Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. D3 (Infrastructure Planning and Management)
Online ISSN : 2185-6540
ISSN-L : 2185-6540
Volume 74 , Issue 5
Showing 1-50 articles out of 134 articles from the selected issue
Infrastructure Planning and Management Vol.35 (Special Issue)
  • Eihan SHIMIZU
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_1-I_18
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    In September 1887, Kaoru Inoue resigned as President of the Architectural Bureau. Yozo Yamao assumed the office of President in February 1888 after a short period in which the post was vacant. In October 1881, Yamao retired from office as the Minister of Public Works and began working as a legislation bureaucrat; from December 1885, he served as Director General of the Cabinet Legislation Bureau. Previous research has shown that when Inoue resigned from the post of President, Hirobumi Ito and Inoue considered Yajiro Shinagawa (then an imperial court councilor) for the post of President, and that in January 1888, Ito was thinking of appointing Yamao as Resident Envoy to the United States. This article draws on a large number of historical materials to explicate the historical details of how these personnel proposals emerged, and then disappeared, as Yamao was appointed to the post of President of the Architectural Bureau. The results reveal a number of new details: Yamao's appointment as Resident Envoy to the United States was all but decided upon by August 1887 at the latest; and the proposal to have Shinagawa serve as President was still on the table just before Yamao was appointed to the post. However, many of the important details brought to light are fragmentary in nature, and the historical details of Yamao's appointment as President presented in the study involve a degree of conjecture.
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  • Minoru OSAWA
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_19-I_36
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    Uniformly discretized line segment with periodic boundary conditions, or racetrack economy as it is called, provides an ideal testbed for elucidating pattern formation properties of spatial economic models with endogenous agglomeration, or spatial agglomeration models. Local and global stability analyses of stationary equilibria of spatial agglomeration models on the stylized geographical setup allow one to reduce existing models in the literature into three major categories based on the spatial scale (local or global) of the assumed dispersion force(s). The resultant classification provides implications on interpretations for the counterfactual experiments reported in the context of the so-called quantitative spatial economics.
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  • Tomoki ISHIKURA, Keisuke IKEDA
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_37-I_42
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    Elasticity of substitution is a crucial parameter of spatial computable general equilibrium analysis. This paper estimates the parameters for 12 industrial sectors in Japan. The elasticity parameter is based on monopolistic competition concept used in new economic geography field. We apply three econometric methodologies, logged OLS, Poisson pseudo maximum likelihood and nonlinear least square, to Japanese inter-regional trade data. Although the estimated values show slight differences between the methodologies, the relationship of magnitude of the estimates among sectors are almost similar in all methodologies.
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  • Tsutomu YABE, Seishu KITAMURA, Kiyohisa TAKANO, Daizo IKEDA, Ryuichi I ...
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_43-I_54
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    In late years, research on the applicability of “Mobile Spatial Statistics (population statistics generated from operational data of the mobile network; hereafter, MSS)” for enhanced urban transportation planning have been implemented. MSS enables us to estimate behavioral characteristics of the actual population covering a national scope, over arbitrary grid units or administrative boundaries, and with fluctuation over time, 24-hours a day, 365-days a year. On the other hand, due to the fact that MSS are generated from operational data of a single mobile communication carrier, the concern that the bias of data influences analysis is often pointed out. In this study, we consider the representativeness of MSS generated from operational data of a single mobile communication carrier, in terms of the applicability for urban transportation planning.
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  • Toru HAGIWARA, Masakazu KAWASAKI, Mikiharu ARIMURA, Kiyoshi TAKAHASHI
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_55-I_63
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    Snowstorm on roads create serious disaster in winter in Hokkaido, Japan. The Hokkaido Prefecture built up an early road close aims to prevent and mitigate damage recently. Number of road closes due to snow-storm has been increased since 2014. The aim of this report is to identify what kind of impact of the road close on travel behavior at Nakashibetsu city and how citizen of Nakashibetsu city assess the road close due to snowstorm. We evaluated travel behavior during snow storm bringing the road close using mobile phone GPS data. Mobile Spatial Statistics by NTT DOCOMO is used to estimate population in the central city area of Nakashibetsu. Traffic volume passed through the five screen lines surrounded the Nakashibetsu city using the “Konzatsu-Tokei Data©” from ZENRIN DataCom Co. Ltd. Based on the results of these analysis, the traffic volume passed through the five screen lines decreased sharply and most of citizen did not move out from their living areas during snow storms. Also, the traffic volume increased in order to prepare the snow storm on the previous day of the snow storm. We conducted questionnaire survey to the general public and hearing investigation to regional administrators and road administrators on July 2016. Results of investigations indicated citizen accepted the road close due to risk awareness to snowstorm in winter. Also, it is indicated that countermeasures like choosing the early road close and early information to recommend staying indoors to the general public were effective to reduce damages due to snowstorms. The citizen of Nakashibetsu city accepted demerits of the road close and became successful for avoiding an unnecessary risk due to snow storm in winter.
