. In this paper, all address of Gyoza, Chinese dumpling, restaurants in Hamamatsu in two different times are compared so as to evaluate the accumulation and centripetal measure. The result shows that the Gyoza restaurants in Hamamatsu accumulated from 2012 to 2014 even though the center of accumulation was shifted to suburb. Competitive or complementary relationship among restaurants is also simulated under spatial point process theory. The result suggests that restaurants located near railway stations and major streets have less competitive than those restaurants at the other locations. These analyses of this study can be applied to evaluate rise and fall of famous local foods.
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  • Masahiro ARAKI, Shoshi MIZOKAMI, Takuya MARUYAMA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_323-I_335
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    In recent years, Kumamoto has taken various measures to improve charm and vitality of central city area. Among them it is believed that promoting the excursion of the pedestrian is one of the effective measures to make central city active. To that end, we need to analyze the actual situation of the excursion of the pedestrian in details, and it is necessary to clarify the factors and mechanisms that have an influence on the excursion. This study has two purposes, the first one is to build the model that introduces the index of spatial configuration into explanatory variables which are able to contribute the policy proposal for spatial charm's improvement. The second one is to analyze the effect of the excursion behavior on a redevelopment project in Sakuramachi area by performing policy simulation that utilized the model.
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  • Kazuki NAKAMURA, Yoshitsugu HAYASHI, Fumihiko NAKAMURA, Atsushi FUKUDA ...
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_337-I_346
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    It is a globally important challenge for low-carbon transport development in Asian developing countries to secure multiple benefits. However, there are limitations in applying conventional forecasting analysis to it under rapidly-changing socioeconomic situations. This study is aimed at developing the methodology of designing long-term measures with the AVOID, SHIFT, IMPROVE strategies for low-carbon transport systems in Asian developing megacities in 2050, by introducing QOL (Quality of Life) analysis. It consists of diagnosis and treatment for the low-carbon transport development.
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  • Yuki IKEDA, Kei FUKUYAMA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_347-I_358
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    This study focuses on the strategic behaviors of regional governments on investment of interregional transport infrastructure, especially their levels and timings of the investment. A theoretical regional economics model with two small-open regions, that are about to decide their investment level on the interregional infrastructure, is provided for theoretical analyses. Because of the substitutability or complement of investment by the two regions there exists incentive for both regions to utilize the other's investment while keeping its' own one minimum, resulting in low level overall investment. The research focuses on the effects of the investment decision timings on the overall investment level as well as regional welfares.
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  • Manami KUBOTA, Tsuyoshi HATORI
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_359-I_366
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Regional communities can be improved through residents' voluntary contribution. The present study highlights the role of regional narrative in promoting residents' acceptance for and voluntary participation in regional collaborative works. It is assumed that cognitive conformity between regional narrative and collaborative works is associated with residents' acceptance and participation, and that the effect of cognitive conformity depends on place attachment. The study took up a community farm project in Matsuyama city as a case example of regional collaborative works and conducted a questionnaire survey targeting 104 residents. The results indicated that cognitive conformity between regional narrative and collaborative works plays an important role to foster residents' acceptance and voluntary contribution for the works, supporting the hypotheses.
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  • Ryosuke KAJIMOTO, Noriyasu KACHI, Kenichi TSUKAHARA, Yuki AKIYAMA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_367-I_374
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The numerous landslides due to the torrential rain have frequently occurred in the urban fringe of many cities in recent years. In order to protect residents from landslide disasters, it seems to be desired that the residents, which live in landslide-damaged areas, to migrate to safe areas. In this study, we examined financial feasibility of the scheme, which can allow the residents in landslide dangerous area to migrate to safe residential area, by cost-benefit analysis. The case study of Kyushu region indicated that migration source mesh of about 20 percent had financially feasible of this scheme.
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  • Atsushi SUZUKI, Wakana SUZUKI, Ayumi KURITA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_375-I_385
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Reducing the number of children waiting for child care centers and improving child care support by expanding child care centers and so on is an urgent issue in large cities of Japan. The accessibility to child care centers has been studied by researchers for narrowing supply-demand gap and getting rid of spatial mismatch so far. However, there are still some problems to be improved. This study proposed new accessibility measure to child care centers to which matching theory is applied and assessed accessibility to child care centers in Midori ward, Nagoya city. As the result, it was confirmed that the proposed accessibility measure can express realistic selection process to child care centers and analyze children waiting for child care centers as well as accessibility to it.
