Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. A1 (Structural Engineering & Earthquake Engineering (SE/EE))
Online ISSN : 2185-4653
ISSN-L : 2185-4653
Volume 69 , Issue 4
Showing 1-50 articles out of 103 articles from the selected issue
JSCE Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Vol.32 (Paper)
  • Ali DERAKHSHANI, Ikuo TOWHATA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_1-I_8
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In order to explore the effects of ground shaking on buried lifelines new experiments were devised. Single gravity model shaking table experiments were developed and conducted to examine the response of instrumented pipes buried in dry sand when subjected to shaking. This study was aimed to obtain a better understanding of the behavior of embedded lifelines by considering the effects of geometrical complications. Since, such structures may be close to underground concrete walls of adjacent buildings in an urban environment, the influence of nearby concrete structure was also investigated. Details of the experimental setup and procedures are first explained. Then, test data are discussed in terms of longitudinal bending moment and soil pressure distribution of model structures as well as P-Y curves.
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  • Hiroyuki KIMATA, Hideyuki HORII, Mahmoud YAZDANI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_9-I_19
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In this study, non-linear dynamic analyses for earthquake-induced failure of jointed rock foundations are conducted evaluating the seismic safety of concrete arch dams. Damage indices are proposed for representing sliding and opening behavior of rock joints. By varying specified peak ground acceleration (PGA) in dynamic analyses, critical acceleration can be obtained, when damage indices dramatically increase and jointed rock foundations fail. Dynamic analyses are conducted considering rock joints with various orientations and strength properties. Seismic safety is evaluated for jointed rock foundations of concrete arch dams, comparing critical acceleration to PGA.
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  • Tomoaki NAKAMURA, Norimi MIZUTANI, Xingyue REN
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_20-I_30
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Tsunami-induced wave force acting on a fixed bridge deck is investigated using a three-dimensional coupled fluid-structure-sediment interaction model. From a comparison between numerical results and experimental data in terms of tsunami force acting on the deck, it is found that the model predicts the tsunami force reasonably well until the vertical force and the moment around the bridge axis begin to increase because of the accurate prediction of the formulation of a vortex below the deck and a resulting decrease in the wave pressure acting on the bottom of the deck. However, the subsequent fluctuation in the vertical force and the moment differs from experimental data because the model does not predict the formulation of vortices and their sepatation with sufficient accuracy. As a result, it is essential to accurately predict flow fields below the deck when assessing the tsunami force acting on the deck. Another numerical analysis is carried out to investigate the tsunami-induced motion of a movable bridge deck in terms of tsunami force acting on the deck. To prevent the motion of the deck, it would be an effective contermeasure to reduce an increase in the horizontal force and to increase the downward vertical force and the weight of the deck. In addition, numerical results show that the static friction force acting on the deck exceeds its initial value because of a decrease in the wave pressure below the deck, and suggest that it is essential to consider the vertical force when evaluating the static friction force.
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  • Joon-Ho CHOI, Yuji TOKUNAGA, Hisanori OTSUKA, Yuichiro KOMINAMI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_31-I_41
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     The objective of this study is to identify the effect of horizontal loading direction on lateral deformation and stiffness of roller bearing support and to investigate the seismic behavior of curved bridge with roller bearing support. The stiffnesses of roller bearing supports under the roads in 3 directions were determined based on failure tests, and the dynamic analyses of curved bridge models were conducted using the stiffnesses of roller bearing supports determined experimentally. The seismic responses of piers and superstructure obtained from dynamic analyses using the bearing model based on experiments compared with those obtained from dynamic analyses using the model using the current bearing model.
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  • Hisashi NAKAO, Guangfeng ZHANG, Toru SUMIMURA, Jun-ichi HOSHIKUMA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_42-I_54
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     This paper discusses the hydrodynamic tsunami-induced force to bearing support of bridges based on the hydraulic experiments and the numerical analysis. The hydraulic experiments were conducted with using models of the rectangle, 2-main girder bridge and 4-main girder bridges. The experimental results showed that the rectangle model was subjected to downward vertical hydrodynamic force. The 2-main girder bridge and 4-main girder bridge models were subjected to upward vertical hydrodynamic force to bearing support of the downstream side. The hydrodynamic pressure acting on the overhang slab and outer girder is greater than the pressure of other parts of bridge. Furthermore, the numerical analyses were conducted for the rectangle and 2-main girder bridge model. In numerical analyses, the pressure acting on the overhang slab and the outer girder corresponded with experimental results.