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  • Mio HOSOE, Masashi KUWANO, Madoka CHOSOKABE, Kei FUKUYAMA, Akira ISHII
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_65-I_77
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    Mass media such as television broadcast were used to be major information sources for citizens at disasters. However, after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, citizens have started using social media, such as Twitter and blog, for sharing information of the disaster-affected area. Consequently, a lot of information is exchanged on social and mass media at the time of the disasters. It is important to consider characteristics of each medium for effective disaster information transmission. The purpose of this study is to clarify the differences in topics and release timings of information among social and mass media at the time of the disaster. This study conducts a non-negative tensor factorization analysis of articles posted on Twitter, 2channel, blog, board, internet news and television broadcast to extract topics and analyze differences in topics among media and their time-series transition at the earthquake caused on 21th October 2016 in Tottori prefecture in Japan. As a result, the characteristics of media was detected and the process of spreading topics between media was clarified.
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  • Bunchiku SAI, Tatsuya FUJII, Naoki YOKOTA, Mamoru TANIGUCHI
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_79-I_89
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    Recently, the importance of society and the environment has come to be health promotion and maintenance. This study was conducted to define indicators for use in the field of urban planning for developing an evaluation index for a health-related society and the environment. The research method is the following: 1) classifying developed evaluation indexes in the fields of public health and urban planning and 2) using text mining techniques to compare differences of important viewpoints in the respective fields. Results show that, 1) in the field of urban planning, an evaluation index related to a walking environment was developed systematically. 2) However, comparison to an evaluation index developed in the public health field shows that the evaluation index related to living habits and health developed in the field of urban planning is insufficient. Furthermore, evaluation of health-related social factors is inadequate.
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  • Koki TAKAYAMA, Akinori MORIMOTO, Yoshihide NAKAGAWA
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_91-I_100
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    The purpose of this research is to clarify the important role of the social experiments by conducting questionnaires and interviews about road space reallocation in nationwide and organize the requirements and tasks for the establishment of road space reallocation sustainment in which discussion has been active in Japan in recent years.
    Based on the survey results, it has become clear that utilizing social experiments to establish initiatives, visualizing the tasks and repeating the revision to gradually deepen the agreement as well as local and administrative share responsibility for operation and management from the early stage can promote local initiative are important.
    In the future, the establishment of the benefit assessment method for securing budget, system enhancement and easing of legislations to realize continuous and diverse space utilization are expected.
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  • He CHEN, Toshinori ARIGA, Keisuke MATSUHASHI
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_101-I_107
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    The CO2 emissions are effectively reduced by the intensive population distribution. Therefore, in the process of low carbonization, it is important to evaluate the CO2 emission of passenger vehicles by regional characteristics. In this study, method of the passenger vehicle CO2 emissions were studied by using 1km2 mesh population data. And the method considered the mesh population size, and the regional type classified by the surrounding population integration degree. The results show that: 1) According to the calculation of regional type, the characteristics of urban district can be grasped; 2) When the population increased from 5,000 to 10,000, the passenger vehicle CO2 emissions were reduced by 40 percent, shows that the effect of CO2 emissions in the DID area was significant; 3) In sparsely populated areas, when the population gathered 500 within the scope of mesh 5*5, the passenger vehicle CO2 emissions reduce about 60% per people.
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  • Tomoki ISHIKURA, Azusa OYAMA
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_109-I_115
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    Volcanic ash produced by volcano eruption spreads widely within a short time. The ash fall directly disrupts road transport network and indirectly in uences to interregional commodity flow. This paper applies an integrated commodity flow model to assessment of economic and transport impacts caused by volcanic ash fall. We apply the model to the two active volcanos, Mt. Fuji and Mt. Asama, whose ash fall may affect to Kanto region. The results show changes in link flow, link cost, and O-D commodity flow quantitatively.
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  • Yasumasa FUKUSHIMA, Takashi UCHIDA
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_117-I_128
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    In recent years the development of the urban river has been focusing on efforts for the environment and the water amenity besides the flood control and the water utilization, in some cases however, the residents along the river have failed to value and then water amenity has made little progress.
    This paper takes a case of the waterfront development of the small size river in an emerging built-up area. Going through several years after the project implementation, we take hold of the actual condition and the attitudes of residents by means of hearing survey to the inhabitants. This study performs analyses on the results of actual condition survey towards the smooth implementation of the enterprise and the consensus formation and in urban riverside development considering development methods in order to promote the utilization with high evaluations from the inhabitants as concrete strategies.
