In this article, I would like to encourage and give tips to young women who are planning to have careers in the technical or engineering fields. High school girls in Japan may constantly hear rather biased view that women are not good at logical or scientific thinking. Break off from this traditional view. In universities, female students should overcome the difficulties and become more confident in what they do. When venturing into the field where women are still minorities in Japan, such as the engineering or the science, they need to maintain strong wills and assertive attitudes. The career advancement of women also contributes to improve Japanese men′s working environment. Diversity at work can profit both men and women, and increase the competency of Japanese society in the world.
Three points are discussed in this article. The first is what work-life balance means from the view point of Human Resource Management. In confronting work-life balance matters, we need now is to focus on autonomy that crosses the boundary between the work sphere and the rest of life sphere. We call the autonomy proclaimed by the author “boundary autonomy” that is, the degree of freedom to design the interface between work and life spheres by employees themselves. The second point is the real situation of male employees who take childcare leaves. The last is to show the basic idea of the development of female engineers.
The ratio of female researchers in Japan is lower than other advanced countries, especially in the fields of science and technology (S&T) . The Second Basic Plan for Gender Equality and The Third Basic Plan for Science and Technology indicated the numerical targets for expanding women′s participation in S&T. Recently, government has been implementing the measures and funds for promoting female researchers. The Supporting Activities for Female Researchers project of Nihon University started from FY2008 and has been contributed to promote female researchers and foster future generations. Not only employment of female researchers but also educational programs for developing female leaders are necessary for the promotion of gender equality, S&T. Collaboration with companies, and with other countries are important.
I think I should think on the activation route of organization in realization of gender-equal society. Without hurting person′s living and life design in that, it′s necessary to study how to connect an evaluation result of the wages and the workings which are performed under the route which also makes activity of organization be activated.
“Rikeigokoro no Susume project” , which is one of “the Support Projects for Girl Students to Choose the Science Course” promoted by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) , is conducted by Nara, Hakodate, Sendai, Kure, Kagawa, and Ariake national colleges of technology. The aim of this project is to change the negative image ordinary junior high school and high school girl students have about becoming an engineer or scientist. To interest girl students in the science course, we made a poster, a leaflet and web site and held science events such as lectures and a factory tour. Almost all the participating girl students changed their negative perception of becoming an engineer or scientist to a positive one.
Female students at colleges of technology far outnumber female engineering students at Japanese universities. Engineering education of female student must be done properly. The experiences of two female teachers belonging to the department of control engineering at Nara National College of Technology have been described. The characteristics that female college of technology teachers must possess in order to successfully educate and actively support female engineer students has been discussed. A mind of steel needed to work in a minority group, a strong sense as a female and powerful leadership skills to serve as a positive role model and help students take the initiative to become successful female engineers has been hoped for them.
In this research, the career building of the female engineers who graduated from the Technical College are analyzed. And it is suggested that the education there should pay attention to the female students. The analysis of labor circumstances clarifies that of the job continuation, job leaving, change of job, and career building. In the future the education system at the Technical College will be required to be more conscious of gender-related matters.
A decline in birth rates is great problem in Japan and it is very important to keep amount of the number of scientists and technical experts. We have to bring up more women in science. The Gender Equality Office at Kobe University is supporting female scientists. We have mainly the four following support plans.The first support is that we will employ women stopping their studies as promote researchers and empower their ability of study to be regular employments. The second support is that we will hold a career caf and show role models to them. Also, helping to build a mentor system increase the willingness young women in science. The third support is to develop environment to be able to reconcile work and life. The fourth support is constructing the hole system of university to promote a gender equality. Under with the limited budget and the number of persons, we need to have some efforts and preparedness to carry out the plans. Moreover, the most important thing is a reader ship of a president.
Hiroshima Institute of Technology established Jyoshi-Gakusei Career Design Center (JCD center) to support female students in January, 2007. The JCD center has managed three programs, “Career Development Program” , “Job Support Program” and “Re-challenge program for female graduates” . In this paper, details of establishment of the JCD center are introduced. And details of the activities of the JCD center are also introduced. Finally, problems of education for female students who are aim to be engineer are discussed.
To cultivate female students in science and technology (engineering) is one of the important subjects in universities, which have the role in the human resource development for next generation. As a good practice for this subject, we have made science seminar by female graduate students for senior and junior high school students. The primal purpose of this seminar is to eliminate their latent anxiety and prejudice that women are not suited for science and engineering fields. Here we report the contents of “the science seminar by the female graduate students” in Niigata University and its effects on both female senior school and junior high school students and female graduate students. Moreover we compare it with several similar activities in other universities, and discuss advantages and disadvantages of the activities.
Women accounts for only some 2% of civil engineers in Japan and that is significantly small compared to the engineers of other fields, or the target “30% by 2020” set by the government. However, supports for women civil engineers in Japan first began in the 1980s and is now expanding to the private firms. In this study, the statistics of women civil engineers are grasped at first. Then the activities by firms, academic societies and organization of women civil engineers are reviewed to further discuss the possibility and challenges. Conclusion includes the importance of 30-year dedication by the self-help groups of women civil engineers, and the need of awareness and leadership by the top management for effectively supporting women civil engineers.
This article reviews international women engineers’ organizations such as WISE in U.K., EU Women & Science, SWE, WEPAN in USA, ICWES and introduces our JWSE (The Japan Society for Science Policy and Research Management, Division of Women Engineers Support) .