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  • Yukio SHIBA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_55-I_72
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     The "beam-and-spring model" which is popularly used in the seismic-deformation-method-based calculation for underground vertical shaft structures is discussed in this paper. At first, after the current beam-and-spring models adopted in several design guidelines are overviewed and ideal way of the analytical model is considered from the viewpoint of soil-structure interaction issues, a few problems concerned with seismic actions and mechanical elements in the current methods are pointed out. Then, a new method of seismic calculation using an advanced beam-and-spring model which improves the current one is proposed. And the seismic behavior of a very simple ground-shaft system is formularized based on the improved method. Finally, these results are examined through a numerical simulation, and some parametric studies about general properties of the seismic stress occurred in shaft structures are conducted.
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  • Toshiyasu MIYOSHI, Manabu SHIMAYA, Tomoaki WASHIO
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_73-I_86
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In recent years there is increasing interest and attention for the utilization of renewable energy sources in Japan. Especially, construction of facilities for wind-power generation tends to increase. In addition, attention is currently focused on construction of wind-power generation on the ocean, since construction costs and wind condition are more favorable and advantageous than the land construction. Seismic response characteristic of this structure is investigated in this study by shaking table test of the experiment model which is installed as the facilities to observe the conditions of the wind, wave, etc. The foundation type is called "hybrid gravity platform", which consists of concrete base and supporting steel pipes. Acceleration wave of which phase is random and sine wave is applied to input earthquake motion for the shaking table test. As a result, the stability of this structure against sliding and rollover is confirmed by the dynamic load.
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  • Ichidai NAKAMURA, Tomohiro MIYAZAKI, Masayuki SAEKI, Kenji OGUNI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_87-I_94
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     GPS on Every Roof is used for post-seismic building-wise damage detection. Wireless sensor nodes equipped with a GPS receiver are installed on the top of the roof. The displacement of the roof caused by the earthquake is measured. On-board analysis of GPS data reduces the amount of wireless communication data. However, the high-performance CPU which can perform double-precision arithmetic has a high energy consumption. Reduction of energy consumption is preferable because the sensor network should run as long as possible with limited energy supply. For this purpose, the new sensor node called "Hybrid Sensor Node" has two CPUs: the high-performance CPU and the low-power CPU. The high-performance CPU is used only for on-board GPS analysis. The low-power CPU is used for other tasks such as controlling the wireless communication module and the GPS receiver. The results from a field experiment show that the running time of the high-performance CPU is reduced 576sec to 10sec while achiving the target value of the required time and the positioning accuracy.
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  • Hideyuki O-TANI, Jian CHEN, Muneo HORI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_95-I_101
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Smart visualization of output from Integrated Earthquake Simulation (IES) performed for various earthquake scenarios is studied by taking advantage of existing methodology of big data visualization and by developing our own methodology which is suitable for earthquake disaster assessment. A key issue of being smart is to deliver information generated by IES to not only professional earthquake engineers, but also non-professional government officials and city residents. Simple visualization for city residents, wide area visualization for government officials, and dual visualization for professional engineers are proposed to bring common recognition to IES users. As a trial of smart visualization, both structure-wise and scenariowise damage condition statistics are graphed by means of histograms and mosaic plots; spatial clustering analysis for damaged structures is introduced and the distance between the damage conditions of earthquake scenarios is defined and visualized, accompanied by scenario cluster analysis.
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  • Toru SUMIMURA, Guangfeng ZHANG, Hisashi NAKAO, Jun-ichi HOSHIKUMA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_102-I_110
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In this study, a bridge model with steel pot bearings is tested to investigate the resistance capacity of bearing supports under tsunami-induced loading. The load is applied in a direction of 60 degree to the horizontal direction based on the results of the flume test for the bridge model. As a result, it is found that the ultimate damage of the bearing supports due to the uplift force is caused by the fracture of the bolts for fixing the side block, and the maximum load exceeded the capacity of bearing supports estimated by the standard design procedure. Furthermore, an analytical approach for estimating the vertical capacity of the steel bearing supports with the simple frame model is proposed based on the comparison with the loading test results.
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  • Satoshi MORI, Kazumoto CHIBA, Takeshi KOIKE
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_111-I_120
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Seismic effects and Tsunami by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake caused significant damages for human resources and materials in wide areas of the east pacific region in Japan. In the present study, the discussions are devoted to the seismic safety assessment of the transmission gas pipeline based on the historical design guidelines and observed damage data.
     As a results of this study,
    1) A seismic safety assessment method is developed to demonstrate the resilience of the pipeline integrity survived after the 2011 Earthquake based on the actual site observations along the high pressure gas transmission pipeline and many assumptions on the statistical data of the pipeline related random variables.
    2) The failure probabilities of the original and survived pipelines to be evaluated for the level 2 ground motions will be useful to investigate the risk estimation and the seismic investment for the maintenance management of the pipeline.
    3) Frequent monitoring of potentially hazardous points not only in the mountain route but also in the coastal zone is recommended. Terminal facilities located at the coastal area must be protected from the tsunami hazard and also from the liquefaction hazard.