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  • Norimitsu KOIKE, Masatoshi MORITA, Yukiharu FUKATSU
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_129-I_139
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    The evacuation from a riverside area to high ground is recognized as a method to prevent risks to an elementary school under flood conditions. To evacuate to the safety zone quickly, the school principal must make a fast decision with simple information. For a decision about a quick evacuation, we attempted to draw up an evacuation time-line including evacuation outside of the school. Through two evacuation drills at the elementary school near a river with a flood forecast, we checked the evacuation time from the school to the safety zone. In addition, two questionnaire surveys for parents were used to discuss the way to evacuate before a flood occurs. As the result of such activities, the evacuation time-line for an elementary school near a river could be prepared. The time-line is considered in terms of the velocity of the rising water level. Our proposal process can be applied to other elementary schools located in a riverside area.
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  • Yasuhiro SOSHINO, Akira MIYATA, Ryuji KAKIMOTO
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_141-I_154
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    This study aimed to find out the improvements in the transportation of the international medical relief equipment which is deployed in large scale disasters. A comparative situation analysis was conducted focusing on the type and geographic characteristics of disasters, the duration of the transportation, the commencing date of the medical services, and the utilization situation of the relief equipment in the field. The result showed that the bottleneck at the international airports of the disaster affected countries. In case of the disruption of the road infrastructure, the high priority medical items were transported by the small aircrafts. This study pointed out (a) the proper transportation of the equipment in accordance with the types of disasters, (b) the reduction in size and weight of the packing, (c) the proper selection of the relief equipment appropriate to disasters, (d) standardization and preposition of the relief equipment, and (e) the logistics support by the country which accepts the international disaster relief.
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  • Yoko MATSUDA
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_155-I_163
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    The number of case studies in the field of infrastructure and community planning have increased. However, methodology or criteria of how to evaluate them is rarely discussed. This paper discusses methodology of case studies to contribute for hypotheses construction, referring to the relevant research fields of policy science and management science, together with the concept of abduction that Peirce argued. In addition, from the viewpoint of technological rationality and reflective practice presented by Schön, the author shows the process of abduction from cases on the role of aid workers in a disaster-suffered community.
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  • Yuki NAKAMURA, Toru HAGIWARA, Yasuhiro NAGATA
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_165-I_172
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    In Hokkaido, low visibility which may be occurred by snow and strong wind in winter makes traffic disturbances. To detect low visibility and avoid risk of traffic disturbances are important. Then, by the use of image processing which are taken by CCTV camera in national highway of Hokkaido, detection of low visibility was done. Using WIPS calculated images from CCTV camera, merit occurs in snow road situation and effection of wind. Compare detection low visibility from GPV and WIPS, verified to show this merit using practical data recorded by 6 routes and 20 cameras in Nemuro-Nakashibetsu area from December 2016 to February 2017. As a result, WIPS evaluates situation of low visibility by strong wind when no snowfall on the road. At the same situation, GPV cannot consider snow and wind on the ground face and detect low visibility. Therefore, using and modifying information of low visibility from WIPS shows valid index to efficient road management and development of snow plan.
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  • Tomohiro KAGEYAMA, Shintaro TERABE, Hideki YAGINUMA, Nan KANG, Kosuke ...
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_173-I_180
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    Since privatized from Japan Highway Public Corporation in 2005, three Nippon Expressway Companies (NEXCOs) have surveyed the customer satisfaction for more than ten years. The score of satisfaction is one of the key performance indicators which explain the difference between customers' expectation and experience. The average overall and sectoral satisfaction level, and the yearly rate of increase/ decrease were combined. Considering the data and the events occurring during various years, we evaluated the reasons for changes in customer satisfaction with the expressway network in Japan.
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  • Hiroki TAKEI, Makoto OKUMURA
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_181-I_189
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    After the Great East Japan Earthquake, vehicle evacuation was allowed in case of no other means, and concrete vehicle utilization plan was left to be discussed locally in each municipality. In this study, we propose a quantitative analytical method to configure the permissible vehicle utilization rate of districts in a realistic municipality, based on the cell-based model minimizing tsunami encounter risk. As a result of a case study, we clarify the applicability of the proposed method to obtain information essential for vehicle utilization plan. Those information includes the extent of vehicle utilization rate, free from increase of total tsunami encounter risk, the effect of local disability ratio on the permissible vehicle utilization rate.
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  • Takumi KATAHASHI, Yoshihiro SATO, Takuya MARUYAMA
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_191-I_200
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    The visiting interview is an effective survey method for disaster victims, but an efficient survey method is needed because many members of households visited are out of their homes. In this study, a simulation model of a visiting interview survey was developed using data from the survey in temporary housing in Mashiki following the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake. Data include temporal trends in survey feasibility for each household type. We found that households with many workers were more accessible in the evenings. Finally, we demonstrate a reduction in visits using the simulation model.
