The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of regular sports lesson participation on daily physical activity and lifestyle in lower grade elementary school children （7-9 years old). The subjects were 29 children (experiment group) who participated in regular sports lessons once a week and 29 children (control group) who did not. Their physical activity (gait number, time spent running, walking, or in a sedentary state) was measured with an accelerometer for four days except excluding the sports lesson day. Daily life activity and character in addition to hours of sleep were surveyed. Eighteen questions on lifestyle were evaluated with 3 to 7 responses and 7 questions on character were answered by yes or no. A two−way analysis of variance (sports lesson x sex) was used to test differences among the mean values of physical activity and sleep. A chi−square test was used to test difference of frequency of questionnaire items. The experiment group showed a significantly longer walk time, earlier bedtime and shorter sedentary time than the control group. Boys had significantly higher gait number, activity time, and running time values than girls. The control group showed a higher score in character on panic. Boys had more time playing a TV game after coming home from school than girls. In conclusion, children participating sports lessons have more light activity such as walking even on days without sports lessons and have an earlier bedtime. Boys are more physically active and also spend more time playing video TV games than girls. However, it was suggested that participation in a regular sports lesson once a week has little influences on general lifestyle.
This study examined the walking time of preschool children on a balance beam with an obstacle to determine what differences exist due to age and gender in order to evaluate the development of dynamic balance in preschool children their. The subjects were healthy children(5.8±0.5 years) from 5.0 to 6.9 years old. The time required to walk back and forth on the balance beam was measured with and without the use of an obstacle (height 5cm and 10cm, width 11.5cm). The walking time on the balance beam showed insignificant differences due to gender in all conditions. Walking time on the balance beam without the obstacle was significantly shorter than that with a high obstacle (10cm). The walking time of the 5 year-old children’s group was significantly longer than that of the 6 and a half year-olds’ in all conditions.
From the above, it is judged that regardless of the placement of an obstacle, the walking time on a balance beam does not show a gender difference and it was longer in the first and last 5 year-old children’s group than in the last half of the 6 year-old children’s group. It was also found that the height of the obstacle greatly influences walking time on a balance beam in the first half of the 5 year-old children’s group.
This study aimed to identify differences in dynamic balance ability in preschool children based on gender and age as evaluated by using the Soft Balance Bar and examining relationships of dynamic balance ability and various motor abilities. The subjects were 138 boys and 114 girls aged 3 to 6. Dynamic balance ability was evaluated based on the point where the participants fell off while walking on the Soft Balance Bar consisting of five different widths. The subjects performed fundamental motor ability tests (20 meter sprint, standing broad jump, tennis-ball throw, 5 meter dash, zigzag run, and repeated sideways jumps) after the balance test. The reliability of the dynamic balance test was high. There were significant gender and age differences in the achievement rates of the balance test. Additionally, the dynamic balance ability tests showed significant correlations with various motor abilities. In conclusion, the reliability of the dynamic balance test using the Soft Balance Bar was high, and this test may be useful to assess the development of dynamic balance ability in preschool children.
This study aimed to clarify the relationships between feelings of like or dislike and between forte and non-forte concerning physical education while also looking at conflicting feelings associated with joining or not joining a sports club as well as sex and school differences in 1420 junior high-school and high school students (the former: 346 boys and 320 girls; the latter: 372 boys and 382 girls). It was clarified that forte or non-forte for physical education and the decision about whether or not to join a sports club affects likes or dislikes with regards to physical education. Differences between junior high-school and high school students were found concerning positive or negative feelings about physical education in each of the above both factors. Even high school students who excelled at physical education and joined a sports clubs liked physical education at a lower percentage rate than that of middle school students who had also done both. Increasing positive feelings about physical education may require improving various motor skills during the grade school years. This strategy would attempt to increase the number of students at both the junior high and high school level who have positive feelings about physical education.
This study investigated the physical strength based on a polynomial regression analysis of muscle mass percentage against BMI in South Korean junior high school students. The subjects were 148 schoolgirls of 14 years old. Physique (body height and weight) and body composition (BMI, fat mass, body fat percentage, and muscle mass, muscle mass percentage) were measured. The measurement items of physical strength were sit-up, sit-and-reach, push-up, and 20-meter shuttle run from the physical fitness test were adopted for the Korean students. In the polynomial regression analysis of muscle mass percentage for BMI, high reverse correlation (r=-0.77) was shown. In Slim type of BMI, the group of excessive development of muscle mass classified by standard polynomial regression evaluation chart was superior to other groups in 20-meter shuttle run. Significant difference was not shown in all items of physical strength in normal and fatty type of BMI. In other words, the level of qualitative accumulation of muscle was influence endurance ability in a slim type. However, it was suggest that the physical strength of the normal and fatty type not be influence by the level of qualitative accumulation of muscle. In the present study, BMI is newly located as an index of a muscle mass percentage, it was shown to be grasped physical strength handily by slim-fatty judgment by BMI.
This report discusses Enku, an ascetic monk of the Edo period. Specifically, the report attempts to estimate the distance that Enku walked in the Tohoku region and Hokkaido, and provides insight into the importance of “sustainable exercise”.
Enku traveled throughout the Tohoku region and Hokkaido for the 18-month period of December 1665 to the summer of 1667. The distance that Enku walked during this time totaled 1,207.5 kilometers. He stayed in Hokkaido from March 1666 to the summer of 1667, or approximately the 15-month period. Enku walked a distance of 542.5 kilometers during this portion of this travels. According to Watanabe, the recommended amount of walking exercise for people today is 48 kilometers per month.19) However, the distance covered by Enku far surpassed the amount recommended by Watanabe.19)
The author defines “sustainable exercise” as the physical exertion “performed unconsciously” in our daily lives. He stresses the importance of engaging in “sustainable exercise”, taking examples from people of the Edo period, particularly Enku.
This study compared the lifestyle habits, physique and physical fitness tests of two groups: middle school and high school adolescent males, in particular 148 middle high school second graders and 327 high school eleventh graders from Seoul, South Korea. Tools and methods of the study include (1) a questionnaire on awareness of daily habits and physical activity; (2) measurements of physique characteristics; and (3) physical fitness tests. The survey shows that the high school students slept for shorter periods of time and perceived themselves as being slim. There are no significant differences in other survey items on daily habits. In addition, the middle school students and the high school students performed more low intensity activities than high intensity activities with sweating across the board. According to the physique measurements, the high school students have less body fat and larger muscle volume which may translate as normal growth. For the physical fitness tests, the high school students had significantly higher results than middle school students except for the long sitting with forward bend test. Even though both groups of adolescents do not conduct more physical activities, their normal growth and physical fitness improvements are unaffected negatively and they have high-level awareness of the association on health and exercise.