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  • Nobuoto NOJIMA, Hiroki KATO
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_121-I_133
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Daily traffic volumes on highway networks in the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster were spatio-temporally visualized and analyzed in the light of post-earthquake operations. Approximately 2,300 km of highways was closed for emergency response after the main shock. Once the traffic restrictions and controls were lifted, traffic volumes got back to normal within two weeks. On the long-term basis, traffic volumes exceeded the pre-quake level by 60% to 100% during July through October, 2011. Average daily traffic volumes (ADT) on monthly basis in the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster were also shown, and three kinds of highway network performance measures were compared between the two disasters.
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  • Hisakazu SAKAI, Yoshiya HATA, Ryosuke UZUOKA, Mutsuhiro YOSHIZAWA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_134-I_141
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     A huge number of people living in areas below sea level in Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka etc. are shielded from inflow sea water by river and sea dikes. The dikes face the Nankai Trough earthquake which occurs in high probability in a few dozens years future, therefore it is necessary to estimate the seismic resistance of the embankments during a long time duration earthquake with satisficate accuracy. As the detail seismic assessments of the exceedingly-long dikes are impossible in practice, we need a facile method to estimate the seismic resistance of the embankment for the first screening. In this study, we evaluated the ground motions during the past three earthquakes, the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake, the 2003 Northern Miyagi Earthquake and the 1978 off Miyagi Earthquake, and conducted one dimensional earthquake response analyses with equivalent linear model. We calculated the liquefaction indexes for the dikes of the Naruse river in Miyagi prefecture during the three earthquakes based on the cumulative damage concept. The index values are good agreement with the damage of the embankments of each three earthquake. The results show that the simplified methodology has a possibility for the first screening of seismic resistant of an embankment with liquefaction.
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  • Hisakazu SAKAI, Makoto OKUMURA, Takushi SHIWAKU, Takao KAGAWA, Koichi ...
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_142-I_147
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     We proposed a simplified method for calculating seismic slope collapse ratio in order to grasp disruption ratios of a boardband traffic network during a scenario earthquake. The used data are geography, slope failure areas and peak ground acceleration (PGA) etc. of whole Mt. Rokko during the 1995 Hyogo-ken nambu earthquake. We elimilated data on reinforced slope from them by scrutinizing construction reports etc. Logistic regression analysis using two data, angle of slope and PGA as the explanatory variable was conducted as well as that using three data, angle and average curvature of slope and PGA. The calculated ratios are correlated highly with areas of collapsed slopes during the earthquake. The result indicates the propsed method has a possibility for calculating earthquake-induced slope failure ratio.
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  • Takao HASHIMOTO
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_148-I_160
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     As a result, it flowed on extremely soft ground and the foundation had become the form of the board. Especially the collapsed place became clear that it is banking on clay. 2011-Tohoku (northeast) Earthquake caused massive embankment collapse over 4.8 hectares in Tate New Town of Ichinoseki, Iwate Prefecture. The embankment height was about 10 meters (m). About 20 buildings in the area also suffered damage. During the recovery period of the calamity, an investigation was conducted on foundation, and inclination of buildings to analyze causes of this destruction. The results of the analysis showed slippage on extremely soft ground of the foundation has occurred thus embankment has collapsed over 5 to 7 m in its thickness. Especially in the collapsed location, it became clear that it is associated with an overlay of clay. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze the results of the investigations of aforementioned failures to safeguard against future happenings through lessons learned.
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  • Maki KOYAMA, Norimitsu ISHII, Aiko FURUKAWA, Junji KIYONO, Akiko YOSHI ...
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_161-I_170
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     The authors clarified the age-specific mortality by each affected municipality that associated with the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami based on 500m grid population census, casualty reports and geographical inundation information. As a result, the relationship of inundation conditions (washed away or not) and death was elucidated: the death rates in washed-away areas were obviously high and especially those of the over 70 age-classes. The mortality rate of male is slightly higher than femail. The mortality rate based on national census is almost same of that is considered daytime population.
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  • Ryo KAMINAKA, Yasuko KUWATA, Syuhei TAKEDA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_171-I_181
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Several water-pipe bridges had damage during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake in March 2011. This study focuses on the largest one of the damaged bridges, called the Nakagawa water-pipe bridge. This bridge is the large cable-stayed truss bridge of two parallel pipelines with 900 mm in diameter, located in Mito City, Ibaraki Prefecture. The expansion joints between the cable-stayed bridge and side single truss bridge was pulled out and rotated and the bearing were removed. This study attempts to make clear its damage mechanism by microtremor observation and the three-dimensional FEM analysis. In spite of moderate seismic ground motion at the resonant frequency at the site, the bearing damage could be simulated by the analysis as the actual damage.