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  • Hajime WATANABE, Yoshihiro SATO, Takuya MARUYAMA
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_201-I_208
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    Most existing studies on residential choice of disaster victims are based on standard multivariate analysis and advanced method can give us useful insights. This study employs two advanced methods, group-based discrete choice model and decision tree, for analyzing the residential preference of households in Mashiki temporary housings following the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake. Group-based discrete choice model reveals the effect of each household member's situation on residential preference (e.g. possibility of driving a car). Decision tree analysis on single households who were homeowners demonstrates the combination of conditions to explain the residential preference. For example, single households who have been single before earthquake, drivers, and in their 50s are less likely to rebuild their home.
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  • Yoshihiro SATO, Takuya MARUYAMA
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_209-I_218
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    The aim of this study was to analyze the non-respondents of a mail-based survey distributed in the town of Mashiki to households in temporary housing. We also investigated the response behavior for the mail-based survey with group-based decision-making models. First, we developed a binomial logit model of three groups using information obtained from the households. In younger households with young member, a higher share of female adults may affect the response rate. In two-generation households, fewer workers and a lower average age may affect the response rate. Furthermore, we investigated response behavior with the group-based decision-making models based on information from household members. Findings indicated that younger age groups, people over the age of 80, and males were less likely to respond to the mail-based survey.
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  • Siyuan BIAN, Kakuya MATSUSHIMA, Kiyoshi KOBAYASHI, Masashi OCHI
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_219-I_231
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    In the past, the Japanese economy has been led by industries. Starting from the steel industry in the rapid growth period, there was a leading industry being the driving force of the economy in each period. This paper focuses on the financial capability of 569 middle and small municipalities, using the measurement of polarization to calculate the distribution pattern and its spatial disparity. Also, this paper will analyze the automobile industry, which was the leading factor until recently, and the service industry, which could be the next driving force of the Japanese economy coming along.
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  • Michiko HAYASHI, Katsuya TSUBOI, Dowon KIM, Takeyuki OKUBO
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_233-I_240
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    Currently, the evacuation system, which urges all residents to evacuate their houses, is being reevaluated. Therefore, it is necessary to draw on community members' diverse experiences of the past flood to inform the reevaluation of evacuation protocol. In this study, a questionnaire targeted residents of Sanbonyanagi district in Koga city, Shiga Prefecture, where few residents evacuated their houses. The questionnaire was conducted to clarify the relationship between residents' experience with floods and their evacuation intention. Results revealed that residents who experienced the flood have their own criteria of how to evacuate after understanding the characteristics of each method as well as the hazardous nature of a flooding situation more deeply than residents who had not experienced a flood.
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  • Kosuke TANAKA
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_241-I_248
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    To live in Japan, it is essential to deal with all kinds of natural disasters such as heavy rain, earthquake, snow damage and so on. Just after such natural disasters, for example, it is widely known that many Self-Defense Forces, police and fire fighters are mobilized to rescue and restore. On the other hand, although local construction companies also make a big contribution, it is not fully recognized. In this way, if circumstances that lighten down the civil engineering construction industry continue, there is concern that disaster response will be difficult in future Japan. Therefore, in this research, focusing on rescue, search and recovery activities after the occurrence of a disaster, clarify the reporting situation of the newspaper report contributing to the formation of national public opinion. Based on analysis and discussion of contents, this study aim to provide knowledge for promoting recognition for construction companies.
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  • Mamoru YOSHIDA, Ryuji KAKIMOTO, Michinori HATAYAMA, Maiku ABE
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_249-I_258
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    This paper aims at obtaining policy implications for proper official response to sheltering people after an earthquake. To achieve this purpose, it investigates individual sheltering behaviors, including sheltering place and sheltering term, after the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake through a questionnaire survey targeting people live in Kumamoto prefecture. Consequently, it was confirmed that those who had prepared an emergency bag tended to make a decision of sheltering after the earthquake, worthwhile those who had stored water and food tended to stay at home. In addition, those who had confirmed routes and places of sheltering before the earthquake tended to shelter in designated buildings. Furthermore, it is clarified that those who had private reasons or owned pets were likely to shelter in private cars, and those who sheltered in private cars had more trouble on getting water and food than those who sheltered in designated/non-designated buildings.
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  • Saori ISAKA, Kazuaki OKUBO
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_259-I_268
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    We proposed an optimal allocation model of emergency relief supplies based on cell based Merchant-Nemhauser model. The model minimizes the total transportation time from supply origins to shelters and provides an optimal allocation of the supplies and labors in dynamic setting. We applied the model to an earthquake disaster in Saitama city to evaluate the effect of changes in depot location. We found that the addition of depot, which is provided by the recent cooperation between Saitama city and a delivery service company, enables the transportation in shorter time. And it also improves the robustness of transportation against variation in the amount of supply. We also examined the optimal allocation of labors into depots and found critical depots, which should be allocated many labors, to transport the emergency relief supplies efficiently within limited time span.
