This study aimed to examine the longitudinal changes in lifestyle and health of young Japanese male students at one of the National Colleges of Technology. A questionnaire consisting of 36 items on lifestyle and health was administered to 127 healthy male students aged 15 years for three years. The frequencies by cross tabulation between the first and fourth year students for each item were calculated, and the frequency and the mean of differences between both groups were examined. From the results of statistical analysis, the following significant changes were found during the three year study: the time and frequency of exercise decreased, and meals became irregular. Participation in housework and part-time jobs increased. Wake-up and bedtimes became later and overall sleep decreased. Overall, the degree of subjective health declined. In conclusion, appropriate guidance regarding exercise time, meals, sleeping, and other considerations for health may be required for male students at the National Colleges of Technology.
In this paper a structure and the educational effect of the Yogo teacher’s health counseling activity, which was studied a few in the precedent work were clarified by using author’s practice case. Those cases are analyzed into a component of narrative approach corresponded based on author’s hypothesis that the Yogo teacher’s health counseling activity closely resembles a narrative approach as a sociological approach. For measurement of the educational effect, the questionnaire survey to the students who received the health counseling activity was done. The questionnaire originally designed by the author is composed of the five-grade evaluation system and the free description column. In result of the questionnaire, the mean value of the five-stage evaluation was 3.9, the appearance rate of the synergy effect was 55.5%, and that of the preventive effect was 33.3%. It turned out that the limitation of narrative approach is a low protective effect and the alternative story created by narrative approach is rewritten easily to the dominant story again when a student goes back from the school health office to his/her classroom.
This study aimed to compare the factorial structures of how junior high and high school students think in a physical education class. Data from 675 junior high school students and 769 high school students were used for analysis. We applied a factor analysis to a correlation matrix consisting of 50 question items according to schools and interpreted the abstracted factors considering the size of factor loadings. It was judged that a factorial structure for a junior high school physical education class consists of the following 6 factors: can do enjoyment, teamwork, outcomes, learning, cooperation and keep the rules or promises. For high school students, the factorial structure consists of: outcomes, cooperation, enjoyment, can-do, keep the rules or promises, and teamwork. Four factors of teamwork, keep the rules or promises, cooperation, and outcomes were interpreted as mutual factors in students of both schools. Both factors of can-do and enjoyment were interpreted as independent factors in high school students, but they were interpreted as a combined factor in junior high school students. In addition, both factors of teamwork and cooperation had a high relationship in both schools. In conclusion, factorial structures of a physical education class based on values of junior high and high school students consist of many factors that may share a common name but are not necessarily the same.
The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity with lifecorder (SUZUKEN CO., LTD.) in students of elementary school (1-6th grade, n=193), and the effect of non-active students who were advised physical activity under the monitoring by half.
As a result, according to their physical activity for one day, the number of steps (boys) were from 16224 to 20322 (mean 17784.4±6021.8) and it (girls) was from 12449 to 17383 (mean 15275.2±5124.1), they tended to decrease the number of steps with aging. In exercise volume per day, exercise volume (boys) was from 211kcal to 362 kcal (mean 287.1±64.3 kcal) and it (girls) was from 200kcal to 317kcal (mean 240.9±71.1 kcal), and they tended to decrease exercise volume. Boys were higher than girls in both the number of steps and exercise volume. In physical activity of non-active students for one month, 1-2th grade students of elementary school increased from day to day, occasionally 3-4th grade students of elementary school was higher than the first week, 5-6th grade students of elementary school decreased from day to day. In physical activity of physical education class, there were little differences between non-active students and active students among 1-2 th grade, but active students were higher than non-active students with aging.
In conclusion, it was suggested that students who were advised physical activity under the monitoring by half with lifecorder increased physical activity, and especially in the younger students (1-2th), this effect worked well.
This study aimed to examine the timing of polarization in the physical fitness levels of children. The study analyzed data obtained through a pursuit measurement of children, conducted over a period of three years. The subjects were 396 young children (201 boys and 195 girls) with standard physiques. We administered physical tests comprising seven types of exercises (grip strength, standing long jump, softball throw, 25-m run, side-step, upright hand standing time, and sitting trunk flexion) to understand the children’s physical fitness characteristics; the tests were conducted every November for three years from ages three to five. Finally, at the age of five, the subjects were divided into the upper-ranking group (25%) and the lower-ranking group (25%) on the basis of the results of the physical tests. Further, the differences between the two groups were evident for all the seven exercises in the first year itself. To conduct a statistical analysis of the data, a two-way ANOVA and multiple comparisons (Tukey’s HSD test) were employed. The analysis revealed a significant difference between the two groups for all the exercises. A significant interaction was found for all the exercises, excluding the 25-m run in the case of boys. The difference between the upper-ranking and lower-ranking groups was already apparent in all the exercises when the children were three years old. With the exception of the 25-m run, the differences between the groups were more significant between ages four and five.
The purpose of this study was to measure blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate (HR) and power spectrum (LF, HF) during four types of isometric handgrip exercises (IHG) with the different intensity and duration of time, to observe the function of the autonomic nervous system, and to clarify the response patterns induced to intensity and duration time for the assessment of hypertension. Eighteen male subjects aged 20 years old cooperated as volunteers, and performed four kinds of IHGs on one day for each subject. Experiment (Exp)ⅠandⅡconsisted of five intensities of IHG set for 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 percent of maximal voluntary contraction (% MVC). ExpⅠgot intermittent (Int) loading contraction, the subjects keep gripping for ten seconds each % MVC with sufficient rest between IHG trials. ExpⅡ(continuous; Cont) got the same procedure as ExpⅠ, but no rest between trials that was done incrementaly. ExpⅠandⅡof IHG both tried from 20% MVC to 60% MVC. ExpⅢ(steady contraction; Sted, 40% MVC) got contraction keeping for forty seconds, and ExpⅣ(Sted, 30% MVC) kept the continuous grip for two minutes. Subjects accomplished all Exps in sitting on a chair. The load level (%) was checked by a picture on a personal computer in front of the subject by itself. During the IHG, arterial SBP, DBP, HR were continuously measured, and calculated LF and HF from the saved HR data with heart rate variability (HRV) software after these measurements. During IHG, the stronger of intensities or the longer of duration, the higher of SBP, DBP and HR were showed. Those differences were remarkably indicated on the Sted (Cont) than on the Imt trial. The pressor response of Cont IHG significantly correlated to SBP/DBP increase in Sted IHG, those makers during the Int IHG didn’t correlate significantly though. HF and LF power revealed enhancement of activity on the autonomic nerves induced to increase of hardness during IHG.
According to above results, continuous (Cont) and/or steady (Sted) loadings seemed to be effective to evaluate hypertensive possibility in future much more feasible and validly than Imt loading so far the loading under 60% MVC.