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  • Yozo GOTO, Junji INNAMI, Muzailin AFFAN, Nur FADLI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_182-I_194
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     The Mw 8.6 earthquake of offing west of north SUMATRA of April 11, 2012 triggered a mass evacuation of the people in Banda Aceh, 400km away from the epicenter. Fortunately, such a tsunami more than 1 meter in height, was not observed. But, more than one hundred thousand people in Banda Aceh, who had experienced the tragic damage by the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004, tried to evacuate towards inland. And they encountered very heavy traffic jam. Therefore, the authors surveyed the evacuation feature by interviewing 1,065 people, about 0.73 % of the population in the coastal area of Banda Aceh, in order to extract the lessons for the better disaster-reduction operation of Banda Aceh. The feature was analyzed through comparisons with that of the East Japan Great Earthquake and Tsunami disaster case.
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  • Ahmed ALHOURANI, JiDANG, Takeshi KOIKE
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_195-I_206
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     A framework of seismic design method appropriate for earthquake disaster conditions of developing countries is proposed. For countries in which seismic load data is either unavailable or incomplete, a rational and simple seismic design guideline is developed utilizing the performance-based seismic design approach. For this purpose, the current seismic design practice in Syria is discussed.
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  • Koji ICHII, Yuki MORI, Mitsunori KADOTA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_207-I_217
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     The empirical green's function method is one of the methods of estimation of strong ground motion. This method is often used to estimate the waveform of anticipated strong earthquake using a weak earthquake motion observed at the site. However, when there are two or more candidates of observed weak motions, there is no method to evaluate the possible difference which appears in the estimated waveforms by the selection of the weak motions.
     In this study, earthquakes which occurred in a similar condition are chosen. And with the simulation of the strong motions by the empirical green's function method using the weak motions, it is investigated that relationship between weak motion and strong motion of the similarity in the waveforms.
     As a result, it turned out that variation of the simulated waveforms of strong motion is related to the peak frequencies of the weak motion used in the simulation.
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  • Koji ICHII, Yutaka YAMAMOTO, Mitsunori KADOTA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_218-I_227
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     The seismic design of quay walls and cargo handling facilities are important since the functional loss of ports may cause severe economic loss in the region. One of the most severe damages to cargo handling function is the damage to the rail for container crane induced by relative displacement of quay wall face line. The detail of damages to caisson walls in 1995 Hyogo-ken nambu earthquake was investigated to establish a rational evaluation method for relative displacement of caisson walls. As a result, the relation-ships between permissible relative displacement and damage probability were clarified considering the length of berth. The results are useful for performance based seismic design for quay walls.
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  • Takashi MATSUNO, Koji ICHII, Keisuke KITADE
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_228-I_234
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     There are many studies on the liquefaction properties of sand in isotropic consolidation condition, and various things have been revealed. The influence of loading frequency on liquefaction properties of sand is one of them, and it concluded that the loading frequency does not affect the liquefaction properties of sand in laboratory test. However, the ground under the structure or embankment is in anisotropic consolidation condition with constant deviator stress during an earthquake. And the studies on the liquefaction properties in such condition are few, and the influence of loading frequency is still unrevealed.
     In this study, the influence of loading frequency in such condition was investigated by torsional hollow cylinder shearing test. The test results indicate that the loading frequency affects the increase in axial strain of the ground in anisotropic consolidation condition.
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  • Ken-ichi TOKIDA, Rakhmadyah BAYU, Ryusuke TANIMOTO, Yoshihisa NAKAYAMA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_235-I_251
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In the 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake, the soil flown by the tsunami flood was deposited at the inland. Because the deposited layers are indicated to elucidate their spatial extent and date of the past tsunami, the deposits of soil in the above earthquake is necessary to be investigated in detail. In this paper, the field survey at the 33 sites in the typical 3 transects of Sendai Plane has been conducted to dug small pits to measure the deposited states of the flown soil and take 54 soil samples at the deposited and buried layers to know their grain size distributions. As the results of this study, the relation between the deposited thickness of the sandy layer and the distance from the coastline can be clarified referring to other survey results, and several interesting lessons on the soil sedimentation can be obtained based on not only field conditions but also grain size distributions of deposited soil.
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  • Takashi NAGAO, Masayuki YAMADA, Atsushi NOZU
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_252-I_259
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     This study discusses an estimation method of the site amplification factor by use of microtremor and deep subsurface profile. The proposed method applies basic amplification factors obtained by statistical data analyses and first order peak amplification factors by use of microtremor H/V spectrum and the site amplification factor at a nearby site. Transfer function regarding deep subsurface profile is modified so as to be consistent with the estimated basic and first order peak amplification factors. Thirteen sites are picked up for the study and applicability of the method is discussed.
