This paper presents authors' original study while discussing other studies with results of significance to the original study. The purpose of the original study is to clarify the chronic effects of aerobic exercise upon blood lipids in hyperlipidemia patients.
The subjects in this study were diagnosed as having hyperlipidemia of the Jifukai Miyazaki Hospital (Incorporated Medical Institution 〔the Miyazaki Hospital〕). Five hyperlipidemia patients volunteered to be the experiment group while another five healthy subjects volunteered to be the control group. All of the 10 subjects had not exercised regularly prior to this experment. All the subjects were diagnosed as being able to safely follow the required exercise program for this study by a medical checkup. Informed consent was obtained from all of the subjects by explaining the purpose and the methods of this study.
All of the subjects jogged on a treadmill in the Miyazaki Hospital two or more days a week for two months. In order to obtain the task goal, they maintained 40% - 60% of their maximal heart rate (max HR) for 30 minutes. The variables of this study determined by blood composition were the following: total cholesterol (TC), total triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). Other variables in this study were the following: systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body weight, body mass index (BMI), and percent body fat (%Fat).
As results of this study, it was found that the TC decreased significantly in hyperlipidemia patients that followed the regimen of regular aerobic exercise.
This study aimed to examine the differences in the developmental tendency of the physical fitness of young Japanese male students enrolled in 1990 and 2000 at the National College of Technology. A total of 127 and 77 males in both groups took physical fitness test over a four-year period, respectively. The 4 physique and 12 physical fitness and motor ability tests developed by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports Science, and Technology of Japan were used. The mean differences were examined using two-way analysis of variance with one-factor repeated measurements. Body linearity and volume growth increased with age in both the 1990 and 2000 groups. The students from the 2000 group had a larger muscle mass but no significant difference in percent body fat with age compared to the students from the 1990 group. Muscular strength developed with age in both groups and was superior in the lower grades of the 2000 group. Muscular power and cardiorespiratory endurance were inferior in all grades of the students in the 2000 group, but agility was superior. The development of flexibility and muscular endurance with age was almost the same in both the 1990 and 2000 groups. Male students at the National College of Technology may require increased muscular power and cardiorespiratory endurance.
A squarestepping exercise (SSE) was developed as a feasible and low-cost exercise program to prevent falling in older adults. We had confirmed its effects on the risk of falling; however, the appropriate SSE frequency and duration were unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of SSE performed once or twice a week for a total of 24 exercise sessions. Fifty-eight older adults participated in the study and were allocated into the EX1 (n = 26) and EX2 (n = 32) groups, following settled areas. The EX1 and EX2 groups attended the SSE session once and twice a week, respectively. Each session consisted of a warm-up (15 min), an SSE session (40 min), and a cool-down (15 min). Five physical performance tests (standing up from a lying position, chair-stands, walking around two cones, balancing on one leg with eyes closed, and sit-and-reach) were measured as risk factors for falling. A two-way (time by group) ANOVA indicated that interactions were found in the chair-stands and sit-and-reach, but all tests showed significant time effects. The improvement rate in the EX1 group was larger than that in the EX2 group in each test except for walking around two cones. Of the EX2 group, 23 participants continued the SSE for 3 additional months, and follow-up measurements were then performed. A one-way ANOVA indicated that the participants' ability to chair-stand was significantly increased. In conclusion, performing SSE either once or twice weekly guarded against the risk of falling, and a long-term regimen could provide even better effects.
Anemic children with low hemoglobin had significantly higher plasma ascorbic acid than healthy children. Plasma ascorbic acid negatively correlated to hemoglobin in school children. The plasma level of ascorbic acid was higher in the children who had low daily intake of ascorbic acid. These results suggest that the plasma ascorbic acid level rises compensating to improve the efficiency of iron absorption in the children with low hemoglobin. In addition, ascorbic acid intake in daily life is low in the children. As the result, the ascorbic acid level in the whole body have decreased. Guidance that increases the ascorbic acid intake with the replenishment of iron is necessary for the children.