Situations of engineers in Japanese industry among international business competitions are out-lined. Why technology creation are important now is described. Then five necessary abilities for creation of technology as individual persons are illustrated. Also, expectations to education especially in department of technology or engineering in university are described.
Japanese engineering-design program was stemmed from an eight universities' coalition on the reformation of engineering education program in 2000. During the years between 2000 and 2002 it has spread throughout the country. Several points raised include the alarming increase in the staff's teaching load and the requirement of great expenses. Nevertheless the Japanese engineering-design program is rated high on its high educational outcomes. In an effort to grow creativity in students engineering-design programs were developed in Japan. More work is needed on the reformation of engineering education to bring up a professional creativity in students.
The "Sosei Kamoku", a design subject in the context of "design first approach", is widely adopted by the departments of engineering schools in Japan. In this documents, the "project study 1-7" in Tottori University of Environmental Studies is briefly described. This trial is targetted to spiral approach and multi-disciplinery cooperative works. The future challenges of the sosei kamoku and the total course curriculum are discussed briefly.
The Department of Basic Engineering in Global Environment of the Kogakuin University was established eight years ago with the objectives of educating its students to become global engineers. The essential requirements set forth therein as the global engineer include 1) the communication skills, 2) the international sense and knowledge, 3) creative thinking, and 4) management skills in addition to the strong basic and specific scientific and engineering knowledge. ECP has been initiated as one of the key courses to teach and enhance the four elements described above. It is essentially an industry-university collaborative program where the project themes are provided by the industry together with their technical liaisons. With this new educational program first in its kind in Japan, the graduates seem to be much better trained in terms of communicating well, thinking globally and creatively, and managing things well than those from the conventional engineering programs in Japan.
First, the introduction of engineering design education to Japanese universities is discussed from the viewpoint of the historical relationship between the U.S.A. and Japan since the second world war. The education program for engineers in the U.S.A. has been actively debated and has been changed every decade. These changes are due to the world situation, the changes in the American society itself and the traditional vitality found in the field of the engineering education there. On the other hand, although Japanese society has undergone great changes in about 50 years from 1955, the education program for engineers has seen little improvement. Therefore, the introduction of engineering design is one of the larger steps to be implemented in the Japanese higher education system. Secondly, the abilities of creation, deduction and induction are compared and the relationship between these abilities and engineering design education are compared. Based on these studies, the three fundamental actions in higher education for engineers, namely cultivation, training and education are analyzed and the theory and technique for design education are fully discussed.
Creativity is becoming more important, especially in technological education. Creative learning or Creative Problem Solving (CPS) is recognized as a crucial tool for technological education. There have been many studies that have discussed and attempted to generalize a creative learning process to facilitate it. However, researches on creative learning process have been insufficient because the process contains open-ended settings. There are still many problems which remain unsolved and the model is generally not used. This article proposes an OPEN circuit model by focusing on knowledge creation. This new creative learning model is featured with total evaluation of knowledge creation and is easy to understand. The model can provide a useful evolutionary design for creative learning by introducing, transforming and creating knowledge autonomously. It is believed that the model can be an unique and useful tool for designing creative learning processes for technological education.
To be a good mechanical engineer, students are first required to provide fundamental knowledge needed for designing machine elements. Simultaneously, they are requested to nourish creativity as a mechanical engineer. As the creativity generally means two kinds of abilities of problem-finding and problem-solving, special training is needed in education to enhance those abilities. For this, design contest of robot and project-based learning are proposed and good outcomes from these proposals have been reported in various papers. This paper deals with another new proposal for this purpose. A new introductory subject of educating creativity, consisting of a card-based feedback evaluation system (CFES), prerequisite for freshman at the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the University of Tokushima is first briefly summarized. Considering the results of classes this year, validity of CFES examined by questionnaire is discussed from several view points.
The Department of Mechanical Engineering of Yonago National College of Technology has recent-ly introduced a Problem-Based-Learning (PBL) program for the first-grade students. Its purpose is to enhance the students' interest to the mechanical engineering and to develop the students' learn-ing ability and creativity. We think the PBL program has achieved educational effects expected, but we also find some problems in the management of the class. Following to the analysis of the problems, we did some attempts to gain more educational effects. Efficiency of students' group work has been improved by deciding the number of student in a group according to the content of task. We also considered the longterm educational effects that PBL would have brought.
Practice course fabricating a metallic balancing toy-"Yajirobe" was created and implemented for 1st and 2nd grade students in mechanical engineering course. This course is harmonized with a lecture on materials processing for undergraduate students. The students fabricated the toy realizing their own design concept starting from a piece of metal sheet within 4 hours. The practice is categorized as introductory education. Students learn basic metal processing such as cutting and plastic deformation are learned through hand work. In addition, we expect that student's creativity and sensitivity that are necessary for the engineers are stimulated. Although the practice is not compulsory nor of any credit, 85% of the students took the course, and most of them were satisfied at the results.