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  • Takeshi KURIHARA, Shogo SAKAMOTO, Naoyuki TOMARI
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_387-I_396
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    This study analyses tourism expenditures of repeat visitors to Japan using the data of Consumption Trend Survey for Foreigners Visiting Japan which has been conducted by Japan Tourism Agency since 2010. A comparison shows less expenditure of repeat visitors than that of the first-time visitors. In view of expenditure on shopping which accounts for a large percentage of total amount, repeat visitors tend to purchase more cloths, bags or shoes while the first-time visitors tend to purchase more home electrical appliances. In terms of number of visit in Japan, the second-time visitors consume less than the first-time visitors. But a clear difference is not found between the second-time, third-time, fourth-time and fifthtime visitors.
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  • Akihito UJIIE, Junya FUKUMOTO
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_397-I_406
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Spatial cluster is the set of geographical units where events concentrate. Spatial clusters provide useful information for understanding mechanism and characteristic of socioeconomic activity. A lot of methods have been proposed for cluster detection in spatial epidemiology and criminology. However, there is no existing methods that relax constraint on adjacency of geographical units that compose a spatial cluster. Constraint that requires exact adjacency may have significant impact on detected clusters, especially in the case of detailed data. In this study, we propose a new cluster-detection method that relaxes constraints on shape and adjacency of spatial clusters. Along the lines of model-based clustering, we assume spatial data arise through a probabilistic model. Employing Potts model on probabilistic model, we can embed constraints on shape in probabilistic model and relax constraints on shape and adjacency. The results of case study on mesh data of Japanese economic census show that our method can detect clusters consist of non-adjacent geographical units.
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  • Motomune KATAOKA, Toshio YOSHII, Toru FUTAGAMI, Takashi OGUCHI
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_407-I_414
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    This research is focused on emergency transport of ambulance. Because, future population of Japan is different from now. The purpose of the research is formulation of a forecast of demand for emergency life-saving transfer. And we were validated the model on case study at Matsuyama-city. As a result of the validation, we was ascertained with high accuracy on the data of Matsuyama-city at moment.
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  • Katsuya SAKAI, Takahiko KUSAKABE, Yasuo ASAKURA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_415-I_424
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The Tradable Bottleneck Permits (TBP) scheme is one of the first-best time-varying road pricing schemes. In order to resolve the congestion problem during the morning rush hours at a single bottleneck, the scheme provides these functions as: (i) a road administrator issues permits that allow the holders to pass through the bottleneck at a pre-specified time period (“bottleneck permits”), (ii) a new trading market is established for bottleneck permits valid for a pre-specified time period (Akamatsu 2007). When the amount of the issued bottleneck permits is equal to the bottleneck capacity, congestion is completely eliminated and thus the social cost is minimized. However, it is not revealed that the scheme could achieve a Pareto improvement in a merge network.
    This study aims to analyze the effects of applying TBP in a merge network. We employed V-shaped network and showed that TBP in not always Pareto improving. TBP eliminates physical queues and some drivers' cost increase be-cause a merging priority rule is not effective when there are no queues. In order to achieve a Pareto improvement, we proposed three methodology: (i) Differentiated permit, (ii) Monetary compensation, and (iii) Finance expansion of bottleneck. The first one is that the road administrator assigns the permits for each group so as not to increase the trip cost to any drivers. The second one is that the road administrator pay money back to drivers whose cost increases. The last one is that bottleneck capacity is expanded by using the TBP revenue. This method is the most effective from the perspective of social cost minimization.
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  • Takumi ASADA, Kazuhiro OKADA, Masanori MATSUDA, Mikiharu ARIMURA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_425-I_431
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The user of community cycle business have been increasing. And now the gap between bike supply and users demand is generated to a specific port. The purpose of this study is to gaze at the increase in efficiency of rearrangement of the bicycle by the staff, to predict the short-term use pattern of community cycle by the RBF network, and to examine the accuracy.
    As a result, the prediction accuracy is in the ports that are actively use but to decrease, it was possible to be highly accurate predictions on other ports. In addition, by comparison with other models, RBF network is confirmed to be effective in predicting the usage cycles community.