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  • Takuya TSUKIJI, Ray TERAJIMA, Gaku SHOJI, Shigeru NAGATA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_260-I_279
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     We analyze seismic damage data on buried distribution pipes at Itako city and Kamisu city in Ibaraki prefecture subjected to the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake by carrying out interviews for related local government sectors. We quantify damage ratio named RN for subject areas. RN is defined by the ratio of number of physical damage points Np to the related pipeline lengths L(km). We use instrumental seismic intensity (IJ) and peak ground velocity (PGV) as indexes of ground motion intensities and analyze the relationship between damage ratio and seismic ground motions from the viewpoint of materials of pipes, diameters, and microtopography.
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  • Yuzuru YASUI, Hayato NISHIKAWA, Keisuke KOJIMA, Toshiro MAEDA, Kazuki ...
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_280-I_290
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Authors had proposed the calculation formula on earthquake H/V spectrum represented as the product of the ratio of transfer function by the ratio of input at seismic bedrock surface. Recently a similar formula on earthquake H/V spectrum has been proposed on the basis of assumption of diffuse-wave field. This research examines the validity of the authors' revised method in which the site amplification factors are used instead of the transfer functions, on seismic observation records of the Fukui area, by being related with the formula based on the diffuse-wave field theory. As a result, it turned out that earthquake H/V spectrum calculated by the author's revised method agrees well with the observed ones by using the coefficient consisting of the velocity ratio of the seismic bedrock. Moreover, it was shown that site amplification factors might be nearly equal to calculated transfer functions through the identification of an earthquake H/V spectrum at a KiK-net site.
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  • Masumitsu KUSE, Masata SUGITO
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_291-I_297
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     A strong motion prediction technique was developed, including the long period ground motion due to each individual local region. The study was focussed on the long period-spectral characteristic derived from deep ground configuration of region, which is generally verified in strong ground motion records. The technique was applied to the Noubi Plain of the Tokai district and the Nakatsugawa basin of Gifu Prefecture.
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  • Yoshiya HATA, Toshitaka KAMAI, Gonghui WANG, Atsushi NOZU
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_298-I_310
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     A large scale landslide was triggered at an embankment in Oritate area, Sendai City, during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. In this study, to estimate ground motions during the main shock at the landslide site by means of an improved version of the site effect substitution method that has been developed by the authors, we performed microtremor measurement and temporary aftershock observation at the site. Through this approach, we estimated the seismic waveforms for the site of a strong motion station, which showed good consistency with the recordings obtained by this station, indicating the validity of the method. Then we used this improved method to estimate the strong ground motions at the landslide site. The estimated seismic waveforms include larger high-frequency components than those observed at neighboring strong motion stations.
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  • Akira IGARASHI, Ji DANG, Yuta MURAKOSHI, Toshihiko ITO
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_311-I_325
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Although seismic response of structures can result in structural failure as a consequence of three-dimensional response including coupled bi-directional inelastic response effects, the current seismic design method for bridges with seismic isolation bearings is based on dynamic response under unidirectional excitation and requirements derived from the behavior of the bearings subjected to uni-directional loading under a constant axial force. In this study, the hysteretic behavior of high damping rubber bearings under bi-directional loading condition and earthquake excitations is discussed, along with the comparison with representative simple numerical models to expresses the bi-directional behavior, such as the orthogonal combination of bi-linear hysteretic models and Multiple Shearing Spring (MSS) model. Square-shaped laminated rubber bearing specimens of HDR-S type are used in uni- and bi-directional quasi-static loading tests as well as hybrid simulation (pseudo-dynamic) tests. Difference between the nonlinear models and test results is significantly large for the circular displacement path loading case with 225% shear strain. For bi-directional seismic response cases, deviation of the numerical model prediction from the test results is ovserved due to the strain dependency of the restoring force characteristics.
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  • Kengo KUSUNOKI, Hiroshi NAKAZAWA, Takahiro SUGANO, Yosuke OKUBO, Hiroy ...
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_326-I_336
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Generally it is thought that occurrence of excess pore water pressure in liquefied ground leads to the 11 loss of shear strength and shear modulus and dissipation of excess pore water pressure recovers the state of the liquefied ground compared with the ground before liquefaction occurred by earthquake. Therefore, it is rare to report results of investigation to compare the states of the ground before and after liquefaction systematically. In this study, laboratory experiment with small rigid container was carried out to assess the behavior of the model ground after liquefaction by measurement of shear velocity, differential leveling and sounding tests during 5 month. This paper describes the recovery of shear modulus and penetration resistance occurred with increase in volumetric strain.
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  • Keisuke KITADE, Koji ICHII, Hiroki KINOSHITA, Shinichi KUGA, Daisuke Y ...
