The global market place requires international standards to meet the need for growing compatibility and mutual understanding. The scope of its knowledge has become increasingly more complex. Well organized education programs gives researchers and students at the higher education a consistent and comprehensive knowledge of standards within a short period of time. This paper reviews the development and sophistication of standardization educations in three decades, focusing on worldwide activities. The activities covers not only academic institutions, standards organizations and governments but also their interactions. The accumulation of experience and international communications through various networks have created the firm bases for education materials and their pedagogies. Recent development on online educations will be one of frontiers in this area.
In the Era of global economy, international standards becomes to play more important roles. WTO/TBT agreement agreed in 1995 requires that the member countries should procure products and services that conform to global standards. So, activities for standardization should be strengthened more. For this, education about standardization should be strengthened more and more in universities, companies and organizations. In this paper, it is made clear the situation of education about standardization in worldwide universities. In the second, important subjects about standardization are extracted. In the third, design of education about global standardization is made clear by introducing the new concept of education course groups consisting of plural courses that offer lump of knowledge essentially required for global standardization, Then, a specific education program about global standardization is designed by combining the courses of universities of Osaka, Waseda, Technology Malaysia and Geneva.
This paper aims to focus on the standardization process and its consequences in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT) , with a view to understanding the significance of the standardization in academia and inclusion to this subject in academic curricula. Particularly, we take the scenario of cellular communication industry and as an evolutionary technology we take CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) as a case study. Game theory is chosen as a tool for analysis of the business decision of stakeholder of an innovative technology. CDMA’ s spread spectrum approach was unique. However, the good technology doesn’ t always win out. A good example is VHS ; which is successful and won out the market though technically inferior to Betamax. For the case of CDMA, we explain the case of good technological innovation, strategic management by the innovator and the role of standardization as a pre-requisite to win the market. We designed the game based on the scenario while a technology licensor (Qualcomm) simultaneously works as a product manufacturer and make a role overlapping with the licensee (Motorola, Nokia, Ericson etc) . We also give a brief mathematical analysis with the Stackelberg leadership Game Model for the Qualcomm’ s Royalty and Chip business.
The simplistic concept of “just export infrastructure technology” should be regarded as an out-of-date myth in the international construction market; added value is only generated when infrastructure projects are supported by comprehensive intangible technology enabling the infrastructure to be operated as a standardized system. The paper discussed the importance of international platform to achieve the diffusion and customization of technology standards by illustrating a project introducing pave management systems in Vietnam. In this case, engineering education by Kyoto University on asset management for road administrators and engineers in Vietnamese Government as well as university researchers have been one of major ingredients to become a strategic bridgehead for forming alliances and counteracting existing de facto standards.
There exists a large difference between Japan and oversees on the point of infrastructure businesses and the related industries. Many standards are used in the specifications for the contracts and they became more and more important in oversees than in Japan. Taking railway as an example, the business differences and European standardization status are introduced. From the point of tasks on oversees deployment of the infrastructure business and the international standardization, the standardization education in the university is considered. Finally the existing course of the standardization is introduced.
In the graduate school, there are few chance for students to learn standards related to products and services. New lecture, based on education of basic and practical standards for doing at enterprise and applying for developing and manufacturing products, is performed to students, instructing to think what standards are needed to transform their study results to products. This paper shows outline of the lecture.
This paper discusses an author’ s class on intellectual property rights and standardization at graduate business school. The class provides students with opportunities for active learning on the subject based on the case method.
Standard documents which are results of standardization activity have some specific features and attributes that no other documents have. Without studying the features, it is almost impossible to read standard contents as well as to develop standards. It is, therefore, recommended to include the basic program for reading and understanding standard documents into standardization education at a university. The basic program is discussed and proposed to consist of guidelines regarding (1) the structure of standard documents, (2) how to read standard documents, (3) agreement process for developing standard documents, and (4) establishment of a project for standardization. The proposed program was included into the lecture “Strategy for International Standardization” carried out by the author. It was confirmed that students began to have more interest in standardization by reading some existing standard documents actually.
The skill of engineers has been essential to the economic growth of Japan. Many engineers are educated in a department of engineering, and the existence of Technical Colleges is important. Japanese manufacturing companies think more highly of Technical College graduates than university students, but Technical College graduates do not have a degree. This paper describes the expectations to Technical Colleges from Japanese manufacturers, and the contradiction of the Japanese educational system. The present author proposes a method for growth of Japanese economy, where Technical Colleges are authorized formally as a university.