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  • Masanobu KII, Kazuki NAKAMURA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_433-I_442
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Long-term GPS trajectory data of car travel can clarify the scaling rules of visit frequency by space and by time, but they have received little attention in past studies. This study first analyzes the influences of spatial accuracy and observation duration of car travel trajectories on the distributions of visit frequency. Then, how consistent the distributions can be with the behavioral model of individual travel following the Pareto distribution of visit frequency is examined. Finally, the implication of the analytical results to transport policy for modal shift is discussed. The findings will contribute to the design of transport policies considering the large volume of low-frequent trips.
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  • Masahiro TOMINAGA, Hiroshi SHIMAMOTO, Nobuhiro UNO, Jan-Dirk SCHM&Oum ...
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_443-I_450
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    It is required to evaluate transportation policy from various aspects in modern society where there exist various types of habits toward transportation. This study proposes a combined mode and route choice equilibrium model considering heterogeneity in mode choices in order to measure the influence of inherent mode preferences and cost sensitivities on network flows. Specifically, the proposed model is formulated as an equilibrium problem where travelers are grouped into four classes according to above two criteria. These groups can hence reflect the proportion of mode captive users, and users who might not have a strong preference but vary in their sensitivity to e.g. fare changes or petrol price changes. The assignment of users choosing public transport considers further the possibility of hyperpaths, that is users might choose a bus from a set of lines and choose whichever line comes first.
    Subsequently, the proposed model is applied to a toy network and the performance of the model is evaluated. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis is carried out in this study. Results illustrate how the change in class composition effects mode and route choice in the whole network. We find that a change in class composition affects the overall mode choice ratio without changing the network level of service. This indicates that reducing the bus captive population may increase the bus ridership of that class.
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  • Takamasa SUZUKI
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_451-I_458
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Improvement of the transfer convenience between railway and other transport modes may promote further use of railway. However, the convenience of these transfers has not been extensively evaluated. Focusing on the transfer between railway and bus, this study aims to establish a method to evaluate transfer convenience regarding physical and structural characteristics of transfer paths and bus stops. An online survey was conducted to obtain passengers' evaluation on rail-bus transfer convenience. With the data obtained, transfer convenience evaluation models were developed to quantify the effect of physical characteristics of transfer paths and bus stops on the convenience evaluation. Parameters of the models were then converted into impedance indices to express the intuitive and quantitative magnitude of the effect. Indices were utilized to calculate the path impedance, which were compared with the results of convenience evaluation to demonstrate how path the impedance represents the evaluation.
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  • Takao YANAGIHARA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_459-I_465
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Outside activity is one of the most important factors affecting health of elderly community dwellers. The frequency of going out is considered of useful health indicator. The choice of the transportation means is different by the functional capacity of each individual. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between the choice of the transportation means, the frequency of going out and the functional capacity in elderly community dwellers. As a result, The car driving influenced the frequency of going out most. In this study area, neither public transportation nor the transportation such as the family meeting and sending off and taxis influence the frequency going out.
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  • Nobuhiro UNO, Toshiyuki NAKAMURA, Yusuke BABA, Hiroki YAMAZAKI, Fumita ...
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_467-I_479
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    A real-time traffic information including travel time information is now widely used by many drivers. The travel time information mainly provided now is regarded as a descriptive type of information and does not include the driver's response to information provided. This study focuses on the provision of additional information with the existing descriptive information in order to relax the accuracy problem of descriptive information on travel time. Due to progress in sensing and information technologies, it is possible to predict short-term traffic condition to some extent of accuracy, and accordingly adding the trend information which expresses the short-term variation of traffic condition by arrows on VMS (Variable Message Sign) board, has been put into practical use in Urban Expressway in Japan. There is a possibility that providing the information on short-term trend of traffic condition (abbreviated here-in-after to “trend information”) might lead to not only improvement in service for travelers but also enhancement in traffic control by information provision. This study is aimed at analyzing the impact of trend information on driver's route choice by a tailor-made type SP survey about route choice for the users of urban expressway in Osaka and Kobe area in Japan. Some statistical analyses on SP data on route choice suggest that the increasing trend might give significant influence to the route choice of drivers.