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_337-I_344
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Many factories at the reclaimed land in Kanto area were damged in the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster, 2011. Some of the damages might be related to the liquefaction occurrence at the reclaimed land. Thus, for the future planning of the liquefaction coutnermeasures, it is beneficial to evaluate the effect of the liquefaction occurrence on the damage. In this study, based on the published data, the relationships between the economical loss (damages) to the factories, and seismic intensity nearby the site and liquefaction occurrence at the site were investigated. As a result, the increase of the damages to a factory due to the occurrence of liquefaction is evaluated.
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  • Koji FUJIMA, Yasuko HIWATASHI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_345-I_357
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     It is important to clarify the role and the limitation of a facility against tsunami to sustain constructing required facilities and motivating hazard reduction activities. Considering generation frequency of earthquake, several tsunami-damage estimations are conducted for several earthquakes and several scales, H, of facility. These analyses evaluate an expected value of account of damage reduction, B(H), by construction of facility of scale H and an expected value of account of damage, D(H), under existence of facility of scale H. This method is available in a scheme to obtaine a rapid agreement with local government on scale of facility. Considering cost, C(H), in addition to B(H) and D(H), a scheme is proposed to minimize the total social burden against tsunami. This method specifies the residual risk, and indicatees an adequate target for damage reduction.
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  • Koichi SUGIOKA, Misa FUJIBAYASHI, Naoki SUGIYAMA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_358-I_365
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Seismic response-control devices such as the shear panel dampers have been increasingly applied for seismic retrofit of long span bridges. In this article, non-linear dynamic time history analyses were carried out in order to examine the correlation between bridge natural period and seismic response reductions. As a result, it is found that the seismic response reduction might be significantly different according to natural periods of bridges. The distribution effect of horizontal seismic forces was also confirmed by the shear panel damper arrangements.
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  • Osamu TSUJIHARA, Wako MIYAHARA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_366-I_375
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Evacuation drill in suc as voluntary organization for disaster prevention is important. However, it is not realistic to drill under the various conditions, because natural disasters can happen on any day and at any time. Recently, the studies on the evacuation simulation have been done to help to draw up scenarios of evacuation under the various situations. The achievement of such studies can be also applied to the virtual evacuation for those who can not take part in the drill. However, many obstacles in user-friendliness remain to promote the evacuation simulation to general public.
     An easy-to-use evacuation sysmulation system is developed, by which the procedure from the creation of the analytical model in the target area to the presentation of analytical results by 3D animation can be carried out in the simple manner.
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  • Keinosuke INOKO, Kimiyasu OHTAKE, Kentaroh NARITA, Yoshiaki ARIGA, Tos ...
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_376-I_384
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Water supply facilities, such as pumping stations which are on the high ground, are often constructed close to each other on irregular ground of the hillside and are connected by water pipelines. However, dynamic soil-structure interaction between these structures and surrounding soil during earthquakes has not been fully explained. In this study, earthquake behaviors of RC tanks on irregular ground are analyzed using 2-D dynamic analysis methods.
     The study indicates that if there is a difference in stiffness between RC tanks and the surrounding soil, an increase of acceleration response and a decrease of horizontal displacement can be seen even when tanks are structured on inclined irregular ground at which soft soil is plastically deformed. The results also show that the relative displacement increases more with the case of closely constructed RC tanks than with the case of RC tanks and the ground.
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  • Kyohei UEDA, Susumu IAI, Tetsuo TOBITA, Osamu OZUTSUMI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_385-I_395
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In order to verify the applicability of strain space multiple mechanism model based on finite strain (both total Lagrangian (TL) and updated Lagrangian (UL)) formulations, seismic response analyses are performed on Breakwater No.7 in Kobe Port during 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. Both infinitesimal and finite deformation analyses are performed to examine how the effect of geometrical nonlinearity affects the analytical results. As an input dilatancy parameter in the model, two types of undrained shear strength (20 kPa and 40 kPa) are adopted according to the results of undrained triaxial compression tests. The settlements at the top of the caisson in the infinitesimal deformation analyses are 3.62 m and 2.89 m for the undrained shear strength of 20 kPa and 40 kPa, both of which exceed the upper limit of measurements (2.6 m). In contrast, the computed settlements in the TL/UL formulations with the undrained shear strength of 20 kPa and 40 kPa are 2.46/2.46 m and 1.93/1.88 m, respectively, both of which fall inside the measured range (between 1.4 and 2.6 m). The results confirm that the TL and UL formulations are numerically equivalent and the effect of geometrical nonlinearity has to be accurately considered in predicting the seismic response of port structures such as breakwaters.
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  • Yusuke SATO, Kazuyuki IZUNO
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_396-I_404
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     This paper discussed effects of earthquake duration on responses of an overhead transmission line. For this purpose, nonlinear analyses were conducted. An analysis target was the overhead transmission line which has three towers with 77.5m in height and four spans whose length between each towers were equal to 450m, reapectively. Three types of ground accelerations were selected as analysis inputs in order to investigate effects of earthquake duration. A number of cycles and a long period component were focused as the characteristics of earthquake duration. Analytical results demonstrated that the long period component of the earthquake increased the maxmim displacement of cables while tower responses were not affected by the earthquake duration.