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  • Satoshi SUGIURA, Mayu MIMURA, Akiyoshi TAKAGI
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_269-I_276
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    A huge number of road are continued constructing from the high-growth period in Japan. Maintenance and renewal of these roads is a national issue, and it should be considered to reduce the roads with less necessity. On the other hand, considering the decrease in the labor force population, we need to construct new roads to improve transportation efficiency. Therefore, consideration of an appropriate road network topology is required cause of improve investment efficiency of road construction. The network design problem for optimum network topology generally takes into consideration only the travel time of the flow and the construction cost of the road. There are not many studies dealing with other effects of roads. In this research, we organize “Indicators for evaluating project effectiveness and necessity” in project evaluation for road construction in Japan. Also we propose the method introducing into a network design problem for two indices defined the unit welfare by CVM etc. We examine the model using virtual network and confirmed the behavior of the model.
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  • Tomoki KAWANO, Yoshihiro SATO, Takuya MARUYAMA
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_277-I_284
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    Text mining approach for analyzing free answer data attracts attention in infrastructure and city planning studies. This paper proposed a novel framework integrating topic model and discrete-continuous model to analyze free answer data. We use the interview survey data for households in Mashiki temporary housings following the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake. Topic model describes the ratio of topic in interview for each respondent and discrete-continuous model describes the topic choice and the ratio of topic. Our new framework statistically demonstrates the relationship between respondent attributes and topic in interview.
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  • Satoshi SUGIURA, Fumitaka KURAUCHI, Akiyoshi TAKAGI
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_285-I_292
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    “Emergency Link” that will become effective in the case of large disaster is predetermined by Prefectures to cope with transport demands such as emergency transport and humanitarian logistics. For this, the road managers are strengthening infrastructures along emergency links to avoid disconnection. However, the investment cost may become large if one designates emergency links without consideration of the efficiency of investment. This paper proposes a model that designates emergency links with minimized total reinforcement cost by optimally selecting two levels of reinforcement strategies while satisfying the connectivity requirements. The proposed model is tested on Gifu prefectural road network, and we confirmed the trade-off between the required number of paths and the investment cost by the sensitivity analysis. We also confirmed the trade-off between allowable travel time and the investment cost. Therefore, road administrator need careful consideration in determining these parameters.
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  • Kazuaki OKUBO, Pang-jo CHUN, Mika YAGASAKI
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_293-I_301
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    This paper proposes a method of utilizing auction data toward recycling-oriented regional planning and examines an efficient resource allocation to maximize Japanese municipalities' revenues from wasted bottle recycling auctions. First, we developed models to explain observed winning bids by using multiple linear regression models and found that the distances between recycling firms and the municipalities have negative impact on the winning bids. Second, we estimated potential winning bids by using the developed model in each year and formulate an optimal resource allocation problem. We derived efficient allocations by using the estimated potential winning bids and found that optimal allocations improve the municipalities' revenues, especially in Kanto region. We also found that the combination in the optimal allocation distribute in smaller area compared to the observed combination.
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  • Hiromichi YAMAGUCHI, Kanako KOIZUMI, Shuji OSAWA, Shoichiro NAKAYAMA
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_303-I_314
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    As ‘network reliability’, road networks are required to connect important bases even in large-scale disasters for life-saving and quick recovery. Many studies proposed the methodologies for evaluating the network reliability, however only a few studies answered “Which base should be used for evaluation as important one?” In this paper, the problems of the current disaster prevention base are organized, and the priority ranks of disaster prevention base are estimated. At first, from the viewpoint of road network reliability, the current state of disaster prevention base designation in the regional disaster prevention plan across the country was arranged. As a results, we presented that there is no criterion for disaster prevention bases designation and the type of designated bases are different between prefectures. Based on that, we estimated the simple priority ranks of disaster prevention bases which stably obtained with many areas / assumptions. By clarifying this estimated ranks as the national unity standard, we will be able to improve the network reliability efficiently.
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  • Fumiya SATO, Shinsuke TANIMOTO, Masaaki MINAMI
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_315-I_325
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    The reconstruction plan of the East Japan great earthquake disaster was based on the idea of disaster reduction and the tsunami disaster measure in the plan was decided by a combination of disaster prevention measures such as hardware and software. Software measures need to consider regional characteristics such as population distribution, topography, infrastructure equipment etc. in each region. In this study, we focused on the capacity in the evacuation place and examined the evacuation plan that all people in the target area can evacuate in the central city area of Miyako City. We conducted simulation of tsunami evacuation in two cases. Fast cases, people who can evacuate by use of shortest time root. Second cases, people who have small total capacity of evacuation places are prioritized. As a result, we were able to obtain basic data on the consideration of the tsunami evacuation plan in the target area. By considering the total capacity of evacuation place, all evacuees can evacuate to evacuation places within the tsunami arrival time.