In higher education, education of generic skills draws attention. Generic skills are fundamental skills indispensable for Innovation Education with real society. Nevertheless, as teaching and evaluation methods of generic skills are not clear, we developed a new framework for basic education program. In this study, we propose a framework of basic Monozukuri education program for generic skills. We suggest we could provide common experience of problem solving in a plurality of classes, and we could evaluate learners’ attainments based on this framework.
The authors developed new introductory education material with industry engineers for freshman using reverse engineering. The new two introductory education materials were developed to teach that real products consist of five engineering fields for freshman. The real product employed elevator here. One of the education materials was simple elevator model with counter weight, cabin and motor. The other was the five engineering field learning texts for mechanical engineer, electrical engineer, information engineer, civil engineer and chemical engineer. The industry engineer gave mainly lessons for freshman with each field faculty member support. The authors obtained the result as follows. 81% of freshman students understood well relation between five engineering fields and elevator. And above 50% of freshman students strongly required lecturing by industry engineer and maintaining it, to know a lot of experience and skill at manufacturing industry.
The deflection and bending strength of beams are important on the design of the machines and structures. These are decided by the value of the moment of inertia. Therefore, the engineers sufficiently need to understand the concept of the moment of inertia. In the university, students need to experience an effective experiment about it. In this study, to learn the moment of inertia, the experiment measuring the deflection and the fracture stress of beams having various cross- sectional shape was carried out. These results show that this teaching material is effective.
This paper deals with advanced factory automation control machine units for education and a trial of creative PBL education. This equipment consists of a PLC in which high-speed command execution processing is possible, a visual sensor, XYZ positioning equipment, and a turntable. Each apparatus is connected by a high-speed network. This machine unit is capable of picking and placing small objects in arbitrary positions on the turning table, automatically. Synchronous control of rotational movement of the turntable and the circular motion of the XY axes are performed. Furthermore, PBL education to help students develop flexible knowledge, and effective problem solving skills were performed. PBL education with FA equipment was conducted by 15 technical college students. As a result, students developed the control program which carries out the correct picking and placing of the objects using motion control and image processing.
In this paper, studying material that accurately imitates the actual workplace might be an effective way to acquire practical skills. However, problems, such as inadequate study time, risk of accidents, and the cost of advanced study, emerge when such imitations are implemented. This paper develops education-oriented, NC machine tools, which facilitate studying material that accurately imitates what occurs in the real world, for use in introductory education in manufacturing. Therefore, students can acquire skills in such areas as problem solving and response methods to overcome the unforeseen problems unique to the actual workplace, and impossible to experience in simulations. Furthermore, this approach addresses the problems of previous approaches, such as constraints on manufacturing time, the risk of accidents, and high cost of study. Moreover, we also conducted classes to verify the effectiveness of tools developed for this learning approach.
A magic dice experiment, that is aimed to teach the basic statistical theorems and its application in quality control, was designed. By using the magic dice, the defect in the manufacturing process is simulated. The multivariable analysis and the Japanese language morphological are used to analyze results of experiments. Understandings of the law of large numbers and the central limit theorem support identifying the defect on the experiments. The proposed experiment contributes to develop a problem solving skill of the students.
The authors’ Monozukuri project in the Philippines is an initiative in industry-academic cooperation for human resources development. This project consists of (1) the promotion of human resources development by Philippines universities and by Toyo University ; (2) training for Filipino professors at Toyo University ; and (3) lectures in Philippines universities by Toyo University professors and Filipino professors. The feasibility study spanned three phases: (1) creating a textbook, (2) training Filipino professors in Japan, and (3) conducting trial lessons for Filipino university students. The questionnaire survey results reveal the following : (1) the participating university students found the lectures to be applicable to their lives and good preparation for the working world and (2) the scores are uniformly high for applicability, relevance, and satisfaction.
The companies demand the generic skill training in the higher education system. The generic skill training includes following problems. (1) What kind of generic skill does the teacher train? (2) How does the teacher train a generic skill? (3) How does the teacher measure a generic skill?. The author developed of a method to measure a generic skill in the class, and measured a generic skill. And the author studied on following point about a generic skill. (1) consistency with the learning performance (2) effect to realize target in the class.