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  • Masaki SAKEMOTO, Yoshihisa MARUYAMA, Fumio YAMAZAKI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_405-I_416
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In this study, the site amplification characteristics at seismic observation stations were estimated based on the attenuation relationship of response spectrum after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake. The station correction factors were compared with the transfer function at KiK-net stations to investigate the periodical amplification characteristics. The station correction factors were also compiled with respect to the geomorphologic classifications and average S-wave velocities to evaluate the site response characteristics.
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  • Ken KITAMURA, Yoshihisa MARUYAMA, Fumio YAMAZAKI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_417-I_428
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     A tsunami fragility function is developed to assess building damage because of tsunami. The fragility functions are expressed with respect to the inundation depth to predict the damage ratio of buildings. Asahi City, Chiba Prefecture, suffered from serious damage after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami. The fragility function is constructed using the results of numerical simulation of tsunami propagation and the building damage dataset compiled by Asahi City after the earthquake. Employing the fragility function, the numbers of damaged buildings in Chiba Prefecture are estimated assuming the occurrence of the historical earthquakes.
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  • Kei HAYAMI, Hanbin GE, Shinki HADA, Shogo MORI, Toshimitsu SUZUKI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_429-I_439
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In this study, cyclic loading tests were conducted to clarify the extremely low cycle fatigue crack (ductile crack) initiation and failure mode in thick-walled steel beam-column connections with small fillets. To clarify the performance of ductile crack initiation resulted from the effect of welding defect, the test specimens which were designed by introducing different defect size of 0 to 8mm, were manufactured. As a result of experiment, properties of ductile crack initiation which depend on the difference of the welding defect size were clarified.
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  • Yoshiaki NAKAMURA, Hanbin GE
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_440-I_447
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     The present paper is aimed at proposing a conditional expression of avoiding local buckling in part of variable sections for steel bridge piers with variable stiffened box sections. For bridge piers with two-steps variable sections, seismic performance of structures becomes lower because of occurring buckling in the part of variable sections compared with those with uniform sections. Base on this, a conditional expression for avoiding buckling in part of variable sections is proposed considering fluctuations of structural parameters from results of quasi-static analysis performed on steel bridge piers with variable stiffened box-sectional models. The analytical results show that the positions of buckling and whether seismic performance will be lower or not for steel bridge piers with variable stiffened box sections can be evaluated easily by adopting the proposed conditional expression.
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  • Isamu YOKOI, Yumiko OGURA, Haruo SUDA, Sadaharu KIMA, Shigeo MATSUDA, ...
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_448-I_453
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Some systems for airborne gravity survey use a force-balanced-type accelerometer as a sensor to measure gravity. Altough such type of sensors can be very small size, they can provide good sensitivity. However, a vehicle such as airplane induces undesirable vibrations. To avoid any kinds of vibrations from a vehicle, usually an observation system introduces complicated and huge system to suspend a sensor. For simple and inexpensive system for gravity survey, no suspension system is desired. In a case where there is no complicated suspension system, a sensor for gravity survey has to work without any trouble under large vibration by a vehicle and insure high resolution and large dynamic range. For this purpose, we develop a new sensor with digital feedback circuit, which can control the feedback force using computer inside of a sensor.
     As for the original prototype, output is so bad because of the influence of signals with high frequency. We try to improve the system by dividing frequency band into some segments and controling the response of sensor independently. As a result, influence of the high frequency signal is reduced and the recored signal seems to be feasible.
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  • Hisanori OTSUKA, Wenjun GAO, Joon-Ho CHOI, Takehiro IMAMURA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_454-I_463
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Flexible reinforced concrete pier with I-shape cross section(FRCP-I) is flexible in along bridge axis. The FRCP-I consists of the side columns and the shear wall. Therefore, the FRCP-I can absorb more earthquake energy than the other types of piers. In this study, based on the horizontal loading tests, it is found that the failure type of the FRCP-I is the flexural shear compression failure instead of the brittle shear failure. Moreover, the restoring force characteristics and the damage conditions were clarified. As the results of the simulation analysis by using finite element analysis, 2nd rigidity decline rate and ductility factor of this pier were coincide with the experimental results.