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  • Reiko MASUI, Tetsuo YAI
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_327-I_337
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    In Asian developing cities, new transportation system has planned without considering existing traffc mode “Paratransit”. We redefined Paratransit as LAMAT (Locally Adapted, Modified and Advanced Transport) and studied the trend of new advanced technologies on it. As a result, the development of EV vehicles and the rapid spread of ride hailing apps have greatly transformed the conventional LAMAT system and clarified the possibility of joining the urban integrated transportation system.
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  • Takahiro MINAMI, Makoto FUJIU, Junichi TAKAYAMA
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_339-I_348
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    In Japan, there is a discussion about the replacement or extension of the service life of the bridges built during the rapid economic growth period, which are now reaching the end of their planned service period. Under these circumstances, instead of corrective maintenance, regular visual inspections of the bridges are performed once every five years as preventative maintenance. Bridges with different environmental conditions are expected to have greatly different rates of deterioration. Therefore, depending on environmental condition and construction, deterioration advances in five years spans. In this study, association of bridge component damage was analyzed using regular inspection data for determination of timing for inspection. As the result of analysis, it was clear that the damage of concrete slab and rubber bearing was greatly related the damage of the bridge face construction which can be detected in usual inspection.
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  • Makoto TSUKAI, Yusuke HARA, Keita YAMAGUCHI, Masamitsu OHNISHI
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_349-I_358
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    Infrastructure Planning Committee in Japan marked the 50th anniversary in 2016. The purpose of this study is to clarify the historical research topic trend of Infrastructure Planning in Japan. About 1000 reviewed papers from 1985 to 2015 were collected, and the collected text were analyzed by Topic Model. Due to the successful estimation of potential topics in those papers, some of evolutional cycles of research topics were found, which proved the active expansion of the research fields in our society. On the basis of these findings, the ranges of activities that should be supported in future by our society were discussed.
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  • Yuki TAKAHASHI, Yuichiro KAWABATA, Ayu MIYAKAWA, Satoshi FUJII
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_359-I_377
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    Recently in Japan, there have been a lot of major problems such as deflation and large scale disasters, and various public pol-icies are needed to solve those problems and increase people's welfare. Consensus building is indispensible for planning and implementing public policies. Previous studies have demonstrated that narrative-based communication effectively changes people's attitudes toward public policies. However, there have been only experiments in which scenarios created for specific experimental purpose are used and its ecological validity is not validated enough. In this study, we used newspaper articles as experimental stimuli because they are used in real life, and found some significant effects of narrative-formed communication on people's attitudes.
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  • Ayami HAYASHI, Masanobu KII
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_379-I_387
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    Possible impacts of climate change on human life and economic activity are being pointed out, and it is important for urban areas with dense population to implement countermeasures. This study aims to analyze changes in risks of annual high temperature / precipitation days up to 2050 for approximately 3600 urban areas in the world under different climate change scenarios. It also analyzes major factors behind such changes for addressing the planning measures. As a result, we found that the risks of annual high temperature days will increase in all the urban areas caused by an increase in the number of high temperature days, and the increase in number will be all the more conspicuous as climate change level becomes high. The risks of annual high precipitation days will also increase in many urban areas, while they will decrease in a quarter of urban areas in the world. Furthermore, the major causes for the increase in the high precipitation risks will be different among the urban areas. Planning measures will be required for urban areas by taking into account the factor expected to dominantly contribute to the risk changes.
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  • Fumiya NISHIWAKI, Michinori HATAYAMA, Masamitsu ONISHI, Hideyuki ITO
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_389-I_397
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    In the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake, national governments and municipalities in Kumamoto tried to provide disaster relief supplies to evacuees. However, it is pointed out that supplies did not arrive timely to sufferers. This problem has been also pointed out in the past disasters. Therefore, various countermeasures have been proposed and implemented. However, the problem in Kumamoto shows that there are still many problems in disaster relief logistics. According to our survey on the plans and actual operations of the disaster relief logistics in Kumamoto, there are some troubles in spite of the disaster relief agreement for transport supplies. We also found that there is a possibility that there are some parts where no one conduct transportation due to discrepancies between stakeholders' interpretation of the plans and their roles. In this research, it is suggested that there are problems in the contents of the agreement and the disaster response plan, and communication concerning them.