In recent years, manufacturing education is needed. In addition, creativity also is needed. We propose a new creative educational program for students based on manufacturing education. This program is made up of manufacturing, practice and lecture. We have focused on hands-on and idea specifically. The manufacturing program consists of experiment, production and presentation. The aim of these contents is an amalgam of manufacturing education and engineering education. Many students felt that this program was very useful, and were getting a excellent results. This paper reports mainly the contents of the manufacturing educational program.
"Mechanical Design and Drafting" is positioned as a comprehensive exercise which organically combines "Machine Element Design", "Drafting", "Working Technology" and so on. However, each student is not fairly evaluated on originality and creativity. Moreover, they are mainly evaluated qualitatively, and the rate of quantitive evaluation becomes quite small. In this paper, a new quantitive evaluation scheme is considered using a genetic algorithm (GA) which is one of the evolutional computation. That is, the optimal form is generated using the GA, and the difference between the optimal form and the form designed by the student is evaluated quantitively.
One of the important capabilities which society requires for engineers is creativity, so that the capability of dealing with the design theme with multiple solutions is required for university students. However the educations for machine design and drafting in the current university do not have always effective curriculums to raise the creativity. Therefore the authors reexamined overall the current educations for machine design and drafting, and then planned and practiced the new subject "Machine design for raising creativity" that can meet the requirements from society. The features of this subject are as follows ; (1)raise of creativity, (2)trainings of presentation capability, leadership, and cooperativeness, (3)improvement of design capability with the sufficient knowledge of machining.
Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Tokushima has introduced a teamwork-based learning method in 3D CAD exercise class which plays a key role in creative education of the Department. To further support the teamwork-based learning, a new web-based education system has been developed and introduced to the class in 2004, from which we have obtained significant results. This paper addresses an overview of the class with the final 3D models created by the student teams. Based on the results of questionnaire posed to the students who took the class, this paper discusses the educational effects of our teamwork-based approach.
Machining-practice program for undergraduate and graduate school students in mechanical engineering course was developed and conducted by technical staff of the university. There are three courses according to contents and difficulties of the practice. Beginner's class is for 4th grade students. Middle and advanced class are open for the students who already finished the beginner's class. The program was successfully implemented. Key issues to the success are; (1) Any course include rooms for the students to implement their own creativity, (2) Fabricated products such as miniature vice, tapping machine, and miniature lathe, can be owned and used by the students later in their laboratory.
The Department of Electrical Engineering in Gifu National College of Technology was newly reorganized to become the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering in the spring of 2000. All contents of problem/project based learning were checked and were revised in order to foster design abilities systematically. This paper presents a plan, doing, check and action for the educational system on the problem/project based learning in this department. The effect by this total educational system on design abilities is discussed quantitatively.
An electronics workshop is great fun. If there are teaching materials fit for the syllabus of college of technology, they will be very useful to the engineering education. We consider that the teaching materials production can be connected with creative hands-on exercise education. The production was carried out as a part of Creative Engineering Project II in the Electronics and Mechanical Engineering Course. More complete works were made when the same subject was assigned to several groups of students than when a different subject was given to each individual. This is because each working group competed with each other, trying to make better teaching materials. This paper reports the results of the hands-on exercise guidance for three years from 2001 to 2003.
The practical examples of the problem-based learning in the department of applied chemistry are much less well known. This paper describes the contents of the problem-based learning conducted in the experiment of organic chemistry at Kanazawa University, and also includes the educational effects obtained by this course. The purpose of this course is to afford educational opportunities for students (1) to promote the proactive stance in resolving issues, (2) to cultivate the creative ability for synthesis, and (3) to try their technical knowledge and skill. In this course, students have to plan the procedures, do experiments and make a presentation of the results. According to the results of the questionnaire survey on this course, it turned out that many students showed constructive and favorable responses to the program.
Although the method of problem-based learning is remarkably effective for engineering education, it is difficult to apply to a curriculum of chemistry education. In this paper, we described a new problem-based learning system of chemistry experiments for the laboratory course of the chemistry and chemical engineering department. This system consists of three individual subjects of inorganic chemistry experiments ; Physical Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry. Each subject shares the objects of education for problem-based learning. Students carry out some theme of exper-iments and present the results during each period repeatedly. This system enables to study a series of methods for creative research as well as the fundamental skills and knowledge in each field of chemistry in the same program.
The robot project of Kanazawa Institute of Technology started in 1996 from an initiative of two freshmen within the Dream Laboratory. In order to enhance students' level of technology, students challenged NHK Robot Contest. But after several difficult years sophomore students established the system to generate ideas to fight for new rules of the contest, design, make, test, demonstrate good performance at the contest by learning and educating incoming students by themselves. During the practice drastic changes in total capability have been found in each student involved, which indicates robot contest is an extremely good tool not only for engineering design but also cultivating human power.