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  • Kazutaka SHICHIROUMARU, Masakatsu MIYAJIMA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_464-I_472
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     High damage ratios of embedded pipes are seen in microtopography boundaries in a microtopography classification map. Moreover, the past studies have revealed that ground with high non-uniformity is vulnerable to earthquakes. Therefore, it has become necessary to examine earthquake-proofing performance of embedded pipes for which non-uniformity (area where ground constitutions and hardness and softness vary) of ground is considered. The non-uniformity coefficient is defined in "the seismic methods 2009 edition guideline description waterworks". For this non-uniformity coefficient, the authors calculated ground strain by static and dynamic analyses based on types and boundary conditions of microtopography using data of water pipes damaged by Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake in 2004 and Niigata Chuetsu Offshore Earthquake in 2007, a microtopography classification map and ground data. Their results were compared and the non-uniformity coefficient for which types and boundary conditions of microtopography were considered was examined.
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  • Shohei HAMASAKI, Tze Liang LAU, Hitoshi MORIKAWA, Yumiko OGURA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_473-I_478
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Recently, huge earthquakes have been frequently occured off the west coast of Sumatra island. The ground motions by these earthquakes were felt in many cities of Malay Peninsula and the government of Malaysia has the intended to establish seismic design code. In this research, the microtremor array observation has been carried out around the east coast of Penang island. As a fundamental investigation of the seismic microzonation, the dispersion curve of the phase velocity of the Rayleigh wave has been estimated by applying the SPAC method. Besides, the estimated model of velocity structure was examined by using the H/V spectrum. Since the predominant period on the H/V spectrum was remarkable, the S wave velocity contrast of the subsurface ground and the engineering bedrock can be analyzed and the depth of the subsurface ground is estimated to be dozens of meters.
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  • Takanobu SUZUKI
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_479-I_490
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     This report presents simple dynamic analysis method for underground structure. Sinusoidal plane wave generated by oblique incidence travels along ground surface. This plane wave deforms underground structure which is installed horizontally in surface layer. Underground structure is modeled as beam which has some boundaries and supported by elastic spring. Beam analysis acting ground deformation can be formulated easily, and some frequency response functions are useful for evaluation of existing non-conforming structures. And frequency response function leads to time history of structural response.
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  • Yoshiaki ARIGA, Takashi ISHIKAWA, Keinosuke INOKO, Kimiyasu OHTAKE, Ke ...
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_491-I_500
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In regard to the complex structure which are composed of plural structures and pipes, each structure will behave individually during large earthquakes. Consequently, it is considered that dynamic stresses and relative displacements induced by earthquake will become large at the connecting parts of structures with different dynamic characteristics. In this study, we made 3D dynamic analyses for earthquake behavior of pumping stations connected by ductile iron pipes in order to study the seismic safety of water supply facility. As a result, the relative displacement between both sides of pipe will increase according to the phase of earthquake behavior of structures and the dynamic stiffness of foundation ground.
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  • Toshinori SHIMOIKE, Osamu OTANI, Jyunko YAMAKAMI, Eiko HIROOKA, Syunsu ...
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_501-I_508
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Recently about a structure such as the steel tower and the accessories of the power transmission line, the earthquake-resistant evaluation for the great earthquake is carried out. Since it is impossible to have an actual shaking test about such huge structures, a numerical simulation is effective. Therefore it is required to raise the accuracy of numerical analysis and it is important for a simulation model to reflect the actual behavior.
     In this paper, as the seismic response analysis for the great earthquake, the nonlinear truss element was used for the power line which does not consider compression and we compared the results with the ones for the linear truss element.
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  • Tomohiro KAWANISHI, Junji KIYONO, Jun IZAWA
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_509-I_516
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In the case of the collapse of the Daikai Station of the Kobe Rapid Transit Railway when the 1995 Kobe Earthquake occurred, it was clear that a shear failure of the center pillars of a cut and cover tunnel was partly the cause of the collapse of the whole tunnel. However, it has not been clarified how severe damage to a side wall influenced the degree of this collapse. In this research, we conducted a static loading test using a reinforced concrete cut and cover tunnel model to understand the process of failure and structural strength when the side wall of the tunnel sustained severe damage. From the results of this static loading test, we were able to clarify that the severe damage to the side wall by a bending failure did not significantly influence the strength of the whole tunnel and the shear failure of the side wall did not cause a complete collapse of the cut and cover tunnel.
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  • Shogo MORI, Hanbin GE, Katsuya HAGINO, Lan KANG
    2013 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages I_517-I_527
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     The present study is aimed at improving a simplified evaluation method of the ductile crack initiation for unstiffened box sectional steel bridge piers. By performing elasto-pastic analyses using the shell element model, effects of structural parameters such as plate width-thickness ratio, column slenderness ratio as well as plate thickness on plastic strain are investigated. By comparing with those from elasto-plastic analyses using the beam element, an equation of strain concentration modification coefficient is obtained for the damage evaluation method based on the fiber analysis using the beam element. It is confirmed that the simplified method of applying the newly proposed strain concentration coefficient equation in the damage evaluation formula is possible to predict the ductile crack initiation as accurate as the previous method by shell analysis and its validity is also verified by comparison with experiment results.
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