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  • Hiroyoshi MORITA, Satoshi INENAGA, Eisuke AOKI, Akito MURAYAMA
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_399-I_407
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    The study aims to analyze the effect of urban environment on lifestyle, health, and intellectual productivity of residents by covariance structure analysis, based on a questionnaire survey covering about 3,000 employees in the Owari area of Aichi Prefecture. The results indicate that 1) the quality of the indoor environment such as houses and workplaces has a direct impact on health, while the quality of the surrounding environment affects health and productivity through induction of lifestyle, 2) there is a possibility that the health of workers is sufficiently large not only in the residential environment but also in the environment around the workplace, 3) While physical health is strongly affected by the indoor environment of houses and workplaces, intellectual productivity may be affected by more diverse factor such as surrounding environment and lifestyle.
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  • Kaoru KAWASAKI, Akane KATAYAMA, Mamoru TANIGUCHI
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_409-I_417
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    Recent population decreases in rural areas constitute a severe difficulty for society. Existing surveys reveal that parenting generations intending to rear more children are considering their ability to migrate to rural areas. This study specifically addressed migration to rural areas as promoted by Society 5.0: a new social image. Study results revealed effects through a web survey. Analysis supported the extraction of 12 principal components and 8 individual groups, supporting the creation of a structural model related to migration consciousness. Results revealed the following. 1) Although the degree of response to each technology constituting Society 5.0 differs among groups, results show that the effect of introducing automated driving for universal services and nursing care robots is not small. 2) A tendency exists to activate migration awareness using some technology constituting Society 5.0 rather than support only in rural areas.
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  • Tomohiro KOSHIKAWA, Eiji MORIMOTO, Mamoru TANIGUCHI
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_419-I_429
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    Although compact city policy fields are diversifying, the existence of cross-sector benefits that signify spillover effects on other fields remains unclear. Depending on their existence, unexpected effects might have occurred in fields that local governments had not anticipated. This paper presents analyses of relations between fields of compact city policy by setting evaluation indexes to fields in which local governments are promoting compact city policy. Results show that trends of the evaluation index values vary by field. In some cases, high evaluation results are obtained in fields where local governments had not promoted a compact city policy. Furthermore, because statistically significant correlation was confirmed among the evaluation indexes set for each field, it became clear that cross-sector benefits exist for compact city policy for the first time.
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  • Yotaro MITA, Akinori MORIMOTO
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_431-I_438
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    It is imperative as a society to clarify the medium and long-term vision of the future, which aims and builds a consensus without being caught with a momentary viewpoint in the administrative plan. Methods to materialize the uncertain vision of the future have been proposed so far, and it is desirable to share a particular future image among stakeholders to form a consensus with diverse people. As a means of promoting this particular future image, visualization of urban space using 3-Dimension Virtual Reality (3DVR) is focused. This research first selects actively debated future plans, government goals, and more of 2050 for the future city visualization. Next, the PDCA cycle is conducted through the repeated process of presentation, evaluation, and improvement of 3DVR. This process allows the 3DVR to reflect the vision of the future city of a wide range of people. From this approach, this study proposes a method of visualization of the future city using 3DVR.
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  • Tatsuya SUGIMOTO, Nozomi KAMINAGA, Shuya KATO, Shuji TAKAMORI, Tetsuji ...
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_439-I_451
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    This paper develops a theoretical and a practical location equilibrium model to apply to the study of measures promoting compact city policy. The theoretical model is extended to a time series model of housing and, aiming for higher accuracy of the estimation, assumes that households classified by the age of household heads are the locational subjects, and that the moving demand is endogenously determined. The practical model uses the data of the year of 2000 in Toyama Area divided 979 zones to estimate the parameters and verifies good reproducibility of the model at the time of 2005 and 2010. As a result of the numerical simulation considering two measures promoting compact city policy, which are rent subsi-dy and supermarket installation, using the practical model, population increase in expected zones and the improvement of access are verified. In addition, it is indicated that the administrative costs necessary for the above two measures equivalent to about 0.3% of the annual expenditure of the local government.
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  • Keishi TANIMOTO, Chikara IWATA
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_453-I_462
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    The relocation of the facilities which provide the services for daily life has been discussed in many regions. By the relocation, it is expected that consecutive trips to several services at one opportunity of going out can be made easily. Therefore the effect of the relocation is not only the reduction of the maintenance costs of infrastructure but also improving the accessibility to the services. In this study, we aim to measure the accessibility by consecutive trips to the service by using cooperative game theory and show its usefulness by case study.
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  • Kei FUKUYAMA, Masashi KUWANO
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_463-I_473
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    In local living-spheres, due to the withdrawal and shutdowns of local stores, Food Deserts (FDs), where the purchase of perishables is difficult for the residents is expanding, and healthy life of residents is endangered. Recently, drugstores handling perishables start locating non-urban areas expected to locate in FDs for sustainable healthy life of the residents. This study analyses the location possibility of drugstores in FDs of eastern area of Tottori prefecture, and discuss the influence to the decrease in FDs. Especially, proposed method clarified the degree and areas of FDs. Also, the possible new location of drugstores that effectively reduce the FDs were indicated.
