The purpose of this study was to establish and propose motor ability standards for children aged 3 to 6 years. The sample participants were 3,574 healthy preschool children (1,817 boys and 1,757 girls) aged 3 to 6.5 years. Measurements were conducted by the same testers with identical devices and tools from 2005 to 2009. Test items included seven motor ability tests of standing long jump, timed dipping, sit and reach, 25-m dash, softball throw for distance, side steps, and grip strength with two anthropometrical measures of standing height and body weight. In order to test normal distribution, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied to each data set classified for each 0.5-year-age and gender. Normal distributions were not certified in several cases. In these cases, the data sets were corrected by eliminating outliers (abnormal values). Finally, the standards of motor ability for children aged 3.5 to 6.5 years old (SMAC2010) were established according to the data distribution and by eliminating outliers. The SMAC2010 will be available to evaluate motor ability for each preschool child in the future.
This study clarifies the relationship between the quantity of physical activity intensity levels and the physical fitness of male and female students of different ages. Using a questionnaire, physical activity was studied based on student engagement in passive activity (under 3METs) and low (under 6METs)- to moderate (over 6METs) -intensity dynamic activity. The results of this study show significant difference in the rate of low-intensity dynamic activity of pubescent females only. This rate is highest in elementary school students followed by middle school students and high school students respectively. The rate of moderate-intensity dynamic activity of both pubescent males and females is highest in elementary school, followed by middle school students and high school students respectively. The rate of moderate-intensity dynamic activity was generally higher in males than females. Middle school males who practice moderate-intensity dynamic activity performed better in physical fitness tests than middle school males who do not practice moderate-intensity dynamic activity. Based on the findings of the study, there is an inverse relationship between the practice of physical activities and the age of pubescent males and females. This trend is prominent in pubescent females specially. In addition, physical activity tends to influence physical fitness of 14-year-old middle school males in particular.
This study aimed to examine the period during which university students’ preferences or dislikes toward exercise and sports, health classes and physical education can be best influenced. Questionnaires (six items) examining exercise and sports, physical education and health education were administered to 653 university students (391 males and 262 females). The following results were obtained.
1. Some differences were found between males and females with regard to a preference or dislike toward exercise and sports; the rate of males who answered “like a lot” was significantly higher than that of females, and the rate of females who answered “somewhat dislike” was significantly higher than that of males.
2. The rates of preferences or dislikes toward exercise and sports from kindergarten・nursery school were higher in males and females. Further, the rates of preferences or dislikes from junior high school onwards were similar to that from kindergarten・nursery school.
3. Regarding physical education, the pattern of preferences that were developed in childhood had a strong influence until when the person was in university.
4. University students had low levels of interest in health education. Further, most decisions about preferences or dislikes toward health education were made during junior high school.
In this study, we have examined the relationship between one-year changes in VO2max and training volume (distance and duration) for a triathlete. For a triathlete (age: 27 y; height: 1.71 m; body mass: 68.1 kg), VO2max was measured almost once every week (41 times) and the training volume was recorded for approximately a year.
The absolute and relative VO2max values were 4682 ± 168 l/min and 69.3 ± 2.78ml/kg/min, respectively. Typically, VO2max was flat except when the subject participated in a mountain marathon to a 3,776-m peak, which was held at the end of July. After the mountain marathon, VO2max increased by approximately 4% from the average level and remained at that level for approximately 3 months.
VO2max was significantly correlated with the 9-week training duration before the VO2max measurement, especially for moderate intensities (150–170 bpm heat rate zone). VO2max has been shown to be highly correlated with the performances of many endurance sports, and it is important for athletes to increase their training durations in moderate intensities for nine weeks before endurance competitions.