教育医学
Online ISSN : 2434-9127
Print ISSN : 0285-0990
57 巻 , 2 号
幼児の合否判定に基づく運動能力テストの評価尺度の検討:
選択された号の論文の6件中1~6を表示しています
  • 古田 善伯, 有川 一
    2011 年 57 巻 2 号 p. 169-175
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2021/10/14
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
     なわとび運動は,なわが一本あれば狭い場所でも手軽に実施できる運動である.また,なわとびの種類としては,一人でできる短なわとびや集団でも楽しめる長なわとびがあり,さらに短なわとびや長なわとびにおいては,それぞれ多種・多様な跳び方が考案されている.なわとび運動には多様な難易度の跳び方があるため,難易度の面から跳び方の技術レベルを評価することが可能であり,技術レベルに応じて誰でもなわとびを楽しむことができる.そのため,なわとび運動は学校体育の教材や体力づくりの手段として広く実施されるとともに,競技としても実施されている.  一方,なわとび運動を体力づくりや運動処方の手段として利用する場合,運動の特性や運動効果を発現させるための適正な条件(運動強度,運動時間,運動頻度)を明確にして実施する必要があり,そのために特に運動生理学的視点からの研究が必要となる.これまで,なわとび運動の運動生理学的な研究はいくつかあるがそれほど多くは見られない.そこで,今回はなわとび運動に関して運動生理学的な研究を行っている論文を中心にして,なわとび運動の運動生理学的視点からの特性を明らかにしたい.
  • 村瀬 智彦, 春日 晃章, 中野 貴博
    2011 年 57 巻 2 号 p. 176-187
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2021/10/14
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
     The purpose of this study was to establish and propose motor ability standards for children aged 3 to 6 years. The sample participants were 3,574 healthy preschool children (1,817 boys and 1,757 girls) aged 3 to 6.5 years. Measurements were conducted by the same testers with identical devices and tools from 2005 to 2009. Test items included seven motor ability tests of standing long jump, timed dipping, sit and reach, 25-m dash, softball throw for distance, side steps, and grip strength with two anthropometrical measures of standing height and body weight. In order to test normal distribution, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied to each data set classified for each 0.5-year-age and gender. Normal distributions were not certified in several cases. In these cases, the data sets were corrected by eliminating outliers (abnormal values). Finally, the standards of motor ability for children aged 3.5 to 6.5 years old (SMAC2010) were established according to the data distribution and by eliminating outliers. The SMAC2010 will be available to evaluate motor ability for each preschool child in the future.
  • 辛 紹熙, 出村 慎一, 金 明, 青木 宏樹
    2011 年 57 巻 2 号 p. 188-195
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2021/10/14
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
     This study clarifies the relationship between the quantity of physical activity intensity levels and the physical fitness of male and female students of different ages. Using a questionnaire, physical activity was studied based on student engagement in passive activity (under 3METs) and low (under 6METs)- to moderate (over 6METs) -intensity dynamic activity. The results of this study show significant difference in the rate of low-intensity dynamic activity of pubescent females only. This rate is highest in elementary school students followed by middle school students and high school students respectively. The rate of moderate-intensity dynamic activity of both pubescent males and females is highest in elementary school, followed by middle school students and high school students respectively. The rate of moderate-intensity dynamic activity was generally higher in males than females. Middle school males who practice moderate-intensity dynamic activity performed better in physical fitness tests than middle school males who do not practice moderate-intensity dynamic activity. Based on the findings of the study, there is an inverse relationship between the practice of physical activities and the age of pubescent males and females. This trend is prominent in pubescent females specially. In addition, physical activity tends to influence physical fitness of 14-year-old middle school males in particular.
  • 項目応答理論による項目の難易度と運動能力の推定
    郷司 文男, 出村 慎一
    2011 年 57 巻 2 号 p. 196-204
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2021/10/14
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
     本研究は,項目応答理論(困難度,判別力,擬似チャンス水準の3パラメータ・ロジスティック・モデル)を用いて,テスト項目の難易度の一次元尺度を構成するとともに,能力特性値の妥当性を検討することを目的とした.被検者は,2.5歳から6.5歳までの幼児3518名であり,合否判定テストは移動型の運動パターンを代表する14項目であった.項目の困難度得点は,運動成就の難しさの程度を反映し,被検者の構成に依存しない安定した値であり,有効な一次元尺度であると考えられた.合否判定パターンに基づく能力特性値は,多様性に優れ,異なる構成集団間で安定していた.また,これまで運動能力の推定に広く利用されてきた合格項目数を反映し,全ての年齢間の比較において年齢の高い方が有意に高い平均値を示した.したがって,能力特性値は,運動能力を推定する有効な尺度であることが確認された.
  • 福冨 恵介, 春日 晃章, 篠田 知之
    2011 年 57 巻 2 号 p. 205-212
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2021/10/14
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
     This study aimed to examine the period during which university students’ preferences or dislikes toward exercise and sports, health classes and physical education can be best influenced. Questionnaires (six items) examining exercise and sports, physical education and health education were administered to 653 university students (391 males and 262 females). The following results were obtained.  1. Some differences were found between males and females with regard to a preference or dislike toward exercise and sports; the rate of males who answered “like a lot” was significantly higher than that of females, and the rate of females who answered “somewhat dislike” was significantly higher than that of males.  2. The rates of preferences or dislikes toward exercise and sports from kindergarten・nursery school were higher in males and females. Further, the rates of preferences or dislikes from junior high school onwards were similar to that from kindergarten・nursery school.  3. Regarding physical education, the pattern of preferences that were developed in childhood had a strong influence until when the person was in university.  4. University students had low levels of interest in health education. Further, most decisions about preferences or dislikes toward health education were made during junior high school.
  • -トレーニング量との関係-
    篠田 知之, 春日 晃章, 福冨 恵介
    2011 年 57 巻 2 号 p. 213-220
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2021/10/14
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
     In this study, we have examined the relationship between one-year changes in VO2max and training volume (distance and duration) for a triathlete. For a triathlete (age: 27 y; height: 1.71 m; body mass: 68.1 kg), VO2max was measured almost once every week (41 times) and the training volume was recorded for approximately a year.  The absolute and relative VO2max values were 4682 ± 168 l/min and 69.3 ± 2.78ml/kg/min, respectively. Typically, VO2max was flat except when the subject participated in a mountain marathon to a 3,776-m peak, which was held at the end of July. After the mountain marathon, VO2max increased by approximately 4% from the average level and remained at that level for approximately 3 months.  VO2max was significantly correlated with the 9-week training duration before the VO2max measurement, especially for moderate intensities (150–170 bpm heat rate zone). VO2max has been shown to be highly correlated with the performances of many endurance sports, and it is important for athletes to increase their training durations in moderate intensities for nine weeks before endurance competitions.
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