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  • Fei CHENG, Hideo YAMANAKA, Shinya KURODA, Kaoru ONO
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_475-I_482
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    In these days, “Kinkyo” which means family living close with daily interactions and supports each other, is focused. The aims of this study are to clear spatial distribution of the multi-household family which have current interaction and support each other for the inheritance of the community, and is to make clear the contribution on the stated life recovery speed after the expected disasters. Paper based survey in Tokushima City was carried out in order to verify daily interaction and support function and consciousness of region inheritance within families. As results, “Kinkyo” is good for keeping daily interaction of families and exerting assistance within families, and the family who have families living close is more promptly rebuild life after disaster, and better for the inheritance of the community.
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  • Toshimori OTAZAWA, Toshiyuki AKESADA
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_483-I_491
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    Investments in transportation infrastructure such as high-speed railway and highways not only reduce transportation costs between transaction partners but also promote the efficiency of production networks of firms. This study investigates how the inter-firm transaction network changes, which might be triggered by transportation investment, affect the performance of firms. Regarding the whole line opening of Kyushu Shinkansen in 2011 as an external shock, we use the difference in difference propensity score matching (DID-PSM) method to estimate the effect of the increase in the number of transactions with suppliers on the productivity of firms. Results show that improvement of transportation networks tends to enhance the density of the inter-firm transaction networks. Furthermore, we find that the increase in the number of suppliers raises firm-level productivity directly and beyond the effect of effective density in the short-run.
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  • Hidetaka MORI, Kaoru KAWASAKI, Mamoru TANIGUCHI
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_493-I_504
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    To date, the main topic in urban planning in Japan has been urban growth. However, Japan's population has been decreasing since 2008. Government must now devote its full attention to a rapidly decreasing and aging population. As countermeasures against a decreasing and aging population, government should understand the rapid transition of urban structure and consider “retrogression” in the planning field. This paper specifically examines the transition of the distribution of population and facilities, elucidates its effects, and presents calculation of the performance of retrogression viewpoints from residents' trips. Results show that trips of residents are increasing in areas where population and facilities have been decreasing.
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  • Daisuke NAGAE, Taichi NAKAMURA, Masanobu KII
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_505-I_512
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    Urban activities are concentrated in the central areas where is essential place to be recognized for urban development and transport policy. However the definition of urban central area is not necessarily clear and it is usually given heuristically or defined based on large scale transportation survey. Large cities in developing countries which is growing rapidly forms urban centers dynamically. For the analysis of urban and transport planning, a simple and prompt method for capturing urban centers is needed.
    Purpose of this study is to examine the applicability of night time light remote sensing data to the extraction of urban centers. Targeting at Japanese three metropolitan areas, Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya where large scale origin-destination survey data is published, the performance of determination of urban centers by night time lights is examined by comparing with the destination trip demand. As a result, the night time light data is clarified to have a performance to distinguish urban centers. Applying this method to the grid level analysis, several satellite centers in suburban area are also determined which are not selected in the zonal level analysis.
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  • Shoki SATO, Yuki TAKAHASHI, Yuichiro KAWABATA, Ayu MIYAKAWA, Satoshi F ...
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_513-I_524
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    In Japan, there are huge risks of natural disaster and building “national resilience” has been an urgent problem for the central and regional governments. Not only central but also local governments play an important role in disaster prevention, so the works on understanding how local governments are addressing the problems and how their activities can be improved. In this study, we conducted a survey on this issue by mailing a questionnaire to local governments in Japan. We gathered information about each government's current situation, and test the hypothesis that interaction among local governments and the use of narrative-formed information, which has become seen applicable to public policies recently, can improve their disaster prevention activities.
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  • Kota MISUMI, Kousuke TANAKA, Yuichirou KAWABATA, Satoshi FUJII
    2018 Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages I_525-I_535
    Published: 2018
    Released: January 10, 2019
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    In recent years, journalism in Japan has been criticizing government's various public projects, and their articles and programmes sometimes should be called “public-policy-bashing”. In this study, we took the Toyosu market relocation issue as a case of public-policy-bashing. After a torrent of criticism against the relocation project, experts concluded that the project was not causing any severe risks. That means the basis of criticism has been denied, but the criticism continued. We analyzed how media and journalists selected the tones of criticizing and changed them. The analysis of quantitative data from TV programmes and newspaper articles suggested that the journalism had changed their flame of criticism from “risk of relocation” to “problems in the due process of the project”, and continued the bashing despite of experts' positive reports. In addition, our theoretical discussion suggested that their flame change was a result of the process of reducing cognitive dissonance.
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