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  • Kazuki TERAYAMA, Michiyasu ODANI
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_481-I_491
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    This study aims to propose a method for measuring individual mobility using new indices of availability of travel modes and examine the effectiveness of those indices. We first calculated the indices of availability of three travel modes, walking, driving a car and a car passenger, for each resident in a housing development area in the suburbs of Kobe City, based on our questionnaire survey data. As a result, residents of each age group could be classified into mobility groups which have the similar levels of availability indices, and we showed the diversity of their mobility within each age group. Next, we tried to combine the above availability indices with traditional gravity-based accessibility measures to retail stores and hospitals by residents which were calculated in the study area, and demonstrated the necessity of reflecting the diversity of individual mobility within each age group on evaluating their accessibility.
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  • Koji SUZUKI, Yuki MATSUMURA
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_493-I_502
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate collision risk and propose safety countermeasures at three merging sections of urban expressway. First, in order to elucidate the occurrences of collision risk in merging section, we analyzed the collision risk between a merging vehicle and a main lane vehicle by using the PICUD index. Second, we conducted discriminant analyses for the results of the PICUD estimation in order to reveal the influence factors of collision risk at each merging section. As the result of discriminant analyses, it is found that the percentage of merging position and traffic volume of main lane have a huge effect on collision risk for merging movement. Furthermore, we examined some countermeasures to reduce collision risk in each merging section by sensitivity analysis.
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  • Masaaki ISHIHARA, Takamasa IRYO
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_503-I_509
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Dynamic user equilibrium assignment (DUE) is known as a methodology to assign a dynamic traffic flow, while there is no known methodology that surely finds an equilibrium solution at any case. In addition, it has been mentioned that the good properties such as uniqueness of the solution may not be guaranteed. As an equilibrium point is a stationary point of a day-to-day dynamics, we may remedy the abovementioned problem of DUE solutions by calculating the day-to-day dynamics and recognising its solution trajectory as an alternative of an equilibrium solution. This study formulates a dynamic traffic assignment problem with vehicles discretised and models a day-to-day dynamics of route choices of individual vehicles as a Markov chain model. An absorbing state of the Markov chain corresponds to a Nash equilibrium point of the assignment problem if it exists. If it does not exist, we need to evaluate its stationarity by a statistical method. We performed numerical tests for a few test cases and found that the system go to an equilibrium point or have the stationarity, at least for a small network cases.
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  • Ryunosuke KAWAMURA, Ayako TANIGUCHI, Nobuaki OMORI, Mamoru TANIGUCHI
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_511-I_521
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    This study examine the effective measures to encourage cooperative behavior of the “yield one's seat to the elderly or pregnant women” and “scold noisy one's children” in the public transportation.
    In order to its purpose, we focused on relationship between cooperative behavior and norm in Europe and East Asia of six countries.
    We conducted international survey that measured subjective evaluation of cooperative behavior and norms, and obtain data about environmental factors (such as announcement and bulletin) that are considered to affect the cooperative behavior from the field survey and the web site of railway company.
    Analysis results showed that announcement for urging to “yield your seat” at priority seat interrupt its behavior at seat other than priority seat ,and that it is effective to raise descriptive norm (awareness of the surrounding behavior) for encouraging to “scold noisy one's children”.
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  • Tomoya KAWASAKI, Tomoyuki TODOROKI, Soichi KOBAYASHI
    2015 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages I_523-I_532
    Published: 2015
    Released: December 21, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    In Japanese urban railway, heavy congestion frequently occurs at the rush hour in the morning. In order to alleviate this problem, we propose lottery incentive scheme to promote off-peak commuting in urban railway of Tokyo. The objective of this study is to estimate the impact of lottery incentive scheme to alleviate railway congestion in the peak period and to find effective price and probability setting for off-peak commuting. As a result of the analysis, it is revealed that in case high winning prize of 28.9 thousand yen (low winning probability of 0.33%), the number of participant for off-peak commuting is increased comparing to normal policy. Congestion rate is also calculated by using the result of the model developed. The normal policy reduces by 1.5% of congestion rate, however, in case winning prize is set as 200 thousand yen (winning probability of 0.05%), congestion rate is reduced up to 196.9% that is as 0.6% low as normal policy.
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